Viruses, Bacteria and Fungi in the Built Environment

Viruses, Bacteria and Fungi in the Built Environment

Designing Healthy Indoor Environments

1st Edition - December 2, 2021

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  • Editors: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal, Volodymyr Ivanov, Joseph Falkinham
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323852067
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323852210

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Viruses, Bacteria and Fungi in the Built Environment: Designing Healthy Indoor Environments opens with a brief introduction to viruses, bacteria and fungi in the built environment and discusses their impact on human health. Sections discuss the microbiology of building materials, the airborne transmission of viruses and bacteria in the built environment, and plumbing-associated microbiome. As the first book on this important area to be written in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, this work will be a valuable reference resource for researchers, civil engineers, architects, postgraduate students, contractors and other professionals working and interested in the field of the built environment. Elements of building design, including choice of materials, ventilation and plumbing can have important implications for the microbiology of a building, and consequently, the health of the building's occupants. This important new reference work explains the microbiology of buildings and disease control in the built environment to those who design and implement new construction and renovate.

Key Features

  • Provides an essential guide on the microbiology of buildings, covering bacteria, fungi and viruses on surfaces, in air and in water
  • Comprehensively examines how humidity influences fungal growth in several building materials
  • Includes important information about the airborne transmission of infectious agents
  • Addresses ventilation design to improve human health
  • Presents the first book on disease control in buildings since the COVID-19 pandemic


Researchers, civil engineers, architects, graduate students, contractors and other professionals working and interested in the field of the built environment

Table of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • 1: Introduction to virus, bacteria, and fungi in the built environment
  • Abstract
  • 1.1: Virus, bacteria, and fungi in the built environment
  • 1.2: Outline of the book
  • References
  • Part One: Basics of microbiology and pathogenic contamination
  • 2: Introduction to viruses, bacteria, and fungi in the built environment
  • Abstract
  • 2.1: Ecosystems of the built environment
  • 2.2: Diversity of microorganisms
  • 2.3: Diversity of bacteria and archaea
  • 2.4: Prokaryotes in the indoor environment
  • 2.5: Viruses in the indoor environment
  • 2.6: Microscopic fungi in the indoor environment
  • 2.7: Microscopic algae in the indoor environment
  • 2.8: Protozoa in the indoor environment
  • 2.9: Bioaerosols of an indoor environment
  • 2.10: The sources of bioaerosols
  • 2.11: Virus aerosols
  • 2.12: Bacterial aerosols
  • 2.13: Fungal aerosols
  • 2.14: Concentration of aerosols
  • 2.15: Bioaerosol sampling
  • 2.16: Mycotoxins in the indoor environment
  • 2.17: Selection of the built ecosystem
  • 2.18: Bioaerosols and indoor air quality
  • 2.19: Fate of bioaerosols in the environment
  • 2.20: Bioaerosols from wastewater treatment, spray irrigation, or biotechnological plants
  • 2.21: Open ecosystems
  • 2.22: Semiclosed and closed ecosystems
  • 2.23: Bioregeneration balance
  • 2.24: Bioregeneration biotechnologies
  • 2.25: Microbiological problems of the closed systems
  • 2.26: Conclusions
  • References
  • 3: Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) in the built-environment
  • Abstract
  • 3.1: Introduction to opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens
  • 3.2: Human diseases linked to OPPPs in the built-environment
  • 3.3: Shared characteristics of OPPPs
  • 3.4: Habitats of OPPPs in the built environment
  • 3.5: Built-environmental characteristics favoring OPPPs
  • 3.6: Transmission of OPPPs in the built environments
  • 3.7: Reduction of OPPP numbers in the built-environment
  • References
  • 4: Influence of surface materials on biofilm formation
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 4.1: Introduction
  • 4.2: Influence of pipe materials on biofilm formation in DWDS
  • 4.3: Methodology to evaluate the biofilm formation potential of materials
  • References
  • 5: Black fungi in the built environment—The good, the bad, and the ugly
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 5.1: The built mycobiome
  • 5.2: Occurrence of black fungi in the built environment
  • 5.3: Concluding remarks
  • References
  • 6: Air and wall mycobiota interactions—A case study in the Old Cathedral of Coimbra
  • Abstract
  • Funding
  • 6.1: Introduction
  • 6.2: Materials and methods
  • 6.3: Results and discussion
  • 6.4: Conclusions
  • References
  • 7: Airborne transmission of bacteria bioburden
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: Airborne transmission of bacteria bioburden indoor
  • 7.2: Airborne transmission of bacteria bioburden outdoor
  • References
  • 8: Airborne bacteria and sick building syndrome (SBS)
  • Abstract
  • 8.1: Airborne bacterial composition
  • 8.2: Sick building syndrome (SBS)
  • 8.3: Association between airborne bacteria and SBS
  • 8.4: Conclusions
  • References
  • Part Two: Strategies for monitoring and control of indoor pathogens
  • 9: Fungal contamination assessment in healthcare environments—A bibliographic review
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 9.1: Introduction
  • 9.2: Materials and methods
  • 9.3: Results
  • 9.4: Discussion
  • 9.5: Conclusions
  • References
  • 10: Indoor fungi threshold levels
  • Abstract
  • 10.1: Impact of indoor air molds on humans
  • 10.2: Measuring fungal concentrations in homes
  • 10.3: Which fungal species are involved in fungal diseases of domestic origin and what thresholds are at risk?
  • 10.4: State guidelines for acceptable threshold limits in housing related to fungal disease risk
  • 10.5: Health challenges of establishing risk thresholds
  • 10.6: Conclusion
  • References
  • 11: Smart technologies for COVID-19 indoor monitoring
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 11.1: Introduction
  • 11.2: Background and related work
  • 11.3: Case studies
  • 11.4: Results and evaluation
  • 11.5: Conclusion and future works
  • References
  • 12: Ventilation strategies for healthy indoors in hospitals
  • Abstract
  • 12.1: Introduction
  • 12.2: Chemical and biological contaminants in indoor environments
  • 12.3: Safety and infection control
  • 12.4: Environmental design strategies
  • 12.5: Ventilation and energy cost
  • 12.6: Conclusion and future trends
  • References
  • 13: Innovative coating materials to prevent fungi growth
  • Abstract
  • 13.1: Introduction
  • 13.2: Materials and methods
  • 13.3: Results and discussion
  • 13.4: Conclusions
  • References
  • 14: What kind of new antimicrobial technology can we use at the present time in architecture?
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 14.1: Problem with wood decaying microorganisms
  • 14.2: Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 348
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2021
  • Published: December 2, 2021
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323852067
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323852210

