Untangling Smart Cities - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128154779, 9780128154786

Untangling Smart Cities

1st Edition

From Utopian Dreams to Innovation Systems for a Technology-Enabled Urban Sustainability

Authors: Luca Mora Mark Deakin
Paperback ISBN: 9780128154779
eBook ISBN: 9780128154786
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 4th July 2019
Page Count: 414
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Untangling Smart Cities: From Utopian Dreams to Innovation Systems for a Technology-Enabled Urban Sustainability helps all key stakeholders understand the complex and often conflicting nature of smart city research, offering valuable insights for designing and implementing strategies to improve the smart city decision-making processes. The book drives the reader to a better theoretical and practical comprehension of smart city development, beginning with a thorough and systematic analysis of the research literature published to date. It addition, it provides an in-depth understanding of the entire smart city knowledge domain, revealing a deeply rooted division in its cognitive-epistemological structure as identified by bibliometric insights.

Users will find a book that fills the knowledge gap between theory and practice using case study research and empirical evidence drawn from cities considered leaders in innovative smart city practices.

Key Features

  • Provides clarity on smart city concepts and strategies
  • Presents a systematic literature analysis on the state-of-the-art of smart cities' research using bibliometrics combined with practical applications
  • Offers a comprehensive and systematic analysis of smart cities research produced during its first three decades
  • Generates a strong connection between theory and practice by providing the scientific knowledge necessary to approach the complex nature of smart cities
  • Documents five main development pathways for smart cities development, serving the needs of city managers and policymakers with concrete advice and guidance


Smart City researchers and graduate students from sustainability, transport, energy, environmental science, engineering, economics, public health, behavior, and urban planning departments; Smart City planners and engineers involved with research, consultancy, funding, and distribution of services, products, and technologies; City policy makers in government and development agencies

Table of Contents

Preface: The landscape of smart cities ix

1 Moving beyond the smart city utopia

1.1 Utopian urbanism 1

1.2 Smart cities and the new utopia 7

1.3 Making sense of smart cities: Aim and structure of this book 9 References 13

2 Smart city development as an ICT-driven approach to urban sustainability

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Cities in the digital era: Emerging technological trends 22

2.2.1 Faster, cheaper, smaller: The evolutionary process in the ICT sector 24

2.2.2 Intangible: The virtual image of cities 26

2.2.3 Everywhere: Mobility, ubiquity, and the Internet of Things 29

2.2.4 Volume, velocity, and variety: Data production in the digital era 32

2.3 Smart stories: Deploying ICT to boost urban sustainability 33

2.3.1 Facilitating the sustainable management of natural resources 35

2.3.2 Ensuring equal access to basic services and infrastructures 39

2.3.3 Improving food security 40

2.3.4 Promoting environmentally sound waste management and reducing waste generation 40

2.3.5 Improving the resilience of cities to natural disasters 41 2.4 The smart city movement is worldwide 42 References 46

3 The first two decades of research on smart city development

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Bibliometrics and the analysis of knowledge domains 60

3.3 The first two decades of smart-city research 64

3.3.1 New and fast-growing 64 3.3.2 Lack of cohesion 65

3.3.3 Divergent roots 660

3.3.4 Two leading knowledge hubs 70

3.4 A promising but divided research field 78

3.5 The need to act in concert 79 References 80

4 Revealing the main development paths of smart cities

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Hybrid techniques for thematic cluster analysis 90

4.3 Research methodology and results of the data processing phase 93

4.4 Multiple smart city development paths 99

4.4.1 Experimental path (C.02): Smart cities as testbeds for IoT solutions 100

4.4.2 Ubiquitous path (C.05): The Korean experience of ubiquitous cities 103

4.4.3 Corporate path (C.08): IBM and the corporate smart city model 105

4.4.4 European path (C.14): Smart city for a low-carbon economy 106

4.4.5 Holistic path (C.17): Digital, intelligent, smart 108

4.5 The dichotomous nature of smart city research 110

4.5.1 Dichotomy 1: Technology-led or holistic? 111

4.5.2 Dichotomy 2: Top-down or bottom-up? 118

4.5.3 Dichotomy 3: Double or quadruple-helix? 119

4.5.4 Dichotomy 4: Monodimensional or integrated? 120 References 121

5 Smart city development in Europe

5.1 Introduction 135

5.2 Hypothesis testing with case study research: Phase 1 137

5.3 A multiple case study analysis into European best practices 144

5.3.1 Dichotomy 1: Technology-led or holistic strategy 144

5.3.2 Dichotomy 2: Double- or quadruple-helix model of collaboration 147

5.3.3 Dichotomy 3: Top-down or bottom-up approach 150

5.3.4 Dichotomy 4: Monodimensional or integrated intervention logic 152

5.4 Strategic principles for smart city development: Lessons from Europe 153

5.4.1 Strategic principle 1: Look beyond technology 156

5.4.2 Strategic principle 2: Move toward a quadruple-helix collaborative model 156

5.4.3 Strategic principle 3: Combine top-down (government-led) and bottom-up (community-driven) 157

5.4.4 Strategic principle 4: Build a strategic framework 159

5.4.5 Strategic principle 5: Boost the digital transformation by establishing a smart city accelerator 159

5.4.6 Strategic principle 6: Adopt an integrated intervention logic 160

5.5 Toward a smart-city knowledge platform 161 References 162

6 Smart city development in North America

6.1 The architecture of smart cities 171

6.2 Hypothesis testing with case study research: Phase 2 174

6.3 Smart city development in New York City 184

6.3.1 Building Block A: Collaborative environment 188

6.3.2 Building Block B: Strategic framework 196

6.3.3 Building Block C: Network infrastructure 202

6.3.4 Building Block D: ICT services and applications 205

6.4 Extending the generalization 206 6.4.1 Philadelphia, Quebec City, Mexico City and Seattle 207

6.4.2 Camden 208 6.4.3 Kansas City 209 References 209

7 The social shaping of smart cities

7.1 Smart cities and the dynamics of expectations 215

7.2 Separating the hype from reality: Key lessons and recommendations 218

7.2.1 Reframing smart city research 218

7.2.2 Smart cities as complex adaptive systems for urban innovation 221

7.2.3 Strategizing and operationalizing the smart city 224 References 228

Appendix A 235 Appendix B 263 Appendix C 267 Appendix D 373 Index 399


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© Elsevier 2019
4th July 2019
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About the Author

Luca Mora

Luca Mora is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Smart Cities at Edinburgh Napier University. Luca’s research includes ICT-driven urban development, urban and regional innovation, and smart cities innovation and strategic planning. He is the Principal Investigator for the Roadmap for European Smart City research project.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lecturer in Urban Innovation Dynamics, The Business School, Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland, United Kingdom

Mark Deakin

Mark Deakin is Professor of Built Environment in the School of Engineering and Head of the Centre for Smart Cities at Edinburgh Napier University. He’s directed Smart Cities and urban sustainable development research projects for the European Commission and UK, is the author of 12 books on Smart Cities, Sustainable Urban Development, and Urban Technology Management, editor of seven special journal issues on smart and sustainable community management and development, is an expert advisor to the European Investment Bank on smart and sustainable city development, and an Editorial Board Member of six academic journals, including Elsevier’s Journal of Sustainable Cities and Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Built Environment, School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland, United Kingdom

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