Veterinary Toxicology

Veterinary Toxicology

Basic and Clinical Principles

2nd Edition - March 15, 2012

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  • Editor: Ramesh C. Gupta
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859273

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Description

Veterinary Toxicology, 2nd Edition, is a unique single reference that teaches the basic principles of veterinary toxicology and builds upon these principles to offer an essential clinical resource for those practicing in the field. This new edition brings together insights from qualified and well-experienced authorities across all areas of veterinary toxicology to provide an authoritative and in-depth look at all facets of veterinary toxicology, including target organ toxicity, melamine and cyanuric acid, toxicogenomics, chemical terrorism and nanoparticles. While most comparable texts are primarily directed toward the field of human toxicology, this is the one text needed to thoroughly prepare future veterinarians on the newest approaches for diagnosing poisoning cases in all animals from chemicals and plants of a diverse nature as a result of inadvertent, accidental, or malicious intents. It is thoroughly updated with new chapters and the latest coverage of topics not tackled in any previous books such as target organ toxicity, radiation and radioactive materials, FDA regulatory issues, and ethics in veterinary toxicology. There are also expanded discussions on international topics such as epidemiology of animal poisonings and regulatory guidelines and poisonous plants in Europe. Problem solving strategies are offered for treatment. This volume will be of interest to practitioners, professors and students of veterinary medicine and veterinary toxicology, poison control centers, marine biologists, environmentalists and animal scientists.

Key Features

  • Selected for inclusion in Doody's Core Titles 2013, an essential collection development tool for health sciences libraries
  • New chapters covering important and timely topics such as melamine and cyanuric acid, toxicogenomics, toxic gases and veterinary medical geology
  • Expanded look at international topics, such as epidemiology of animal poisonings, regulatory guidelines and poisonous plants in Europe
  • Heavily contributed book with chapters written by qualified and well-experienced authorities across all areas of veterinary toxicology
  • Problem solving strategies are offered for treatment as well as in-depth knowledge of the basic mechanisms of veterinary toxicology

Readership

Practitioners, professors and students of veterinary medicine and veterinary toxicology, poison control centers, marine biologists, environmentalists and animal scientists.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface

    List of Contributors

    SECTION I. General

    Chapter 1. Veterinary toxicology

    The emergence of veterinary toxicology

    Professional organization and academic recognition of veterinary toxicology

    Published veterinary toxicology literature

    …And where will veterinary toxicology go from here?

    Chapter 2. Concepts in veterinary toxicology

    Introduction

    Historical perspective

    Evolution of veterinary toxicology

    A framework for acquiring information

    Sources of information

    Toxicologic descriptors

    Conclusions and summary

    Dedication

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 3. Toxicokinetics

    Introduction

    Underlying physiology

    Traditional (compartmental) toxicokinetic models

    Physiologically based toxicokinetics

    Conclusions

    Chapter 4. Factors affecting chemical toxicity

    Introduction

    Individual factors

    Non-individual factors

    Conclusion

    Chapter 5. Toxicological testing

    Introduction

    In vivo models in toxicity testing

    In vitro models of toxicity testing

    General summary and conclusions

    Chapter 6. Epidemiology of animal poisonings in the United States

    Introduction

    Background

    Demographics

    Dogs

    Cats

    Other species

    Agents involved

    Signs and outcomes

    Conclusions

    Chapter 7. Epidemiology of animal poisonings in Europe

    Introduction

    Species involved

    Toxic classes

    Non-metals and metalloids

    Metals

    Pesticides

    Oil

    Feed associated toxicants

    Drugs and related compounds

    Household products

    Toxins

    Conclusions

    Chapter 8. Chemicals of terrorism

    Introduction

    Chlorine gas

    Phosgene

    Mustard gas

    Lewisite

    Phosgene oxime

    Cyanide and hydrogen cyanide

    Military nerve agents

    Chapter 9. Regulatory considerations in veterinary toxicology

    Introduction

    Section I Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Veterinary Medicine

    Section II Environmental Protection Agency

    Section III U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Section IV Drug Enforcement Administration

    Section V Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Section VI Statutes, Regulations and Guidelines

    Chapter 10. Regulatory aspects for the drugs and chemicals used in food-producing animals in the European Union

    Introduction

    Veterinary medicinal products legislation

    Human health risks from drug residues in foods

    Biocidal substances used in animal husbandry

    Feed additives legislation

    Comparative setting toxicological standards for food safety

    Industrial chemicals

    Conclusions

    Chapter 11. Safety evaluation of new molecular entities for pharmaceutical development

    Introduction

    Nonclinical safety evaluation

    Estimation of the first dose in humans

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 12. Statistics in veterinary toxicology

    Introduction

    Objective of the analysis

    Types of data

    Identifying constraints

    Graphing and summarizing data

    Choosing appropriate techniques

    Performing the analysis

    Interpreting and displaying the results

    Learning more

    Chapter 13. Toxicology and the law

    Introduction

    Reasons for conducting toxicology analyses

    Jurisdiction – What are the rules in this fight and who decides the winner?

