This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution.


For academic institutions, battery recycling industries, governmental agencies, battery producers. This book will also be of interest to environment protection institutions and companies dealing with recycled chemicals.

Table of Contents

Chapter headings. Selected papers. Environmental and Human Health Impact Assessments of Battery Systems (H. Morrow). Abstract. Battery raw materials production. Disposal of spent batteries. Cycle life analysis of battery systems. Portable Rechargeable Batteries in Europe: Sales, Uses, Hoarding, Collection and Recycling (J.-P. Wiaux). Batteries in municipal solid waste (MSW). Collection of spent rechargeable batteries. Collection efficiency and recycling rate. Battery Collection and Recycling in Japan (K. Fujimoto). Treatment of spent primary dry cells. Recycling of spent lead-acid batteries. Ni-Cd Battery Collection and Recycling Programs in the U.S.A and Canada (N. England et al.). The environmental issues. The NiCd battery recycling problem. Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ni-Cd Batteries (N. England). The nature and implications of rechargeable Ni-Cd battery distribution. The RBRC Program - Canada and the U.S. Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Metal Hybride Battery Treatments (J. David). Treatment of nickel cadmium batteries. 1) Types of process. 2) Specific processes for the treatment of nickel cadmium batteries. Today's battery recycling companies. 1) Europe. 2) U.S.A. 3) Korea. 4) Japan. Primary Battery Recycling in Europe (N. Watson). Battery definition. Battery collection. Battery recycling. Lead-Acid Batteries (A. Pescetelli et al.). The environmental and health impact. Economical aspects. Lead accumulator structure. Recycling the Lithium Battery (D.G. Miller, W. McLaughlin). Environmental concerns of recycling lithium batteries. Lithium battery recycling technologies.


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© 2001
Elsevier Science
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