Unit Operations in Cane Sugar Production

Unit Operations in Cane Sugar Production

1st Edition - August 1, 1982

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  • Author: J.H. Payne
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289755

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Description

An indispensable, practical guide for everyone involved in the processing of sugar cane. Confined to essentials, the book is a compact and concise delineation of the unit processes in the manufacture of raw sugar from sugar cane, giving recommended procedures for achieving optimum results.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 1. Factory Control

    Procedures

    Schedule for Measuring, Sampling and Analysis

    Daily Report Form

    Weekly Report Form

    Recovery and Loss Form

    Chapter 2. Cane Cleaning

    Thinning

    Rock, Gravel and Sand Removal

    Schematic Diagram

    Washing

    Fibrous Trash Removal

    Operation

    Cane Salvager

    Efficiency of Cleaning

    Water Reuse

    Waste Disposal

    Losses

    References

    Chapter 3. Milling

    Cane Preparation

    Two-Roll Crushers

    Mills

    Feeding Devices

    Overfeed Roll

    Underfeed Roll

    Pressure Feeder

    Two-Roll Feeder

    Grooving

    Circumferential Grooves

    Juice (Messchaert) Grooves

    Chevron Grooves

    Operation

    Mill Settings

    Maceration

    Hydraulic Loading

    Speed

    General Effects

    Control

    Juice Density Curves

    Mill Juice Curve, Graph

    References

    Chapter 4. Diffusion

    Introduction

    Cane Preparation

    Juice Displacement

    Silver Ring Diffuser

    Diagram, Silver Ring Diffuser

    Diffuser Gradients, Graph

    Bagasse Dewatering

    Press Juice Treatment

    Press Juice Percolation, Graph

    Operation

    Permeability Bed Depth and Diffuser Speed

    Diffuser Flow Balance, Graph

    Cell Rupture

    Draft and Dilution

    Press Return

    Juice Flow Percent Fiber, Diagram

    Temperature

    Bagasse Dewatering

    Diffuser Flooding

    Control

    References

    Chapter 5. Bagasse Moisture

    Effect on Extraction

    Effect on Fuel Value

    Chapter 6. The Impact of Extraneous Matter on Milling and Diffusion

    Milling

    Diffusion

    Chapter 7. A Comparison of Diffusion and Milling with Respect to Recovery and Losses