    Standard of proof – How sure do I need to be?

    Evidence

    Admissibility of expert testimony

    Specific causation – the differential diagnosis

    Application of Daubert in toxicology cases

    Some questions to consider when using laboratory results in a legal case

    Acknowledgment

    Further Reading

    SECTION II. Organ Toxicity

    Chapter 14. Nervous system toxicity

    Introduction

    Structural toxicoses

    Functional toxicoses

    Ion channels

    Other mechanisms of neurotoxicity

    Conclusions

    Chapter 15. Respiratory toxicity

    Introduction

    The upper airways

    The gas exchange region

    General principles in the pathogenesis of lung damage caused by chemicals

    Lung to injury

    Chapter 16. Cardiovascular toxicity

    Introduction

    Plant-related cardiotoxicity

    Glycoside-containing plants (See Table 16.1)

    Cyanide-containing plants

    Alkaloid-containing plants (See Table 16.2)

    Oxalates

    Gousiekte

    Mushrooms

    Xenobiotics that may cause cardiac toxicity

    Ancillary causes of cardiac toxicity

    Conclusions and future directions

    Chapter 17. Liver toxicity

    Introduction

    Structural and functional organization of the liver

    Factors Influencing Toxic Liver Injury

    Types of toxicant-induced liver injury

    Mechanisms of liver damage

    Idiosyncratic reactions

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 18. Renal toxicity

    Introduction

    Functional anatomy

    Toxic effects on the kidney

    Nephrotoxic agents

    Conclusions

    Chapter 19. Reproductive toxicity and endocrine disruption

    Introduction

    Important definitions and concepts

    Normal animal reproduction

    The Mechanisms and effects of reproductive toxicants

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 20. Placental toxicity

    Introduction

    Role of the placenta

    Types of placenta

    Metabolism in placenta

    Placental susceptibility to toxicants

    Placental barrier for chemical toxicants

    Factors that may influence the placental toxicity

    Placental toxicity of metals

    Placental toxicity of insecticides

    Tobacco

    Conclusions and future directions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 21. Dermal toxicity

    Introduction

    Absorption

    Plants causing dermal toxicity in animals

    Photosensitization

    Topical chemicals causing dermal toxicity in animals

    PAHs

    VOCs

    Pesticides

    Detergents, solvents, corrosives and other household preparations

    Systemic compounds causing dermal toxicity in animals

    Assessment methods

    Chapter 22. Blood and bone marrow toxicity

    Introduction

    Bone marrow

    Hematopoietic stem cells

    Blood components

    Biochemical basis of hematopoietic toxicity

    Toxicity-induced alterations of hematopoietic elements

    Conclusions and future directions

    Chapter 23. Immunotoxicity

    Introduction

    Immune system

    Immunotoxic agents

    Testing for immunotoxicity

    Conclusions and future directions

    SECTION III. Nanoparticles, Radiation and Carcinogens

    Chapter 24. Toxicity of nanomaterials

    Introduction

    Nanomaterials characterization

    Animal or tissue exposures

    Epidemiological data

    Emerging challenges

    Chapter 25. Ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in health and disease

    Introduction

    Historical perspective

    Types of ionizing radiation

    Measuring ionizing radiation

    Devices for measuring ionizing radiation

    Ionizing radiation: Risks and benefits

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 26. Carcinogenesis

    Introduction

    Terminology

    Cancer epidemiology

    Agents causing carcinogenesis

    Epigenetic basis of carcinogenesis

    Classification of carcinogens

    Assays for carcinogens

    Conclusions

    Chapter 27. Oxidative stress and chemical toxicity

    Introduction

    Oxidative stressors: heavy metals and environmental toxicants

    Mycotoxins, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis

    Conclusions

    SECTION IV. Drugs of Use and Abuse

    Chapter 28. Toxicity of over-the-counter drugs

    Introduction

    Suspected OTC Drug Reactions

    Analgesics

    Cold, Cough and Allergy Medications

    Drugs Used to Treat Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    Topical Drugs

