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Venomous Animals and Their Venoms - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121389024, 9781483262888

Venomous Animals and Their Venoms

1st Edition

Venomous Vertebrates

Editors: Wolfgang Bücherl Eleanor E. Buckley
eBook ISBN: 9781483262888
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1971
Page Count: 712
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Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, Volume II: Venomous Vertebrates is a collection of papers that describes the chemistry and biochemistry of snake, batrachian, and fish venoms. These papers discuss their pharmacological actions, their antigenic properties, and their medical aspects such as symptomatology and therapy. Papers describe the pharmacology and toxicology of the venoms of Asiatic, Australian, and Melanesian snakes including the cobra, the common Krait, the saw-scaled viper. One paper presents the pathology, symptomatology, treatment of snake bites in Australia, and the use of an antivenin schedule when the type of snake is not known. Some papers tackle the distribution of snakes in North America, and compare the biochemistry of Miliarius barbouri and Sistrurus catenatus which are subspecies of rattlesnakes. Other papers describe the biology and venom of the Arizona Gila monster and of the Mexican Gila monster. The basic substances in toad venom are from bases present in the glands, their secretions or on their skin. In treating stings from venomous fishes, one paper recommends the use of suction to remove the venom or soaking the injured part in hot water. This collection can be helpful for physicians, veterinarians, toxicologists, pharmacologists, chemists, and researchers in animal bites and injuries.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of Other Volumes


Venomous Snakes

Chapter 21. Pharmacology and Toxicology of the Venoms of Asiatic Snakes

I. Introduction

II. Determination of the Lethal Dose of Venoms

III. Effect of Venom on Various Tissues of the Animal

IV. Effect of Venom on Red Blood Cells

V. Effect of the Different Active Principles of Snake Venom on Various Organs of the Animal


Chapter 22. The Story of Some Indian Poisonous Snakes

I. Cobra (Naja Naja)

II. The Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus Boulenger)

III. The Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus Ingoldby)


Chapter 23. The Venomous Snakes of Australia and Melanesia

I. Introduction

II. The Classification, Origins, and Relationships of the Venomous Land Snakes of Australia and Melanesia

III. The Venomous Land Snakes of Australia

IV. The Venomous Land Snakes of New Guinea

V. The Venomous Land Snakes of the Solomon Islands

VI. The Venomous Land Snakes of the Fiji Islands

VII. The Dangerous Land Snakes of Australia and Melanesia



Chapter 24. The Pharmacology and Toxicology of the Venoms of the Snakes of Australia and Oceania

I. General Introduction

II. Pharmacological Effects of Snake Venoms

III. Specific Toxic Effects of Venom

IV. Specific Australian Venoms

V. Sea Snakes of Oceania

VI. Snakes of New Guinea

VII. Snakes of the Philippines

VIII. Snakes of Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands

Appendix : Dangerous Venomous Animals of Australia Other than Venomous Snakes


Chapter 25. The Pathology, Symptomatology, and Treatment of Snake Bite in Australia

I. Introduction

II. Pathology

III. Symptoms

IV. Signs

V. Diagnosis

VI. Antivenin Schedule where the Type of Snake Is Not Known

VII. The Treatment of Shock


Chapter 26. Classification, Distribution, and Biology of the Venomous Snakes of Northern Mexico, the United States, and Canada: Crotalus and Sistrurus

I. Introduction

II. Checklist of the Rattlesnakes

III. Keys to the Rattlesnakes

IV. Morphology

V. Habits and Ecology

VI. Avoidance of Rattlesnake Bite

VII. Legend and Folklore


Chapter 27. The Coral Snakes, Genera Micrurus and Micruroides, of the United States and Northern Mexico

I. Introduction

II. A Checklist of the Coral Snakes of the United States and Northern Mexico

III. Western Coral Snake (Micruroides euryxanthus)

IV. Eastern Coral Snake (Micrurus fulvius)


The Chemistry, Toxicity, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology of North American Snake Venoms

Chapter 28. The Chemistry, Toxicity, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology of North American Snake Venoms

