Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127378657, 9781483268477

Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C

1st Edition

Authors: Christopher D. Watkins Stephen R. Marenka
eBook ISBN: 9781483268477
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th April 1994
Page Count: 528
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Description

Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C provides the history, theory, principles and an account of the milestones in the development of virtual reality technology.

The book is organized into five chapters. The first chapter explores the applications in the vast field of virtual reality. The second chapter presents a brief history of the field and its founders. Chapter 3 discusses human perception and how it works. Some interesting notes and much of the hot debate in the field are covered in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter describes many of the complexities involved in implementing virtual environments on real equipment.

Computer scientists and programmers will find the book interesting.

Table of Contents


List of Illustrations

Acknowledgments

Biographies

It's All in the Name

Initialization

Chapter 1-Virtual Reality Applications

Introduction

Section 1-Architectural Walkthroughs and Computer-Aided Design

Section 2-Augmentation and Decision Support

Section 3-Telecommunications and Virtual Interfaces

Molecular Studies

Teleoperation and Telepresence-Remote and Hazardous Workplaces

Section 4-Training

Section 5-Scientific Research

Section 6-Entertainment

Section 7-Medical Applications Using Virtual Reality

Computer-Aided Designed Treatment

Augmentation

Virtual Surgery

Remote Workplaces

Training

Application Notes

Chapter 2-From Whence Virtual Reality-A Brief and Incomplete History

Introduction

Section I-Classical History

In the Oral Tradition, Theater and the Dramatic Arts

In the Manner of Records and Writing

The Beginning of Electronic Communication

Morton Heilig and the Experience Theater

Section 2-The Age of Information Technology and the Dawn of Cyberspace

ARPA and the ARC

Douglas Engelbart and Intelligence Augmentation

Sketchpad-"The Most Important Program Ever Written"

Ivan and the Sword of Damocles

ARPAnet and the Internet

Xerox PARC

Myron Krueger and Responsive Environments

MIT's Arch-Mac and the Media Lab

Atari Research

NASA Ames Human Factors Research Division

Jaron Lanier and VPL

Frederick Brooks and UNC Chapel Hill

More History Related to VR

So What's the History of VR?

Chapter 3—From the Point of View

Introduction

Section 1—Of Sight

Section 2—Of Sound

Section 3—On Haptics

Perception

Chapter 4—Virtual Considerations

Introduction

Section 1—Desktop Versus Immersion (What's the View?)

The World through a Window

Boom-Mounted Displays

Immersion in a Room

Gloves and Goggles

Section 2—Future Possibilities

Architectural Walkthroughs and Computer-Aided Design

Augmentation

Augmenting the Handicapped

Telecommunications

Remote and Hazardous Workplaces

Computer Interfaces

Training

Scientific Exploration

Entertainment

Section 3—Virtual Reality and Society

The Internet (and the Matrix)

Virtual Identities

Virtual Community

NetLaw

Section 4—Wireheads—Living in a Virtual Environment

Living in Virtual Environments

VR as the Ultimate Drug

Reality Check

Section 5—Teledildonics (Cybersex) and Home Entertainment

Section 6—Simulator Sickness

Section 7—The Contributions of Science Fiction

The Classics

Cyberpunks

Final Considerations

Chapter 5—Technical Considerations for Virtual Reality Systems

Section 1—The Concept of a Virtual Reality System

A Brief, Yet Premature Overview of a VR System

Section 2—The Mathematics of Three-dimensional Computer Graphics (Geometry, Matrix Algebra, and Trigonometry)

