Valency and Molecular Structure - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780408708098, 9781483140605

Valency and Molecular Structure

4th Edition

Authors: E. Cartmell G. W. A. Fowles
eBook ISBN: 9781483140605
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 11th August 1977
Page Count: 352
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Valency and Molecular Structure, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive historical background and experimental foundations of theories and methods relating to valency and molecular structures. In this edition, the chapter on Bohr theory has been removed while some sections, such as structures of crystalline solids, have been expanded. Details of structures have also been revised and extended using the best available values for bond lengths and bond angles. Recent developments are mostly noted in the chapter on complex compounds, while a new chapter has been added to serve as an introduction to the spectroscopy of complex compounds. Other topics include the experimental foundation of the quantum theory; molecular-orbital method; ionic, hydrogen, and metallic bonds; structures of some simple inorganic compounds; and electronic spectra of transition-metal complexes. This publication is a useful reference for undergraduate students majoring in chemistry and other affiliated science subjects.

Table of Contents

1 Historical Introduction

1.1 Electricity and Chemical Bonding

1.2 The Lewis-Langmuir Electron-Pair Bond

1.3 Quantum Theory of Chemical Bonding

1.4 Bibliography

2 The Experimental Foundation of the Quantum Theory

2.1 Energy Units

2.2 Black Body Radiation

2.3 The Photoelectric Effect

2.4 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

2.5 Energy Level Diagrams

2.6 Extensions of the Bohr Theory

3 Elementary Quantum Theory

3.1 Particles and Waves

3.2 The New Quantum Theory and the 'Uncertainty Principle'

3.3 Waves and Wave Equations

3.4 The Wave Equation for Electrons

3.5 Operator Form of the Schrödinger Equation

4 The Hydrogen Atom

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Polar Co-ordinates

4.3 Acceptable Solutions - The Quantum Numbers

4.4 The Radial Functions R(R)

4.5 Radial Distribution Functions

4.6 The Angular Functions Y(θ,φ)

4.7 Orbitals, Probability Distributions and Charge Clouds

4.8 Energy Levels

5 Quantum Theory and the Periodic Classification

5.1 The Wave Equation for Many-Electron Atoms

5.2 Energy Levels

5.3 Electron Spin

5.4 The Exclusion Principle

5.5 Ionization Energies

5.6 The 'Building-up' ('Aufbau') Principle and the Periodic Classification

5.7 Transition Series: The 'd-Block' Elements

6 The Molecular-Orbital Method

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Relationship between Atomic and Molecular Orbitals (United Atom Approach)

6.3 The Lcao Method

6.4 Hydrogen Molecule Ion (H2+)

6.5 Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

6.6 Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

6.7 Bond Strength

6.8 Reference

7 The Valence-Bond Method

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Hydrogen Molecule Ion

7.3 The Hydrogen Molecule

7.4 Comparison of the Molecular-Orbital and Valence-Bond Methods

7.5 Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

7.6 Resonance

7.7 Resonance: Some Misconceptions and Some Guiding Principles

8 Directed Valency

8.1 Shapes of Molecules Formed by First-Row Elements

8.2 The Criterion of Maximum Overlapping

8.3 Polyatomic Molecules: VB and MO Descriptions

8.4 Non-equivalent Orbitals

8.5 Π Molecular Orbitals

8.6 The Equivalent-Orbital Description

8.7 Bond Energies

9 Ionic, Hydrogen and Metallic Bonds

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Ionic Bonds

9.3 Crystal Lattice Energy

9.4 The Born-Haber Cycle

9.5 Ionic Radii

9.6 Ionic Structures

9.7 Electronegativity

9.8 The Hydrogen Bond

9.9 Metallic Bonds

9.10 The Molecular or van der Waals' Bond

9.11 Bibliography

10 The Structures of Some Simple Inorganic Compounds

10.1 Bond Lengths

10.2 Calculated Bond Lengths

10.3 Stereochemistry of Compounds Formed by Main-Group Elements

10.4 Lithium and the Alkali Metals

10.5 Beryllium and the Alkaline Earth Metals

10.6 Boron and the Group IIIB Elements

10.7 Carbon and the Group IVB Elements

10.8 Nitrogen and the Group VB Elements

10.9 Oxygen and the Group VIB Elements

10.10 Fluorine and the Group VIIB Elements

10.11 Compounds of the Noble Gases

10.12 Bonding in Xenon Compounds

10.13 References

11 Complex Compounds

11.1 Introduction and Nomenclature

11.2 Bonding in Complex Compounds

11.3 Absorption Spectra

11.4 Magnetic Susceptibility

11.5 The Stability of Complex Compounds

11.6 Distortion of Octahedral Complexes

11.7 Co-ordination Numbers Other than 6

11.8 Co-ordination Number 2

11.9 Co-ordination Number 3

11.10 Co-ordination Number 4

11.11 Co-ordination Number 5

11.12 Co-ordination Number 7

11.13 Co-ordination Number 8

11.14 Co-ordination Numbers 9, 10 and 12

11.15 Metal-Metal Bonding: Cluster Compounds

11.16 Carbonyls

11.17 Cyclopentadiene Complexes

11.18 Alkene and Alkyne Complexes

11.19 Reactivity of Complex Compounds: Orbital Considerations

11.20 The Stability and Reactivity of Four-Co-ordinate Complexes: The 'trans' Influence and 'trans' Effect

11.21 References

12 Electronic Spectra of Transition-Metal Complexes

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Electronic Spectra of d1 Ions

12.3 Intensity of d-d Bands

12.4 Configurations for Free Ions (dn)

12.5 Coupling of Electron Spins

12.6 Coupling of Orbital Angular Momenta

12.7 Spin Multiplicity (2S + 1)

12.8 Relationship between Terms and Microstates for the p2 Configuration

12.9 Microstates and Terms for a d2 Configuration

12.10 Terms for dn Configurations

12.11 Coupling of Spin and Orbital Momenta

12.12 Free Ions: Term Energies

12.13 Spectra of Complex Ions

12.14 Weak-Field Method

12.15 Spectra of Octahedral d2 Complexes (e.g. [VL6]3+): The Weak-Field Approach

12.16 Orgel Diagrams

12.17 Strong-Field Method (For Octahedral Fields)

12.18 Correlation of Weak-Field and Strong-Field Levels

12.19 Other Tanabe-Sugano Diagrams

12.20 References

13 Electron-Deficient Molecules

13.1 Introduction

13.2 The Structure and Bonding of Diborane

13.3 The Structures of the Higher Hydrides of Boron

13.4 The Structures of the Borohydrides (Tetrahydroborates)

13.5 The Metal Alkyls

13.6 References



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E. Cartmell

G. W. A. Fowles

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