    Conclusions

    Chapter 29. Toxicity of drugs of abuse

    Introduction

    Stimulants

    Hallucinogens and dissociative drugs

    Conclusions

    SECTION V. Metals and Micronutrients

    Chapter 30. Aluminum

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 31. Arsenic

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Chapter 32. Cadmium

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding Remarks/Future Directions

    Chapter 33. Chromium, iodine and phosphorus

    Chromium

    Iodine

    Phosphorus

    Chapter 34. Copper

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    Chapter 35. Fluoride

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 36. Iron

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 37. Lead

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 38. Manganese

    Introduction and background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 39. Mercury

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    Chapter 40. Molybdenum

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 41. Selenium

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 42. Sodium chloride (salt)

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 43. Sulfur

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 44. Zinc

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    SECTION VI. Insecticides and Molluscicides

    Chapter 45. Organophosphates and carbamates

    Introduction

    Background

    OP pesticides

    OP nerve agents/gases

    Carbamates

    Pharmacokinetics of OPs and CMs

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment of acute poisoning

    OP-induced intermediate syndrome

    Chronic toxicity

    Tolerance development

    Conclusions and future directions

    Chapter 46. Organochlorines

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    Chapter 47. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    Chapter 48. Neonicotinoids

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Treatment

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    Chapter 49. Amitraz

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 50. Fipronil

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Chapter 51. Macrocyclic lactone endectocides

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 52. Rotenone

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 53. Metaldehyde

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    SECTION VII. Herbicides and Fungicides

    Chapter 54. Toxicity of herbicides

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Endocrine disruption

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Chapter 55. Toxicity of fungicides

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Endocrine disruption

    Treatment

    Conclusions and future directions

    SECTION VIII. Rodenticides and Avicides

    Chapter 56. Anticoagulant rodenticides

    Introduction

    Background

    Target species

    Non-Target species

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicokinetics

    Toxicity

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Chapter 57. Non-anticoagulant rodenticides

    Strychnine

    Bromethalin

    Cholecalciferol

    Red squill

    Fluoroacetate

    Alpha-naphthyl thiourea

    Zinc phosphide

    Thallium

    Chapter 58. Avitrol

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    SECTION XI. Gases, Solvents and Other Industrial Toxicants

    Chapter 59. Toxic gases

    Introduction

    General principles

    Specific toxic gases

    Chapter 60. Alcohols and glycols

    Introduction

    Background

    Alcohol toxicoses

    Glycol toxicoses

    Conclusions

    Chapter 61. Petroleum

    Introduction

    Oil and gas well drilling and completing

    Coal bed methane and shale gas

    Sources of toxic substances

    Grease and motor oil

    Toxicology of crude and refined petroleum

    Veterinary medical and pesticide uses of petroleum

    Sour gas

    Hydrogen sulfide

    Exposure to environmental sulfur

    Toxicology of sulfur dioxide in cattle

    Pathology of petroleum and oil field chemicals

    Epidemiological studies: cattle

    Wildlife

    Analytical toxicology

    Differential diagnosis

    Conclusions and future directions

    Chapter 62. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo--dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions and future directions

    Chapter 63. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Introduction

    Exposure of farm animals to PAHs

    Uptake, disposition, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability of PAHs in farm animals

    Biotransformation of PAHs in farm animals

    Health effects of PAHs in farm animals

    Treatment

    Conclusion and future directions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 64. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals

    Introduction

    Background

    Physicochemical properties

    Pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action and toxicity

    Conclusion and future directions

    Acknowledgments

    SECTION X. Environmental Toxicology

    Chapter 65. Veterinary geology

    Introduction

    Medical geology

    Veterinary geology

    Problems in animals associated with geochemistry

    Problems associated with water

    Conclusions

    Chapter 66. Principles of ecotoxicology

    Introduction and core concepts

    Ecotoxicants in concert with other mechanisms of ecosystem disease

    Direct toxicity of nutrients, stimulation of harmful algal blooms, and facilitation of lethal outbreaks of botulism