About the Editors

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal

Dr. F. Pacheco-Torgal is a principal investigator at the University of Minho, in Portugal. He currently holds the title of Counsellor from the Portuguese Engineers Association and has authored more than 300 publications, 147 in Scopus and 125 in Web of Science. He is a member of the editorial board for 9 international journals, 5 referenced on Web of Science and two on Scopus. He has acted as a foreign expert in the evaluation of 18 PhD thesis. In the last 10 years he has been a Member of the Scientific Committee for almost 60 conferences most of them in Asian countries. He is also a grant assessor for several scientific institutions in 13 countries, UK, US, Netherlands, China, France, Australia, Kazakhstan, Belgium, Spain, Czech Republic, Saudi Arabia, UA. Emirates, Poland and, the EU Commission. He has also been an invited reviewer for 125 international journals and has reviewed almost 1000 papers. He has been the lead editor of 22 books published by Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, and Springer, 10 being on the Master Book List of Web of Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Investigator, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

Volodymyr Ivanov

Dr. Volodymyr Ivanov has more than 40 years of teaching and research experience on Environmental, Industrial, and Construction Microbiology and Biotechnology in the universities of Europe, Asia, and USA. He has authored 200 papers, patents, book chapters and 8 monographs. His textbook “Environmental Microbiology for Engineers”, Francis & Taylor, 1st (2010) and 2nd (2015) editions, has been adopted for graduate and post-graduate courses in many universities. His research experience includes the supervision and participation in numerous projects on biotechnologies with biofilms and biogranules, microbial transformations of iron, biocementation, bioclogging, bioremediation of soil, and microbiological monitoring of water quality.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Joseph Falkinham

Dr Falkinham is a professor of microbiology in the Department of Biological Sciences at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. His research interests include the epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium, metal oxidation and reduction in biofilms and predatory bacteria ecology

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Microbiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA

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