Vascular Transport in Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120884575, 9780080454238

Vascular Transport in Plants

1st Edition

Editors: N. Michelle Holbrook Maciej Zwieniecki
eBook ISBN: 9780080454238
Hardcover ISBN: 9780120884575
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th June 2005
Page Count: 592
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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgment
  • Part I: Fundamentals of transport
    • Chapter 1: Perspectives on the Biophysics of Xylem Transport
      • Publisher Summary
      • The Biophysics of Sap Ascent in the Xylem
      • Discussion
    • Chapter 2: Physiochemical Determinants of Phloem Transport
      • Publisher Summary
      • Structure-Functional Basics of Phloem Transport
      • Generation of a Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Collection Phloem
      • Maintenance of Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Transport Phloem
      • Manipulation of the Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Release Phloem
      • Radius of the Sieve Tubes
      • Viscosity, Sugar Species, and Concentrations in Sieve Tubes
      • Physiochemical Relationship Between Xylem and Phloem Pathway
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Notations
    • Chapter 3: Pathways and Mechanisms of Phloem Loading
      • Publisher Summary
      • Minor Veins
      • Transport Between Mesophyll Cells
      • The Role of Phloem Parenchyma Cells
      • Entry into the SE/CCC via the Apoplast
      • Entry into the SE/CCC via the Symplast
      • Symplastic Phloem Loading by the Polymer Trap
      • Mixed Loading
      • Solute Flux Between Companion Cells and Sieve Elements
      • Solute Exchange Between the Phloem and Flanking Tissues
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 4: Stomatal Control and Water Transport in the Xylem
      • Publisher Summary
      • Origins of the Association Between Stomata and Xylem
      • Biophysical Properties of Stomata and Xylem
      • Linking Hydraulics with Gas Exchange
      • Summary
  • Part II: Transport attributes of leaves, roots, and fruits
    • Chapter 5: Leaf Hydraulics and Its Implications in Plant Structure and Function
      • Publisher Summary
      • Leaf Hydraulic Conductance in the Whole-Plant System
      • How Does Water Flow from the Petiole to the Sites of Evaporation?
      • Coordination of Kleaf, Venation System Design, and Leaf Shape
      • Coordination of Kleaf and Leaf Water Storage
      • Coordination of KIeaf with Other Aspects of Leaf Structure, Carbon Economy, and Drought Tolerance
      • Variability of Kleaf Across Environments, Diurnally, and with Leaf Age
      • Summary of Directions for Future Research
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 6: Interaction of Phloem and Xylem During Phloem Loading: Functional Symplasmic Roles for Thin- and Thick-Walled Sieve Tubes in Monocotyledons
      • Publisher Summary
      • Structural Considerations of the Loading Pathway
      • Role of Thin- and Thick-Walled Sieve Tubes
      • Experimental Evidence for Apoplast/Symplast Transfer Between Xylem and Phloem
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 7: Water Flow in Roots: Structural and regulatory features
      • Publisher Summary
      • Structural Components of the Radial Pathway
      • Regulation of Radial Hydraulic Conductivity by Aquaporins
      • Regulation of Root Axial Hydraulic Conductivity
      • Conclusions and Directions for Future Research
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 8: Roots as an Integrated Part of the Translocation Pathway
      • Publisher Summary
      • Root Growth and Solute Deposition
      • Roots Have Symplastic and Apoplastic Domains of Unloading
      • Does Transporter Distribution Fit a Chimeric Distribution of Unloading?
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 9: Growth and Water Transport in Fleshy Fruit
      • Publisher Summary
      • Fleshy Fruit Growth, Expansion, and Contraction
      • Leaf, Stem, and Fruit Water Potential
      • Vascular Flows in Developing Fruit
      • Fruit Turgor and Apoplastic Solutes
      • Conclusions
  • Part III: Integration of xylem and phloem
    • Chapter 10: The Stem Apoplast: A potential communication channel in plant growth regulation
      • Publisher Summary
      • The Short-Term Buffer
      • What Are the Opportunities to Affect Leakage and Retrieval?
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 11: The Role of Potassium in Long Distance Transport in Plants
      • Publisher Summary
      • Potassium and the Xylem
      • Potassium and the Phloem
      • Vascular Anatomy, Xylem-Phloem Integration, and Potassium
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 12: Coordination Between Shoots and Roots
      • Publisher Summary
      • Structure and Function
      • Regulatory Signals
      • Global Change and Shoot/Root Coordination
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 13: Sweeping Water, Oozing Carbon: Long Distance Transport and Patterns of Rhizosphere Resource Exchange
      • Publisher Summary
      • Long Distance Transport of Carbon