I. Occurrence and Distribution of Snakes in North America

II. Toxicity of Venoms

III. Biochemistry of North American Snake Venoms

IV. Enzymes in Venoms Capable of Releasing Bradykinin from Plasma Globulin and Destroying It

V. Pharmacology of North American Snake Venoms

VI. Summary and Conclusion


Chapter 29. Comparative Biochemistry of Sistrurus Miliarius Barbouri and Sistrurus Catenatus Tergeminus Venoms

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results and Discussion


Chapter 30. Neotropical Pit Vipers, Sea Snakes, and Coral Snakes

I. Classification

Chapter 31. Lethal Doses of Some Snake Venoms

I. Introduction

II. Theoretical Bases of the Dosage


Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Venoms of Bothrops and Lachesis

Chapter 32. Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Venoms of Bothrops and Lachesis

I. Quantities of Venoms and Toxicity

II. Symptomatology

III. Pharmacological Effects

IV. Enzymatic Activities

V. Fractionation of Venoms


Chapter 33. Intermediate Nephron Nephrosis in Human and Experimental Crotalic Poisoning

I. Introduction

II. Renal Lesions in Human Crotalic Poisoning

III. Renal Lesions in Experimental Crotalic Poisoning

IV. Discussion and General Considerations

V. Summary


Chapter 34. Symptomatology, Pathology, and Treatment of Snake Bites in South America

I. Introduction

II. Pathogenesis

III. Pathology

IV. Symptomatology

V. Evaluation of Envenomation Severity and Prognosis

VI. Treatment

VII. Sequelae

VIII. Prophylaxis

IX. Erroneous Conceptions

X. Snake Bite in Domestic Animals


Venomous Saurians and Batrachians

Chapter 35. The Biology of the Gila Monster

I. Introduction

II. Arizona Gila Monster [Heloderma suspectum suspectum (Cope)]

III. The Mexican Gila Monster

IV. Summary


Chapter 36. The Venom of the Gila Monster

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy of the Venom Sacs


Chapter 37. Venomous Toads and Frogs

I. The Anurans or Salientians

II. The Bufonidae or True Toads

III. Other Anurans with Poisonous Secretions


Chapter 38. The Basic Constituents of Toad Venoms

I. Introduction

II. History

III. The Phenylethylamine Bases

IV. The Tryptamine Bases and Derivatives

V. Analytical Methods


Chapter 39. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Frog Venoms

I. Introduction

II. General Classes of Pharmacologically Active Substances from Amphibians

III. Steroidal Alkaloids from the Colombian Poison Arrow Frog (Phyllobates aurotaenia)

IV. Alkaloids from Other Dendrobatid Frogs

V. Summary


Chapter 40. Collection of Toad Venoms and Chemistry of the Toad Venom Steroids

I. Introduction

II. Procedure for Obtaining the Toad Poisons

III. Isolation of the Bufogenins

IV. Paper Chromatography of the Bufogenins

V. Thin Layer and Gas Chromatography of the Bufogenins

VI. Color Reactions of the Bufogenins

VII. The Chemistry of the Bufogenins

VIII. The Bufogenins with Known Structure

IX. The Bufotoxins

X. Miscellaneous

XI. The Biogenesis of the Toad Poisons

XII. The Synthesis of Bufadienolides


Chapter 41. Distribution, Biology, and Classification of Salamanders



Chapter 42. Toxicology, Pharmacology, Chemistry, and Biochemistry of Salamander Venom

I. Introduction

II. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Salamander Venom

III. Chemistry of Salamander Venom

IV. Neutral Substances in the Skin Gland Secretion

V. Biosynthesis of Salamander Alkaloids


Venomous Snakes

Chapter 43. Venomous Fishes

I. Classification of Venomous Fishes

II. Venomous Elasmobranchs

III. Venomous Chimaeras

IV. Venomous Catfishes

V. Venomous Weeverfishes

VI. Stargazers

VII. Venomous Scorpionfishes

VIII. Venomous Toadfishes

IX. Treatment of Stings from Venomous Fishes


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1971
28th January 1971
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Wolfgang Bücherl

Eleanor E. Buckley

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