    Petroleum disasters, wildlife toxicology, and human impacts

    Aromatic hydrocarbons

    Persistent organic pollutants

    Contaminants from e-wastes

    Pesticides

    Endocrine-disrupting mixtures in surface waters

    Metals, minerals, and mining

    Oxides of nitrogen and sulfur and their interactions with metals

    Radiation/radionuclides

    The future of ecotoxicology

    Chapter 67. Avian toxicology

    Introduction

    General comments about diagnosing avian intoxications

    Natural toxicants

    Metals

    Environmental toxicants

    Toxic gases

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 68. Aquatic toxicology

    Introduction

    Background

    Water safety

    Feed

    Toxicology investigations

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 69. Toxicology and diversity of marine toxins

    Introduction

    Saxitoxins

    Tetrodotoxin

    Ciguatoxins and maitotoxins

    Ciguatoxins

    Maitotoxins

    Domoic acid and analogs

    Brevetoxins

    Palytoxin and its analogs

    Okadaic acid and its derivatives

    Azaspiracids

    Other lipophilic toxins

    Pectenotoxins

    Cyclic imine toxins

    SECTION XI. Bacterial and Cyanobacterial Toxins

    Chapter 70. Botulinum neurotoxins

    Introduction

    Background

    Mechanism of action

    Clinical botulism

    Laboratory diagnosis

    Species-specific disease

    Chapter 71. Enterotoxins

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 72. Cyanobacterial (blue-green algae) toxins

    Introduction

    Background

    Microcystins

    Anatoxins

    Miscellaneous freshwater cyanobacterial toxins

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    SECTION XII. Poisonous and Venomous Organisms

    Chapter 73. Terrestrial zootoxins

    Introduction

    Arthropoda

    Amphibia, anura: toads

    Reptilia

    Aves

    Mammalia

    Conclusions

    Chapter 74. Mare reproductive loss syndrome

    Introduction

    Clinical manifestations

    Mechanism of action

    Treatment and prevention

    Conclusions

    SECTION XIII. Estrogenic Toxicants

    Chapter 75. Chemical-induced estrogenicity

    Introduction

    Estrogens play a role in normal physiological function and disease

    Estrogens as risk factors for male reproductive tract problems

    Estrogenic chemicals of concern

    Mechanisms of estrogen-induced transactivation

    Xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens as selective ER modulators

    Xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens as SERMs and implications for risk assessment

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 76. Phytoestrogens

    Introduction

    Historical background

    Pharmacokinectics/toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Adverse health effects

    Risk assessment

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    SECTION XIV. Poisonous Plants

    Chapter 77. Poisonous plants of the United States

    Introduction

    Astragalus and oxytropis species (locoweeds, nitro spp., and selenium spp.)

    Larkspurs (delphinium spp.)

    Lupines (lupinus spp.)

    Poison hemlock (conium maculatum)

    Water hemlock (cicuta spp.)

    Ponderosa Pine Needles (pinus spp.)

    Broom Snakeweed (gutierrezia spp.)

    Rayless Goldenrod (haplopappus heterophyllus)

    Halogeton (halogeton glomeratus)

    Oak poisoning

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants

    Photosensitizing plants

    Death camas

    Veratrum spp.

    Bracken Fern (pteridium and aquilinum)

    Milkweeds: asclepias spp.

    Nightshades

    Knapweeds: centaurea spp.

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 78. Poisonous plants of Europe

    Introduction

    Poisonous plants affecting animals

    Treatment

    Supportive therapy

    Conclusions

    Chapter 79. Poisonous plants of Australia and New Zealand

    Introduction

    Reducing livestock losses associated with poisonous plants in australia and new zealand

    Conclusions

    Chapter 80. Cyanogenic plants

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 81. Nitrate and nitrite accumulating plants

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 82. Toxicity of yew ( spp.) alkaloids

    Introduction

    Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Physiology/mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Chapter 83. Oxalate-containing plants

    Introduction

    Oxalate chemistry

    Eating behavior and gastrointestinal anatomy

    Clinical toxicosis categories

    Species-specific toxicity

    Treatment

    Prophylaxis/adaptation

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 84. Mushroom toxins

    Introduction

    Background

    Hepatotoxic cyclopeptides

    Hydrazines

    Muscarinic agents

    Isoxazoles

    Psilocin and psilocybin

    Gastrointestinal irritants

    Renal toxic mushrooms

    Ramaria flavo-brunnescens

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 85. species and related plants

    Introduction

    Chemistry

    Toxicity as related to the plant part

    Toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of tropane alkaloids from datura spp.

