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Visual Computing for Medicine - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124158733, 9780124159792

Visual Computing for Medicine

2nd Edition

Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

Authors: Bernhard Preim Charl Botha
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124158733
eBook ISBN: 9780124159792
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 25th November 2013
Page Count: 836
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Table of Contents


Foreword to the Second Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Author Biography

Chapter 1. Introduction


1.1 Visualization in Medicine as a Speciality of Scientific Visualization

1.2 Computerized Medical Imaging

1.3 2D and 3D Visualizations

1.4 Further Information

1.5 Organization

Part I: Acquisition, Analysis, and Interpretation of Medical Volume Data

Part I. Acquisition, Analysis, and Interpretation of Medical Volume Data

Chapter 2. Acquisition of Medical Image Data


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Medical Image Data

2.3 Data Artifacts and Signal Processing

2.4 X-Ray Imaging

2.5 Computed Tomography

2.6 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

2.7 Ultrasound

2.8 Imaging in Nuclear Medicine

2.9 Intraoperative Imaging

2.10 Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 3. An Introduction to Medical Visualization in Clinical Practice


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Diagnostic Accuracy

3.3 Visual Perception

3.4 Storage of Medical Image Data

3.5 Conventional Film-Based Diagnosis

3.6 Soft-Copy Reading

3.7 Medical Visualization in Nuclear Medicine

3.8 Medical Image Data in Radiation Treatment Planning

3.9 Medical Team Meetings

3.10 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4. Image Analysis for Medical Visualization


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Preprocessing and Filtering

4.3 An Introduction to Image Segmentation

4.4 Graph-Based Segmentation Techniques

4.5 Advanced and Model-Based Segmentation Methods

4.6 Interaction for Segmentation

4.7 Validation of Segmentation Methods

4.8 Registration and Fusion of Medical Image Data

4.9 Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 5. Human-Computer Interaction for Medical Visualization


5.1 Introduction

5.2 User and Task Analysis

5.3 Metaphors

5.4 Prototyping

5.5 User Interface Principles and User Experience

5.6 3D Interaction Techniques

5.7 Input Devices

5.8 HCI in the Operating Room

5.9 Mobile Computing

5.10 Evaluation

5.11 Conclusion

Part II: Visualization and Exploration of Medical Volume Data

Part II. Visualization and Exploration of Medical Volume Data

Chapter 6. Surface Rendering


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Reconstruction of Surfaces from Contours

6.3 Marching Cubes

6.4 Surface Rendering of Unsegmented Volume Data

6.5 Surface Rendering of Segmented Volume Data

6.6 Advanced Mesh Smoothing

6.7 Mesh Simplification and Web-Based Surface Rendering

6.8 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 7. Direct Volume Visualization


7.1 Theoretical Models

7.2 The Volume Rendering Pipeline

7.3 Compositing

7.4 Volume Raycasting

7.5 Efficient Volume Rendering

7.6 Direct Volume Rendering on the GPU

7.7 Summary

Further Reading and Experimentation

Chapter 8. Advanced Direct Volume Visualization


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Volumetric Illumination

8.3 Artificial Depth Enhancements

8.4 Concluding Remarks

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Volume Interaction


9.1 Introduction

9.2 One-Dimensional Transfer Functions

9.3 Multidimensional Transfer Functions

9.4 Gradient-Based and LH-Based Transfer Functions

9.5 Local and Distance-Based Transfer Functions

9.6 Advanced Picking

9.7 Clipping

9.8 Virtual Resection

9.9 Cutting Medical Volume Data

9.10 Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Labeling and Measurements in Medical Visualization


10.1 Introduction

10.2 General Design Issues

10.3 Interactive Measurement of Distances and Volumes

10.4 Automatic Distance Measures

10.5 Angular Measurements

10.6 Measurements in Virtual Reality

10.7 Labeling 2D and 3D Medical Visualizations

10.8 Summary

Further Reading

Part III: Advanced Medical Visualization Techniques

Part III. Advanced Medical Visualization Techniques

Chapter 11. Visualization of Vascular Structures


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Enhancing Vascular Structures

11.3 Projection-Based Visualization

11.4 Vessel Analysis

11.5 Model-Based Surface Visualization

11.6 Model-Free Surface Visualization

11.7 Vessel Visualization for Diagnosis

11.8 Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 12. Illustrative Medical Visualization


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Medical Applications

12.3 Curvature Approximation

12.4 An Introduction to Feature Lines

12.5 Geometry-Dependent Feature Lines

12.6 Light-Dependent Feature Lines

12.7 Stippling

12.8 Hatching

12.9 Illustrative Shading

12.10 Smart Visibility

12.11 Conclusion

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Virtual Endoscopy


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Medical and Technical Background

13.3 Preprocessing

13.4 Rendering for Virtual Endoscopy

13.5 User Interfaces for Virtual Endoscopy

13.6 Applications

13.7 Concluding Remarks

Further Reading

Chapter e14. Projections and Reformations


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Overview

14.3 Anatomical Unfolding

14.4 Anatomical Planar Reformation/Projection

14.5 Map Projections

14.6 Conclusion

Part IV: Visualization of High-Dimensional Medical Image Data

Part IV. Visualization of High-Dimensional Medical Image Data

Chapter 15. Visualization of Brain Connectivity


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Acquisition of Connectivity Data

