Vaccines - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750692656, 9781483165172

Vaccines

1st Edition

New Approaches to Immunological Problems

Editors: Ronald W. Ellis
eBook ISBN: 9781483165172
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 11th December 1991
Page Count: 496
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Description

Vaccines: New Approaches to Immunological Problems presents the advances in the range of strategies and approaches for producing vaccines. The book is comprised of 20 chapters that cover the properties of different vaccines. The coverage of the text includes vaccines for cholera, malaria, helminth, and influenza. The book also discusses topics about the key elements of modern technologies that can be applied to different vaccines, such as active immunization strategies using anti-idiotypic antibodies; passive immunoprophylaxis with human monoclonal antibodies; and immunological adjuvants and their mode of action. The text will be of great use to scientists involved in the research and development of vaccines, such as molecular biologists, biochemists, and virologists.

Table of Contents


1. Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccines

1.1 The Four Hib Conjugate Vaccines

1.2 Antibody Assays

1.3 Preclinical Immunogenicity

1.4 Clinical Studies

1.5 Future Directions

References

2. Recent Advances in the Development of Pertussis Vaccines

2.1 Bordetella pertussis Toxins as Vaccine Candidates

2.2 Surface Proteins of B. pertussis as Vaccine Candidates

2.3 Clinical Studies of a Cellular Pertussis Vaccines

2.4 Future Directions

References

3. Cholera Vaccines

3.1 Immunology of Cholera

3.2 Cholera Vaccine Development Using Older Technologies

3.3 Novel Technological Approaches

3.4 Summary

References

4. Malaria Vaccines

4.1 The Life Cycle

4.2 Sporozoite and Liver Stage Vaccines

4.3 Transmission-Blocking Vaccines

4.4 Asexual Erythrocytic Stage Vaccines

4.5 Future Directions

References

5. Helminth Vaccines

5.1 Vaccines for Human Helminths—The Problems

5.2 Schistosomiasis

5.3 Filariasis

5.4 Concluding Comments

References

6. Influenza Vaccines

6.1 Immunology of Influenza Virus Infections

6.2 Pathogenesis of Influenza Virus Infection

6.3 Limitations of Current Vaccines

6.4 Approaches for Developing Live Attenuated Virus Vaccines

6.5 Preclinical and Clinical Results of Evaluations of Cold-Adapted Influenza Vaccines

6.6 Future Directions

References

7. Approaches to Immunization against Respiratory Syncytial Virus

7.1 Statement of the Problem

7.2 Molecular Biology of RS Virus

7.3 Subgroups

7.4 Goals of Vaccine Development

7.5 Animal Models of RS Virus Disease

7.6 Previous Vaccine Attempts

7.7 Assessing the Role of Individual Proteins in Protection: Humoral Responses

7.8 The Role of T Cells: Assessing the Role of Individual Proteins

7.9 The Choice of Antigens for an RS Virus Vaccine

7.10 Future Directions

References

8. Hepatitis B Vaccines: Blueprints for Vaccines of the Future

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Lessons Learned from the Licensed Vaccines