    Chapter 8. Clarification

    Polyelectrolytes

    Magnesium Oxide

    Phosphatation

    Sulfitation

    Juice Heaters

    Rotary Vacuum Filters

    Bagasse Fines

    Filter Station, Diagram

    Operating Action Diagram

    Mixing Fines with Settlings

    Pickup Vacuum

    Wash Vacuum

    Washing

    Speed

    Cake Pol

    Cake Quantity

    Clarifiers

    Flashing

    Settling Space

    Operation of Multi-Compartment Clarifiers

    Holdover Juice

    Clarified Juice Screening

    References

    Chapter 9. Evaporation

    Multiple Effects

    Vapor Bleeding

    Capacity

    Operation

    Automatic Control

    Condenser and Vacuum System

    Condensate Removal

    Noncondensible Gas

    Scaling

    Entrainment

    Malfunctions

    Evaporator Calculations

    References

    Chapter 10 Commercial Sugar Crystallization

    Vacuum Pan Crystallization

    A-Massecuite

    Purity Refractometer Solids Saturation Diagram

    Purity Refractometer Solids 1.2 Supersaturation Diagram

    Purity Refractometer Solids Boiling Point, 1.3 Supersaturation, Nomograph

    B-Massecuite

    Crystal Content and Pan Drops

    Vacuum Pan Design

    Procedures

    Quantity of Massecuites

    References

    Chapter 11. Low Grade Sugar Crystallization

    Crystallization by Cooling

    Viscosity-Temperature Relations, Saturated Molasses, Graph

    Crystallizer Design

    Operation

    Continuous Crystallizer Flow Diagram

    Vacuum Pan Crystallization

    Molasses Refractometer Solids at 1.2 Supersaturation Table

    Vacuum Pan Design

    Procedures

    References

    Chapter 12. Generalizations and Data on Sucrose Crystallization

    Generalizations

    Temperature

    Supersaturation

    Viscosity

    Purity

    Recirculation of Final Molasses

    Low Grade Seeding

    Seedslurry

    Crystal Yield

    Exhaustion

    Data

    Single Crystal Measurements

    Crystal Growth Rate, Table

    Effect of Purity on Crystallization Rate, Figure

    Variables Governing Molasses Exhaustion, Figure

    3-Massecuite, 1-High Pol Sugar Boiling System, Figure

    References

    Chapter 13. Centrifugation

    Batch Machines

    Commercial Sugar

    Low Grade Sugar

    Continuous Machines

    Commercial Sugar

    Low Grade Sugar

    Operation

    Batch Machines, Commercial Sugar

    Batch Machines, Low Grade Sugar

    Continuous Machines, Low Grade Sugar

    Chapter 14. Final Molasses

    References

    Chapter 15. Recovery Factors

    96 DA Sugar Recovery % Pol in Syrup, Table

    Molasses % Pol in Syrup, Table

    Molasses % 96 DA Sugar, Table

    Chapter 16. Sugar Quality

    Pol

    Crystal Size and Uniformity

    Color

    Crystal

    Whole Sugar

    Filterability

    Moisture

    Ash

    Chapter 17. Sugar and Molasses Handling

    Sugar

    Molasses

    Chapter 18. Steam Generation

    Boiler Design

    Control

    Boiler Efficiency

    Boiler Water

    Boiler Water Treatment

    Operation

    Bagasse

    Air Supply

    Boiler Water

    Oil Firing

    Stack Emission

    Bagasse Drying

    Fibrous Trash Fuel

    References

    Chapter 19. Use of Steam

    Steam Pressures

    Steam Balance

    Process Steam Requirements

    Evaporation

    Juice Heating

    Sugar Boiling

    Total Process Steam Required

    Power Relations of Steam

    Operation

    References

    Chapter 20. Instrumentation

    Indicating Instruments

    Temperature

    Pressure

    Flow

    Level

    Specific Purpose Instruments

    Controllers

    Operation

    Chapter 21. Equipment Maintenance

    Guidelines for Maintenance Scheduling

    Conveyors

    Knives

    Shredder

    Mills

    Diffuser System

    Boilers

    Turbines

    Generators

    Electric Motors

    Gear Reducers

    Scales

    Heaters

    Clarifiers

    Filters

    Pans

    Centrifugals

    Crystallizers

    Pumps

    Tanks

    Piping

    Valves

    Fans

    Instruments

    Chapter 22. General Rules of Thumb for Appraising Factory Operations and Operational Targets

    General Rules of Thumb for Appraising Factory Operations

    Cane

    Tops

    Fibrous Trash

    Bagasse

    Mixed Juice

    Filter Cake

    Syrup

    Massecuites

    Low Grade Sugar

    Sugar

    Final Molasses

    Operational Targets

    Cane Preparation

    Imbibition

    Bagasse

    Last Expressed Juice

    Filter Cake

    Syrup

    Massecuites

    Sugar

    Final Molasses

    Undetermined Loss

    Chapter 23. Cane

    Structure

    Cross Section Drawing

    Juice

    Fiber

    Varieties

    References

    Chapter 24. Regional Variations in Sugar Cane Processing

    Control

    Milling

    Diffusion

    Clarification

    Sugar Boiling

    Steam Generation and Utilization

    Manpower

    Chapter 25. Engineering Specifications

    Vessels

    Non-Pressure Tanks

    Pressure Vessels

    Juice Heaters

    Evaporators

    Vacuum Pans

    Piping

    Valves

    Gate Valves

    Butterfly Valves

    Diaphragm Valves

    Globe Valves

    Check Valves

    Pressure Reducing Valves

    Control Valves

    Pumps

    Electrical

    Motors

    Low Voltage Switchgear

    Gears

    Turbines

    Boilers

    Selected Reference Books for the Technologist

    Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1982
  • Published: August 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289755

About the Author

J.H. Payne

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