A Discussion on Data Types and Structures

Basic Mathematics Functions and Macros

Comparison Functions and Macros

Swapping Functions and Macros

Power Functions

Pseudo-Random Number Generation Functions

Two-Dimensional Vector Functions and Macros

Three-Dimensional Vector Functions and Macros

3 x 3 Matrix Functions for Two-Dimensional Manipulations

4 x 4 Matrix Functions for Three-Dimensional Manipulations

How the Functions Work

Vector and Matrix Functions

Affine Transformation Routines

Pseudo-Random Number Generation

On to the Program Listings

Program Listings

Section 3—Database Hierarchy and Bubba

World Order

The Features of an Ideal Database Modeler

The Importance of Hierarchy in Database Construction

A Virtual Reality Modeler

Bubba's Database Hierarchy

Quick Review of Bubba's Graphics Primitives

Section 4—Filling Polygons and Antialising

The Polygon

Our Polygon Definitions

Color Filling the Convex Polygon

Drawing Adjacent Polygons

The Polygon Filling Routine

Image Quality and Spatial Aliasing

Anti-Aliasing

Motion Anti-Aliasing

Textures and Aliasing

Progressive Refinement

Program Listings

Section 5—Projecting Polygons

Parallel Projection

Perspective Projection

Program Listings

Section 6—Clipping Polygons

The Sutherland-Hodgman Polygon Algorithm used for Z-Clipping

The Liang-Barsky Polygon Algorithm used for Screen-Clipping

Viewports, Windows, and Screens

Program Listings

Section 7—Removing Hidden Polygons

The Backface Removal Algorithm

The Z Buffer Algorithm [Catmull 1974]

Scan Line Algorithms [Carpenter 1976]

The Painter's Algorithm [Newell 1972]

Position Comparison Tests for Polygons

The Binary Space Partitioning Algorithm [Fuchs 1980]

Program Listings

Section 8—Shading and Texturing Polygons

A Simple Shading Model

Texture Mapping and Textures

Bubba, Our Shading and Texturing

Section 9—Motion, Interaction, and Simulation

The Software

Any Simple Damped Motion Simulation

Mass-Spring Systems for Simulation

Particle Orbit Models for Simulation

More on Interaction

Program Listings

Section 10—Bringing It All Together to Make the Interactive Visualizer Called Bubba

Conceptual Program Flow for the Interactive Visualizer

Program Listings

Section 11—Stereo Vision and Our Anaglyph Glasses

Real 3-D

Our Anaglyph Glasses

Program Listings

Section 12—Other Rendering Methodologies

Ray Tracing

Radiosity

The Ideal Graphics Card

Conclusion

Modules for a Desktop Virtual Reality Software Development

Closing Comments

Appendix A—References

Network Reference List

FTP Sites

TELNET Sites

Discussions/Newsgroups

Internet

America Online

The Well

BIX

Bulletin Boards

Reference List of Companies

Appendix B—Illustrations

Image Credits

Color Inserts

Gray-Scale Inserts

Multimedia Technology Laboratory

Overview and Projects

Motion Interactive

3-D Scanner

Graphics, Visualization & Usability Center

Overview of the GVU Center

Overview of Virtual Environments at the GVU Center

Current Projects of the Virtual Environments Group at the GVU Center

The Phobia Project

The Design Virtual Environment

SVE Library

Other VR Projects at the GVU Center

Interactive Construction Visualizer

Scientific Visualization in Virtual Environments

Members of the GVU Center Virtual Environments Group

Appendix C—Glossary of Terms and People

A Complete Virtual Reality Glossary

Appendix D—The C Language and Our Conventions

Introduction

The Benefits of C

Concepts of a Programming Language

Variables and Data Types

The Operators

Program Control

Functions

Macros

Pointers and Arrays

Memory

Structures

Typedef

Input and Output

File I/O

Programming Style

Our Software Conventions

References

Appendix E—Application Software

Program Bubba—the Interactive 3-D Virtual World Visualizer

Using Bubba—The Controls

The Viewer

The World

Viewer-Object Collisions

Object Orientations

Object Motions

Object Surfaces

Object Colors

Object Textures

Some Object Definitions

Programs for the Anaglyph Glasses

Flying

Viewing 3-D Shapes

Viewing Stereo Pairs as a Single Image

Miscellaneous

Programs Files And Directories

\VRBOOK\SOURCE\LIB

\VRBOOK\SOURCE\BIN

\VRBOOK\SOURCE

\VRBOOK\SOURCE\ANA_IMG

Appendix F—Bibliography

VR References

Technical References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
528
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1994
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483268477

About the Author

Christopher D. Watkins

Stephen R. Marenka

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