8.3 Potential Future Vaccines

8.4 PreS-Containing Vaccines

8.5 Synthetic Vaccines

8.6 Fusion Vaccines

8.7 Mixed Particle Vaccines

8.8 Combination Vaccines

8.9 Conclusions

References

9. Poliovirus Vaccines

9.1 Pathogenesis of Poliovirus Infection

9.2 Existing Poliovaccines: IPV and OPV

9.3 Rational Design of New Poliovirus Vaccines

9.4 Future Directions

References

10. Herpes Simplex Vaccines

10.1 History of HSV Infection

10.2 Infectious Agent of Herpes Simplex

10.3 Host-Virus Interactions

10.4 Relevant Animal Models for HSV Vaccine Development

10.5 Host Immunological Response

10.6 Evaluation of Human HSV Vaccines: The Problem

10.7 Human HSV Vaccine Development

10.8 Conclusion

References

11. Rotavirus Vaccines

11.1 The Potential Impact of a Rotavirus Vaccine

11.2 Aspects of Rotavirus Biology Relevant to Vaccine Development

11.3 Current Strategies for Rotavirus Vaccination

11.4 Alternative Approaches to Developing Rotavirus Vaccines

11.5 What Has Been Learned from Vaccine Trials?

11.6 Practical Issues Relevant to the Administration of Rotavirus Vaccines

References

12. New Approaches to Flavivirus Vaccine Development

12.1 Medically Important Flaviviruses

12.2 Flavivirus Molecular Biology

12.3 Flavivirus Proteins that Subserve Protection

12.4 Recombinant Flavivirus Proteins as Candidate Vaccines

12.5 Future Directions

References

13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus

13.1 AIDS Epidemiology

13.2 HIV-1 Biology

13.3 Anti-HIV-1 Immune Responses

13.4 HIV-1 Vaccines: Basic Studies

13.5 HIV-1 Vaccines: Clinical Studies

13.6 Basic Vaccine Studies with the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

13.7 Summary and Conclusions

References

14. Recent Advances in Antitumor Vaccines

14.1 Immunological Basis for Antitumor Vaccines

14.2 Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Approach

14.3 Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies as Tumor Vaccines

References

15. Vaccinia Virus Vectors

15.1 Vaccinia Virus Replication Cycle

15.2 Construction of Recombinant Viruses

15.3 Expression of Foreign Genes

15.4 Determination of the Targets of Humoral Immunity

15.5 Determination of the Targets of Cell-Mediated Immunity

15.6 Protection against Experimental Virus Infections

15.7 Safety and Potential Problems

15.8 Current Status of Vaccinia Virus Vectors as Candidate Live Vaccines

15.9 Future Prospects

References

16. Adenovirus-Based Expression Vectors and Recombinant Vaccines

16.1 Molecular Biology of Adenoviruses

16.2 Sites Available for Insertion into the Adeno virus Genome

16.3 Methodology

16.4 Human Adeno virus Expression Vectors

16.5 Gene Transfer Using Adenovirus Vectors

16.6 Adenoviruses as Recombinant Vaccines: Advantages and Disadvantages

16.7 Replication of Human Adenoviruses in Other Animal Species

16.8 Immunization and Protection of Animals with Human Adenovirus Vectors

16.9 Conclusions

References

17. Active Immunization Strategies Using Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies

17.1 Historical Perspectives of the Id Network

17.2 Classification of Anti-Id

17.3 Idiotype Cascades and Active Immunization Principles

17.4 Concluding Remarks

References

18. Passive Immunoprophylaxis with Human Monoclonal Antibodies

18.1 Strategies for the Production of Human MAbs

18.2 Activities of Human MAbs for Host Defense

18.3 Conclusion

References

19. Immunological Adjuvants and Their Mode of Action

19.1 Affinities and Isotypes of Antibodies

19.2 Cell-Mediated Immunity

19.3 Undesirable Effects of Adjuvants

19.4 Mineral Oil Emulsions

19.5 Aluminum Salts

19.6 Saponin and ISCOMs

19.7 Muramyl Dipeptide and Analogs

19.8 Lipopolysaccharide and Monophosphoryl Lipid A

19.9 How Adjuvants Exert Their Effects

19.10 Selection by Adjuvants for the Production of Antibodies of High Affinity and Protective Isotypes

19.11 Role of Cytokines in Isotype Selection

19.12 Use of Adjuvants in Vaccines

19.13 Prospects

References

20. Synthetic Peptides as Vaccines

20.1 Immunogenicity of Peptides

20.2 Humoral Responses Elicited by Peptide Immunogens

20.3 Cellular Responses Elicited by Peptides

20.4 MHC-Peptide Interactions

20.5 Introduction of T-Cell Responses

20.6 Summary

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
496
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1992
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483165172

About the Editor

Ronald W. Ellis

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Vice President