Valency and Molecular Structure

Valency and Molecular Structure

4th Edition - August 11, 1977

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  • Authors: E. Cartmell, G. W. A. Fowles
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140605

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Valency and Molecular Structure, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive historical background and experimental foundations of theories and methods relating to valency and molecular structures. In this edition, the chapter on Bohr theory has been removed while some sections, such as structures of crystalline solids, have been expanded. Details of structures have also been revised and extended using the best available values for bond lengths and bond angles. Recent developments are mostly noted in the chapter on complex compounds, while a new chapter has been added to serve as an introduction to the spectroscopy of complex compounds. Other topics include the experimental foundation of the quantum theory; molecular-orbital method; ionic, hydrogen, and metallic bonds; structures of some simple inorganic compounds; and electronic spectra of transition-metal complexes. This publication is a useful reference for undergraduate students majoring in chemistry and other affiliated science subjects.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Historical Introduction

    1.1 Electricity and Chemical Bonding

    1.2 The Lewis-Langmuir Electron-Pair Bond

    1.3 Quantum Theory of Chemical Bonding

    1.4 Bibliography

    2 The Experimental Foundation of the Quantum Theory

    2.1 Energy Units

    2.2 Black Body Radiation

    2.3 The Photoelectric Effect

    2.4 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

    2.5 Energy Level Diagrams

    2.6 Extensions of the Bohr Theory

    3 Elementary Quantum Theory

    3.1 Particles and Waves

    3.2 The New Quantum Theory and the 'Uncertainty Principle'

    3.3 Waves and Wave Equations

    3.4 The Wave Equation for Electrons

    3.5 Operator Form of the Schrödinger Equation

    4 The Hydrogen Atom

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Polar Co-ordinates

    4.3 Acceptable Solutions - The Quantum Numbers

    4.4 The Radial Functions R(R)

    4.5 Radial Distribution Functions

    4.6 The Angular Functions Y(θ,φ)

    4.7 Orbitals, Probability Distributions and Charge Clouds

    4.8 Energy Levels

    5 Quantum Theory and the Periodic Classification

    5.1 The Wave Equation for Many-Electron Atoms

    5.2 Energy Levels

    5.3 Electron Spin

    5.4 The Exclusion Principle

    5.5 Ionization Energies

    5.6 The 'Building-up' ('Aufbau') Principle and the Periodic Classification

    5.7 Transition Series: The 'd-Block' Elements

    6 The Molecular-Orbital Method

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Relationship between Atomic and Molecular Orbitals (United Atom Approach)

    6.3 The Lcao Method

    6.4 Hydrogen Molecule Ion (H2+)

    6.5 Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

    6.6 Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

    6.7 Bond Strength

    6.8 Reference

    7 The Valence-Bond Method

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 The Hydrogen Molecule Ion

    7.3 The Hydrogen Molecule

    7.4 Comparison of the Molecular-Orbital and Valence-Bond Methods

    7.5 Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

    7.6 Resonance

    7.7 Resonance: Some Misconceptions and Some Guiding Principles

    8 Directed Valency

    8.1 Shapes of Molecules Formed by First-Row Elements

    8.2 The Criterion of Maximum Overlapping

    8.3 Polyatomic Molecules: VB and MO Descriptions

    8.4 Non-equivalent Orbitals

    8.5 Π Molecular Orbitals

    8.6 The Equivalent-Orbital Description

    8.7 Bond Energies

    9 Ionic, Hydrogen and Metallic Bonds

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Ionic Bonds

    9.3 Crystal Lattice Energy

    9.4 The Born-Haber Cycle

    9.5 Ionic Radii

    9.6 Ionic Structures

    9.7 Electronegativity

    9.8 The Hydrogen Bond

    9.9 Metallic Bonds

    9.10 The Molecular or van der Waals' Bond

    9.11 Bibliography

    10 The Structures of Some Simple Inorganic Compounds

    10.1 Bond Lengths

    10.2 Calculated Bond Lengths

    10.3 Stereochemistry of Compounds Formed by Main-Group Elements

    10.4 Lithium and the Alkali Metals

    10.5 Beryllium and the Alkaline Earth Metals

    10.6 Boron and the Group IIIB Elements

    10.7 Carbon and the Group IVB Elements

    10.8 Nitrogen and the Group VB Elements

    10.9 Oxygen and the Group VIB Elements

    10.10 Fluorine and the Group VIIB Elements

    10.11 Compounds of the Noble Gases

    10.12 Bonding in Xenon Compounds

    10.13 References

    11 Complex Compounds

    11.1 Introduction and Nomenclature

    11.2 Bonding in Complex Compounds

    11.3 Absorption Spectra

    11.4 Magnetic Susceptibility

    11.5 The Stability of Complex Compounds

    11.6 Distortion of Octahedral Complexes

    11.7 Co-ordination Numbers Other than 6

    11.8 Co-ordination Number 2

    11.9 Co-ordination Number 3

    11.10 Co-ordination Number 4

    11.11 Co-ordination Number 5

    11.12 Co-ordination Number 7

    11.13 Co-ordination Number 8

    11.14 Co-ordination Numbers 9, 10 and 12

    11.15 Metal-Metal Bonding: Cluster Compounds

    11.16 Carbonyls

    11.17 Cyclopentadiene Complexes

    11.18 Alkene and Alkyne Complexes

    11.19 Reactivity of Complex Compounds: Orbital Considerations

    11.20 The Stability and Reactivity of Four-Co-ordinate Complexes: The 'trans' Influence and 'trans' Effect

    11.21 References

    12 Electronic Spectra of Transition-Metal Complexes

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Electronic Spectra of d1 Ions

    12.3 Intensity of d-d Bands

    12.4 Configurations for Free Ions (dn)

    12.5 Coupling of Electron Spins

    12.6 Coupling of Orbital Angular Momenta

    12.7 Spin Multiplicity (2S + 1)

    12.8 Relationship between Terms and Microstates for the p2 Configuration

    12.9 Microstates and Terms for a d2 Configuration

    12.10 Terms for dn Configurations

    12.11 Coupling of Spin and Orbital Momenta

    12.12 Free Ions: Term Energies

    12.13 Spectra of Complex Ions

    12.14 Weak-Field Method

    12.15 Spectra of Octahedral d2 Complexes (e.g. [VL6]3+): The Weak-Field Approach

    12.16 Orgel Diagrams

    12.17 Strong-Field Method (For Octahedral Fields)

    12.18 Correlation of Weak-Field and Strong-Field Levels

    12.19 Other Tanabe-Sugano Diagrams

    12.20 References

    13 Electron-Deficient Molecules

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 The Structure and Bonding of Diborane

    13.3 The Structures of the Higher Hydrides of Boron

    13.4 The Structures of the Borohydrides (Tetrahydroborates)

    13.5 The Metal Alkyls

    13.6 References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 352
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1977
  • Published: August 11, 1977
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140605

About the Authors

E. Cartmell

G. W. A. Fowles

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