      • Long Distance Transport of Water
      • Future Directions for Rhizosphere Research
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part IV: Development, structure, and function
    • Chapter 14: From Cambium to Early Cell Differentiation Within the Secondary Vascular System
      • Publisher Summary
      • Vascular Cambium
      • Vascular Cambium and the Early Stages of Cell Differentiation
      • Final Comments
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 15: Structure-Function Relationships in Sapwood Water Transport and Storage
      • Publisher Summary
      • Radial Changes in Wood Anatomical Characteristics and Hydraulic Properties
      • How Species-Specific Characteristics of Sapwood Affect Whole-Tree Water Transport
      • Prospects for Further Research
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 16: Efficiency Versus Safety Tradeoffs for Water Conduction in Angiosperm Vessels Versus Gymnosperm Tracheids
      • Publisher Summary
      • Tradeoffs in Interconduit Pit Function
      • Conduit Size and the Conductivity Versus Air-Seeding Tradeoff
      • Conductivity Versus Safety from Cavitation by Freeze-Thaw
      • Discussion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 17: Vascular Constraints and Long Distance Transport in Dicots
      • Publisher Summary
      • Vascular Architecture of Xylem and Phloem
      • Coupling Environmental Heterogeneity and Sectoriality
      • Techniques and Prospects for Further Research
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part V: Limits to long distance transport
    • Chapter 18: Embolism Repair and Long Distance Water Transport
      • Publisher Summary
      • Evidence for Refilling Under Tension
      • Potential Refilling Mechanisms
      • Cell Membrane Osmosis
      • Pit Membrane Osmosis
      • Tissue Pressure
      • Membrane Asymmetry
      • Vascular Anatomy and Refilling
      • Conclusions: How Important Is Embolism Repair?
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 19: Impacts of Freezing on Long Distance Transport in Woody Plants
      • Publisher Summary
      • Survival of Living Tissues at Low Temperatures
      • Cold Acclimation
      • Impacts of Freezing on Water-Conducting Conduits of the Xylem
      • Impacts of Cold Temperatures and Freezing on the Phloem
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 20: Interactive Effects of Freezing and Drought on Long Distance Transport: A Case Study of Chaparral Shrubs of California
      • Publisher Summary
      • Evolutionary History of Chaparral in Relation to Freezing and Drought
      • Distribution of Ceanothus, Rhus, and Malosma Species Along a Freezing Gradient
      • Distribution of Ceanothus, Rhus, and Malosma Species Corresponds to Freezing Tolerance of Leaves
      • With the Exception of R. ovata, Distribution of Chaparral Shrubs Corresponds to Susceptibility to Freeze-Thaw-Induced Embolism
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 21: Transport Challenges in Tall Trees
      • Publisher Summary
      • The Physical Setting and Its Problems
      • Mechanisms Compensating for Height Constraints
      • Interaction Between Stomatal Regulation and Xylem Transport
      • Conclusions and Directions for Future Research
    • Chapter 22: Senescence in Secondary Xylem: Heartwood Formation as an Active Developmental Program
      • Publisher Summary
      • The Role of Parenchyma Cell Death in Heartwood Formation
      • Metabolic Activity and Carbohydrate Storage in Aging Sapwood
      • Loss of Conductive Function in Secondary Xylem and Phloem
      • Wound Compartmentalization Versus Heartwood Formation
      • Conclusions and Directions for Future Research
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part VI: Evolution of transport tissues
    • Chapter 23: The Evolutionary History of Roots and Leaves
      • Publisher Summary
      • Roots
      • Leaves
      • Conclusions and Future Research
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 24: Are Vessels in Seed Plants Evolutionary Innovations to Similar Ecological Contexts?
      • Publisher Summary
      • Tracheid and Vessel Hydraulic Properties
      • Ancestral Habitats for Vessel Origin in Vessel-Bearing Seed Plants
      • Why Vessels in Wet, Shaded Habitats
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 25: Hydraulic Properties of the Xylem in Plants of Different Photosynthetic Pathways
      • Publisher Summary
      • Conceptual Background: How Should WUE Changes Affect Xylem Hydraulics?
      • Initial Work on Xylem Function in C4 and CAM Species
      • Comprehensive Surveys of Hydraulic Function in C3 and C4 Species
      • Ecological Consequences of Photosynthetic Pathway on Xylem Function
      • Atmospheric CO2 and the Evolution of Modern Wood
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part VII: Synthesis
    • Chapter 26: Integration of Long Distance Transport Systems in Plants: Perspectives and Prospects for Future Research
      • Publisher Summary
      • Xylem
      • Phloem
      • Xylem and Phloem Together: Whole Organism Integration
  • Index
  • Physiological Ecology


