Venomous Animals and Their Venoms

Venomous Animals and Their Venoms

Venomous Vertebrates

1st Edition - January 28, 1971

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  • Editors: Wolfgang Bücherl, Eleanor E. Buckley
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483262888

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Description

Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, Volume II: Venomous Vertebrates is a collection of papers that describes the chemistry and biochemistry of snake, batrachian, and fish venoms. These papers discuss their pharmacological actions, their antigenic properties, and their medical aspects such as symptomatology and therapy. Papers describe the pharmacology and toxicology of the venoms of Asiatic, Australian, and Melanesian snakes including the cobra, the common Krait, the saw-scaled viper. One paper presents the pathology, symptomatology, treatment of snake bites in Australia, and the use of an antivenin schedule when the type of snake is not known. Some papers tackle the distribution of snakes in North America, and compare the biochemistry of Miliarius barbouri and Sistrurus catenatus which are subspecies of rattlesnakes. Other papers describe the biology and venom of the Arizona Gila monster and of the Mexican Gila monster. The basic substances in toad venom are from bases present in the glands, their secretions or on their skin. In treating stings from venomous fishes, one paper recommends the use of suction to remove the venom or soaking the injured part in hot water. This collection can be helpful for physicians, veterinarians, toxicologists, pharmacologists, chemists, and researchers in animal bites and injuries.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Contents of Other Volumes

    Introduction

    Venomous Snakes

    Chapter 21. Pharmacology and Toxicology of the Venoms of Asiatic Snakes

    I. Introduction

    II. Determination of the Lethal Dose of Venoms

    III. Effect of Venom on Various Tissues of the Animal

    IV. Effect of Venom on Red Blood Cells

    V. Effect of the Different Active Principles of Snake Venom on Various Organs of the Animal

    References

    Chapter 22. The Story of Some Indian Poisonous Snakes

    I. Cobra (Naja Naja)

    II. The Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus Boulenger)

    III. The Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus Ingoldby)

    References

    Chapter 23. The Venomous Snakes of Australia and Melanesia

    I. Introduction

    II. The Classification, Origins, and Relationships of the Venomous Land Snakes of Australia and Melanesia

    III. The Venomous Land Snakes of Australia

    IV. The Venomous Land Snakes of New Guinea

    V. The Venomous Land Snakes of the Solomon Islands

    VI. The Venomous Land Snakes of the Fiji Islands

    VII. The Dangerous Land Snakes of Australia and Melanesia

    References

    Addendum

    Chapter 24. The Pharmacology and Toxicology of the Venoms of the Snakes of Australia and Oceania

    I. General Introduction

    II. Pharmacological Effects of Snake Venoms

    III. Specific Toxic Effects of Venom

    IV. Specific Australian Venoms

    V. Sea Snakes of Oceania

    VI. Snakes of New Guinea

    VII. Snakes of the Philippines

    VIII. Snakes of Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands

    Appendix : Dangerous Venomous Animals of Australia Other than Venomous Snakes

    References

    Chapter 25. The Pathology, Symptomatology, and Treatment of Snake Bite in Australia

    I. Introduction

    II. Pathology

    III. Symptoms

    IV. Signs

    V. Diagnosis

    VI. Antivenin Schedule where the Type of Snake Is Not Known

    VII. The Treatment of Shock

    References

    Chapter 26. Classification, Distribution, and Biology of the Venomous Snakes of Northern Mexico, the United States, and Canada: Crotalus and Sistrurus

    I. Introduction

    II. Checklist of the Rattlesnakes

    III. Keys to the Rattlesnakes

    IV. Morphology

    V. Habits and Ecology

    VI. Avoidance of Rattlesnake Bite

    VII. Legend and Folklore

    Bibliography

    Chapter 27. The Coral Snakes, Genera Micrurus and Micruroides, of the United States and Northern Mexico

    I. Introduction

    II. A Checklist of the Coral Snakes of the United States and Northern Mexico

    III. Western Coral Snake (Micruroides euryxanthus)

    IV. Eastern Coral Snake (Micrurus fulvius)

    References

    The Chemistry, Toxicity, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology of North American Snake Venoms

    Chapter 28. The Chemistry, Toxicity, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology of North American Snake Venoms

