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Variable Generation, Flexible Demand - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128238103, 9780128241912

Variable Generation, Flexible Demand

1st Edition

Editor: Fereidoon Sioshansi
Paperback ISBN: 9780128238103
eBook ISBN: 9780128241912
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th November 2020
Page Count: 594
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Variable Generation, Flexible Demand looks at a future in which power system researchers, operators and analysts need to predict variable renewable generation and schedule demand to match it. Contributors survey the significant expansion in the role of flexible demand in balancing supply and demand in conjunction with flexible generation in ‘peaking plants’ and energy storage as the proportion of variable renewable generation rises in many systems across the world. Supported with case studies, the book examines practical ways that demand flexibility can play a constructive role as more systems move towards higher levels of renewable generation in their electricity mix.

Key Features

  • Examines practical ways that demand flexibility can play a constructive role in future energy systems
  • Reviews the vital role of market design, business models, enabling technologies, policies and regulation in implementation of flexible demand
  • Includes detailed case studies that address the role of flexible demand across transitioning power markets


Graduate and 1st year PhD level studying energy markets and energy systems. Policymakers. Energy economists. Grid operators. Energy system operators. Electric utilities. Regulators and policy makers across the electric power sector. Companies developing flexible demand services or options. Technology companies working on aggregating & delivering demand response

Table of Contents

Foreword by Ken Baldwin, Energy Change Institute, ANU, Canberra Australia
Preface by Luca Lo Schiavo, ARERA, Italian energy regulatory authority, Milan, Italy
Introduction by Fereidoon Sioshansi, Menlo Energy Economics

Part One: Variable renewable generation
1. The evolution of California’s variable renewable generation
Fereidoon Sioshansi, Menlo Energy Economics
2. Variability of generation in ERCOT and the role of flexible demand
Ross Baldick, Univ. of Texas, Austin
3. Rising variability of generation in Italy: The grid operator’s perspective
Giacomo Terenzi, Terna, Italy
4. Integrating the rising variable renewable generation: A Spanish perspective
Juan Jose Alba, Julian Barquin, Carolina Vereda and Eduardo Moreda, Endesa, Spain

Part Two: Flexible demand
5. What is flexible demand; what demand is flexible?
Fereidoon Sioshansi, Menlo Energy Economics
6. Who are the customers with flexible demand, and how to find them?
Carlo Stagnaro, Istituto Bruno Leoni and Simona Benedettini, PwC, Italy
7. How can flexible demand be aggregated and delivered to scale?
Fereidoon Sioshansi, Menlo Energy Economics
8. Electric vehicles: The ultimate flexible demand
Fereidoon Sioshansi, Menlo Energy Economics
9. Load flexibility: Market potential and opportunities in the US
Ryan Hledik and Tony Lee, The Brattle Group
10. Demand response in the US wholesale markets: Recent trends, new models and forecasts
Udi Helman, Helman Analytics
11. What’s limiting flexible demand from playing a bigger role in the US organized markets? The PJM experience
Joseph Bowring, Monitoring Analytics, LLC

Part Three: Coupling flexible demand to variable generation
12. Valuing consumer flexibility in electricity market design
Laurens de Vries, TU Delft and Gerard Doorman, Statnett SF
13. Variable renewables and demand flexibility: Day-ahead versus intra-day valuation
Reinhard Madlener, RWTH Aachen University and Oliver Ruhnau, Hertie School, Berlin
14. The value of flexibility in Australia’s national electricity market
Alan Rai, Baringa Partners, Prabpreet Calais, Kate Wild and Greg Williams, Australian Energy Market Commission and Tim Nelson, Griffith University, Sydney, Australia
15. Demand flexibility and what it can contribute in Germany
Dierk Bauknecht, Christoph Heinemann, Matthias Koch and Moritz Vogel, Oeko-Institut, Freiburg, Germany
16. Industrial demand flexibility: A German case study
Sabine Löbbe, and André Hackbarth, Univ. of Reutlingen and Heinz Hagenlocher and Uwe Ziegler, Avat, Tubingen, Germany