Vascular Transport in Plants provides an up-to-date synthesis of new research on the biology of long distance transport processes in plants. It will be a valuable resource and reference for researchers and graduate level students in physiology, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, ecological physiology, development, and all applied disciplines related to agriculture, horticulture, forestry and biotechnology. The book considers long-distance transport from the perspective of molecular level processes to whole plant function, allowing readers to integrate information relating to vascular transport across multiple scales. The book is unique in presenting xylem and phloem transport processes in plants together in a comparative style that emphasizes the important interactions between these two parallel transport systems.

Key Features

  • Includes 105 exceptional figures
  • Discusses xylem and phloem transport in a single volume, highlighting their interactions
  • Syntheses of structure, function and biology of vascular transport by leading authorities
  • Poses unsolved questions and stimulates future research
  • Provides a new conceptual framework for vascular function in plants


Plant physiologists, plant biologists, plant ecophysiologists, research foresters, horticulturalists, agronomists, and paleontologists.


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© Academic Press 2005
Academic Press
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"This comprehensive collection of 26 papers on all aspects of function and structure of vascular tissues will be of interest for anyone working in plant structure/function generally, or to specialists dealing with physiology of water and surgar movement, leaf functions, wood anatomy and ecophsyiology...easy to read and reference...Repeatedly, I found myself saying 'I didn't know that' or thinking that this chapter would be perfect as teh basis for a lecture or student seminar topic...I'm confident that this volume will be referred to frequently in my research and teaching." -Jack B. Fisher, for ANNALS OF BOTANY "This book is a valuable contribution to the study of long distance transport in plants and presents a comprehensive and accessible synthesis of current thinking. It should be of great value to workers involved in all aspects of transport in plants, particularly those with interests in mobility of nutrients, agrochemicals, and is refreshing to revisit this topic some 30 years later and find that, while there seems to be consensus on the mechanism of translocation, there is still so much thought-provoking investigation taking place." -Nicholas W. Lepp, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, for JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY "...this book is not only a highly valuable resource of current knowledge in plant vascular transport but also a source of inspiration for further research. It is a worthy addition to the library of researchers with an interest in vascular transport. If any lingering doubt remains, please glance over the Preface and Chapter 26 for the underlying philosophy." -John W. Patrick, The University of Newcastle, Australia, in PLANT SCIENCE 2005 "...the contributions are excellent and provide not only a good overview of current topics in long distance biophysics and physiology but also valuable insights into actual knowledge of various topics of xylem and phloem transport...Is a must for all those who are studying or working on the different aspects of vascular transport. I agree with the editors in expressing the hope that the book will stimulate further research in the field of vascular transport in plants." -Siegfried Jahnke, Research centre Julich, for JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

About the Editors

N. Michelle Holbrook Editor

Professor of Biology and Charles Bullard Professor of Forestry in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. Her research examines the physics of plant form and function with an emphasis on vascular transport.

Affiliations and Expertise

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.

Maciej Zwieniecki Editor

Sargent Research Fellow at The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. His research interests focus on the biology and biophysics of transport processes in plants and the water relations of tree in their natural environments.

Affiliations and Expertise

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.