    I. Occurrence and Distribution of Snakes in North America

    II. Toxicity of Venoms

    III. Biochemistry of North American Snake Venoms

    IV. Enzymes in Venoms Capable of Releasing Bradykinin from Plasma Globulin and Destroying It

    V. Pharmacology of North American Snake Venoms

    VI. Summary and Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 29. Comparative Biochemistry of Sistrurus Miliarius Barbouri and Sistrurus Catenatus Tergeminus Venoms

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Methods

    III. Results and Discussion

    References

    Chapter 30. Neotropical Pit Vipers, Sea Snakes, and Coral Snakes

    I. Classification

    Chapter 31. Lethal Doses of Some Snake Venoms

    I. Introduction

    II. Theoretical Bases of the Dosage

    References

    Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Venoms of Bothrops and Lachesis

    Chapter 32. Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Venoms of Bothrops and Lachesis

    I. Quantities of Venoms and Toxicity

    II. Symptomatology

    III. Pharmacological Effects

    IV. Enzymatic Activities

    V. Fractionation of Venoms

    References

    Chapter 33. Intermediate Nephron Nephrosis in Human and Experimental Crotalic Poisoning

    I. Introduction

    II. Renal Lesions in Human Crotalic Poisoning

    III. Renal Lesions in Experimental Crotalic Poisoning

    IV. Discussion and General Considerations

    V. Summary

    References

    Chapter 34. Symptomatology, Pathology, and Treatment of Snake Bites in South America

    I. Introduction

    II. Pathogenesis

    III. Pathology

    IV. Symptomatology

    V. Evaluation of Envenomation Severity and Prognosis

    VI. Treatment

    VII. Sequelae

    VIII. Prophylaxis

    IX. Erroneous Conceptions

    X. Snake Bite in Domestic Animals

    References

    Venomous Saurians and Batrachians

    Chapter 35. The Biology of the Gila Monster

    I. Introduction

    II. Arizona Gila Monster [Heloderma suspectum suspectum (Cope)]

    III. The Mexican Gila Monster

    IV. Summary

    References

    Chapter 36. The Venom of the Gila Monster

    I. Introduction

    II. Anatomy of the Venom Sacs

    References

    Chapter 37. Venomous Toads and Frogs

    I. The Anurans or Salientians

    II. The Bufonidae or True Toads

    III. Other Anurans with Poisonous Secretions

    References

    Chapter 38. The Basic Constituents of Toad Venoms

    I. Introduction

    II. History

    III. The Phenylethylamine Bases

    IV. The Tryptamine Bases and Derivatives

    V. Analytical Methods

    References

    Chapter 39. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Frog Venoms

    I. Introduction

    II. General Classes of Pharmacologically Active Substances from Amphibians

    III. Steroidal Alkaloids from the Colombian Poison Arrow Frog (Phyllobates aurotaenia)

    IV. Alkaloids from Other Dendrobatid Frogs

    V. Summary

    References

    Chapter 40. Collection of Toad Venoms and Chemistry of the Toad Venom Steroids

    I. Introduction

    II. Procedure for Obtaining the Toad Poisons

    III. Isolation of the Bufogenins

    IV. Paper Chromatography of the Bufogenins

    V. Thin Layer and Gas Chromatography of the Bufogenins

    VI. Color Reactions of the Bufogenins

    VII. The Chemistry of the Bufogenins

    VIII. The Bufogenins with Known Structure

    IX. The Bufotoxins

    X. Miscellaneous

    XI. The Biogenesis of the Toad Poisons

    XII. The Synthesis of Bufadienolides

    References

    Chapter 41. Distribution, Biology, and Classification of Salamanders

    Text

    References

    Chapter 42. Toxicology, Pharmacology, Chemistry, and Biochemistry of Salamander Venom

    I. Introduction

    II. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Salamander Venom

    III. Chemistry of Salamander Venom

    IV. Neutral Substances in the Skin Gland Secretion

    V. Biosynthesis of Salamander Alkaloids

    References

    Venomous Snakes

    Chapter 43. Venomous Fishes

    I. Classification of Venomous Fishes

    II. Venomous Elasmobranchs

    III. Venomous Chimaeras

    IV. Venomous Catfishes

    V. Venomous Weeverfishes

    VI. Stargazers

    VII. Venomous Scorpionfishes

    VIII. Venomous Toadfishes

    IX. Treatment of Stings from Venomous Fishes

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 712
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
  • Published: January 28, 1971
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483262888

About the Editors

Wolfgang Bücherl

Eleanor E. Buckley

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