    Clinical signs of poisoning

    Treatment

    Conclusions and future directions

    Chapter 86. Cottonseed toxicity

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 87. Fescue toxicosis

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Mechanisms of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Prevention

    Concluding remarks

    SECTION XV. Mycotoxins

    Chapter 88. Aflatoxins

    Introduction

    Background

    Provenance of aflatoxins in feedstuffs and foods

    Sampling and analysis

    Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Toxicodynamics

    Clinicopathology

    Macroscopic and microscopic pathology

    Differential diagnosis

    Treatment and outcomes

    Prevention of aflatoxins

    Aflatoxin interactions

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 89. Ergot

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 90. Fumonisins

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmcokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Diagnosis and treatment

    Concluding remarks and future directions

    Chapter 91. Ochratoxins and citrinin

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 92. Slaframine

    Introduction

    Background

    Chemistry and toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Diagnosis and treatment

    Conclusions

    Chapter 93. Tremorgenic mycotoxins

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicodynamics

    Clinical aspects of tremorgenic mycotoxicoses

    Conclusions

    Chapter 94. Trichothecenes

    Introduction

    Background

    Sources

    Toxicokinetics

    Microbial metabolism

    Mechanism of action and toxicity

    Protein synthesis inhibition

    Lipid peroxidation

    Neurotransmitter effects

    Immunotoxicity

    Apoptosis

    Cell membrane function

    Reproductive toxicity

    Genotoxicity and teratogenesis

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Chapter 95. Zearalenone

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    SECTION XVI. Feed and Water Contaminants

    Chapter 96. Melamine and cyanuric acid

    Introduction

    Source

    Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Clinical signs

    Clinical pathology

    Pathology

    Diagnosis

    Treatment and prognosis

    Conclusions

    Chapter 97. Ionophores

    Introduction

    Background

    Pharmacology/pharmacokinetics

    Mechanism of action

    Toxicity

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    Chapter 98. Nonprotein nitrogen (urea) and hyperammonemia

    Introduction and background

    Toxicity

    Clinical signs

    Diagnostic criteria

    Treatment

    Ammonia

    Conclusions

    Chapter 99. Water quality and contaminants

    Introduction

    The assessment of water quality

    Water quality standards for animals

    Drinking water quality standards for humans

    Water consumption tables

    Rationale for livestock recommendations

    Health effects of cyanotoxins from water

    Conclusions

    SECTION XVII. Diagnostic Toxicology

    Chapter 100. Basic concepts of analytical toxicology

    Introduction

    History of chemical analysis

    Trueness (accuracy) of chemical analytical results

    Analytical method validation

    An example of an SLV for the gas chromatographic determination of selenium (Se) in blood and liver

    Calibration curve: how to measure a quantity of interest

    Goodness of linearity of calibration curve

    Example of an interlaboratory (collaborative) study for the validation of the semi-quantitative method

    Laboratory quality management

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    Chapter 101. Sample submission for toxicological analysis

    Introduction

    Required information for sample submission

    Sample collection and submission for toxicological analysis

    Shipping regulations for diagnostic specimens

    Conclusions

    Chapter 102. Toxicoproteomics in diagnostic toxicology

    Introduction

    Analytical tools for proteomic analyses

    Proteomics applications in diagnostic toxicology

    Conclusions

    Chapter 103. Microscopic analysis of toxic substances in feeds and ingesta

    Introduction

    The search for clues

    Background: principles of feed microscopy

    The applications of feed microscopy

    Classification of feed ingredients by sources

    Classification of finished formula feeds by processing

    Classification of forages by points of contact or potential toxicants

    Identification of ingesta particles

    The role of the attending veterinarian

    Feed microscopy training and available literature

    The feed microscopy laboratory

    The equipment

    Conclusions and future expectations

    SECTION XVIII. Prevention and Treatment

    Chapter 104. Prevention and treatment of poisoning

    Prevention of poisoning

    Stabilization and monitoring

    Decontamination

    Antidotal therapies

    Conclusion

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1454
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: March 15, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859273

About the Editor

Ramesh C. Gupta

Ramesh C. Gupta
Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in research on pesticide toxicity, neurodegenerative diseases, and nutraceuticals efficacy and safety. He has delivered lectures in UK, Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, Sweden, and Turkey. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >450 publications to his credit, including seven major books with Elsevier: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology and (7) Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006, and Outstanding research award of the year 2014. In 2019, he received a medal from The Royal Academy of Spanish Veterinary Sciences for his distinguished services to veterinary medicine. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences. Dr. Gupta is a member of many professional societies, including SOT, Eurotox, ASPET, American College of Toxicology, and ISSX.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Toxicology Department, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, United States of America Head, Toxicology Department, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, United States of America

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