15.3 Visualization of Structural Connectivity

15.4 Visualization of Connectivity Matrices

15.5 Summary

Further Reading

Chapter e16. Visual Exploration and Analysis of Perfusion Data


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Medical Imaging

16.3 Data Processing and Data Analysis

16.4 Visual Exploration of Perfusion Data

16.5 Visual Analysis of Perfusion Data

16.6 Case Study: Cerebral Perfusion

16.7 Case Study: Breast Tumor Perfusion

16.8 Case Study: Myocardial Perfusion

16.9 Further Application Areas

16.10 Concluding Remarks

Further Reading

Part V: Treatment Planning, Guidance and Training

Part V. Treatment Planning, Guidance and Training

Chapter 17. Computer-Assisted Surgery


17.1 Introduction

17.2 General Tasks

17.3 Visualization Techniques

17.4 Guidance Approaches

17.5 Application Areas

17.6 Conclusions

Further Reading

Chapter 18. Image-Guided Surgery and Augmented Reality


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Image-Guided Surgery

18.3 Registration

18.4 Calibration and Tracking

18.5 Navigated Control

18.6 Display Modes

18.7 Visualization Techniques for Medical Augmented Reality

18.8 Applications

18.9 Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 19. Visual Exploration of Simulated and Measured Flow Data


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Basic Flow Visualization Techniques

19.3 From Medical Image Data to Simulation Models

19.4 Visual Exploration of Measured Cardiac Blood Flow

19.5 Exploration of Simulated Cerebral Blood Flow

19.6 Biomedical Simulation and Modeling

19.7 Concluding Remarks

Further Reading

Chapter e20. Visual Computing for ENT Surgery Planning


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Planning and Training Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

20.3 Visual Computing for Inner and Middle Ear Surgery

20.4 Neck Surgery Planning

20.5 Image Analysis for Neck Surgery Planning

20.6 Interactive Visualization for Neck Surgery Planning

20.7 Concluding Remarks

Further Reading

Chapter e21. Computer-Assisted Medical Education


21.1 Introduction

21.2 e-Learning in Medicine

21.3 Anatomy Education

21.4 Surgery Education

21.5 Simulation for Surgery and Interventional Radiology

21.6 Simulation for Training Interventional Procedures

21.7 Systems for Training Operative Techniques

21.8 Training Systems Based on Physical Models

21.9 Skills Assessment

21.10 Summary




Visual Computing for Medicine, Second Edition, offers cutting-edge visualization techniques and their applications in medical diagnosis, education, and treatment. The book includes algorithms, applications, and ideas on achieving reliability of results and clinical evaluation of the techniques covered. Preim and Botha illustrate visualization techniques from research, but also cover the information required to solve practical clinical problems. They base the book on several years of combined teaching and research experience. This new edition includes six new chapters on treatment planning, guidance and training; an updated appendix on software support for visual computing for medicine; and a new global structure that better classifies and explains the major lines of work in the field.

Key Features

  • Complete guide to visual computing in medicine, fully revamped and updated with new developments in the field
  • Illustrated in full color
  • Includes a companion website offering additional content for professors, source code, algorithms, tutorials, videos, exercises, lessons, and more


Level: Intermediate-Advanced 

Research Physicians and Scientists in fields of Visualization and Computer-Assisted Radiology and Surgery; Computer Science students in Visualization and Medical imaging; Software and algorithm developers at medical imaging companies (such as GE, Siemens Medical Solutions, Philips Medical, Toshiba, and Tiani); Masters students (in Biomedical Engineering, Visual Computing)


No. of pages:
© Morgan Kaufmann 2014
25th November 2013
Morgan Kaufmann
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


" I highly recommend it for one-semester advanced graduate courses in computer graphics. For graduate students pursuing PhDs and professionals in research and development in the medical visualization filed, this book is well worth reading." --Computing Reviews, November 2014

Ratings and Reviews

About the Authors

Bernhard Preim

Bernhard Preim is Professor of Visualization in the Computer Science Department of the U of Magdeburg. He has given many tutorials on medical visualization at IEEE Visualization, Eurographics, EuroVis and Computer-Assisted Radiology and Surgery. He was founder of the German "Visual Computing in Medicine" group which has held two yearly workshops since 2003. Together with Charl Botha (Delft), he initiated the Eurographics Workshop series on “Visual Computing in Biology and Medicine”. Bernhard now heads the VCBM steering committee. Currently, Bernhard and Charl serve as editors for a special issue on “Visual Computing in Biology and Medicine” in the journal "Computers and Graphics". Recently, Bernhard Preim was invited to serve as associate editor of the premium journal IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. Bernhard is regularly Visiting Professor at Fraunhofer MEVIS and heads the scientific advisory board of ICCAS (Innovation Center Computer Assisted Surgery). In the German Society for Computer-Assisted Surgery he has been board member since 2007 and first Vice-President since 2009.

Affiliations and Expertise

Otto-von-Guericke-University of Magdeburg, Germany

Charl Botha

Charl Botha is Professor of Visualisation at the Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in the Netherlands, where he directs the medical visualisation lab. His research focuses on surgical planning and guidance, and visual analysis for medical research. He has published on, amongst other topics, virtual colonoscopy, shoulder replacement, diffusion tensor imaging and the visual analysis of human motion. Together with Bernhard Preim he initiated the Eurographics Workshop series on Visual Computing for Biology and Medicine, acted as co-chair in 2008 and 2010, and is currently serving as editor together with Prof. Preim of the Computers and Graphics special issue on VCBM.

Prior to his Ph.D. he worked in industry designing embedded image processing systems and algorithms for two different companies.