Part Four: Implementation, business models, enabling technologies, policies, regulation
17. Market design and regulation to encourage demand aggregation and participation in European wholesale markets
Juan José Alba, Carolina Vereda, Julían Barquín and Eduardo Moreda, Endesa, Spain
18. Do time-of-use tariffs make residential demand more flexible? Evidence from Victoria, Australia
Kelly Burns and Bruce Mountain, Victoria Energy Policy Centre, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
19. Empowering consumers to deliver flexible demand
Lynne Gallagher, Energy Consumers Australia, and Elisabeth Ross, independent consultant, Sydney, Australia
20. Markets for flexibility: Product definition, market design and regulation
Richard L. Hochstetler, Instituto Acende Brasil, Sao Paulo, Brasil
21. Energy communities and flexible demand
David Robinson, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies
22. Flexible demand: What’s in it for the customer?
Mike Swanston, Customer Advocate, Brisbane, Australia

Ahmad Faruqui, The Brattle Group, San Francisco, CA


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2020
15th November 2020
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Fereidoon Sioshansi

Fereidoon Sioshansi

Fereidoon Sioshansi is President of Menlo Energy Economics, a consulting firm focused on the rapid transformation of the electric power sector. He is the editor and publisher of EEnergy Informer, a monthly newsletter with international circulation. His professional experience includes working at Southern California Edison Co. (SCE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), NERA, and Global Energy Decisions. Since 2006, he has edited 13 books published by Academic Press; the latest, Variable generation, flexible demand, was published in 2021

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Menlo Energy Economics, San Francisco, CA, USA


"The book showcases paradigm changes away from the traditional way in which demand was forecast and generation resources were dispatched to meet it. It highlights the need for grid operators to predict the amount of fluctuating wind and solar resources and to schedule complimentary demand. It provides lessons and examples of integrating rising levels of carbon neutral resources into the grid. “California is one of the few places in the world where this paradigm change is happening because so much new solar and wind is being added,” Fereidoon Sioshansi, the book’s editor, told Current. He added that the 100-year old utility model of predicting load and then matching it with fossil fuel generation, and some hydropower supplies, is out of sync with a green grid where the bulk of generation is non-dispatchable renewables. “Given the variable nature of renewable generation, particularly solar, a major shift is needed to create a smooth, efficient, and low-cost transition to this new world order,” he said. The book looks at several evolving markets including ones in California, ERCOT, Italy, Spain, and Australia, among others. They all face rising levels of renewable resources. But renewable generation still plays a minor role in many parts of the world where it can be squeezed into the traditional dispatchable generation model. In these places, variable renewables are the small tail on the big dog, Sioshansi said. In contrast, in California and in some European countries, the big renewable tail is increasingly wagging the dog. In Denmark, for example, on some windy days, the wind output exceeds total demand on the network. But because of Denmark’s strong interconnections with Germany and Scandinavia, the excess wind can be absorbed in Germany’s much larger market and/or it can be stored in hydropower reservoirs in Sweden and Norway–acting as big batteries. In contrast, California’s huge market dwarfs those of the neighboring states. Consequently, the state’s excess solar generation cannot easily be exported to the neighboring states–nor can its deficits be covered by imports–resulting in renewable curtailment. Contributors to the book examine the role of expanding flexible demand to balance supply, including with energy storage. “Batteries are more versatile and can respond almost instantaneously, compared to a natural gas fired peaking plant, which takes time to respond to signals from the grid operator,” Sioshansi noted. Other flexible demand can respond to signals in the same way. In addition to the practical ways demand flexibility can play a constructive role as more systems move towards higher levels of renewable generation, the book also explores the role of market design, business models, enabling technologies, policies, and regulation." --California Current


"The book explores practical ways that demand flexibility can play a constructive role as more systems move towards higher levels of renewable generation along with complementary market designs, business models, enabling technologies, policies, and regulation." -- Full review here: 

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