Unit Operations in Cane Sugar Production - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444421043, 9781483289755

Unit Operations in Cane Sugar Production, Volume 4

1st Edition

Authors: J.H. Payne
eBook ISBN: 9781483289755
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st August 1982
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Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Factory Control

Procedures

Schedule for Measuring, Sampling and Analysis

Daily Report Form

Weekly Report Form

Recovery and Loss Form

Chapter 2. Cane Cleaning

Thinning

Rock, Gravel and Sand Removal

Schematic Diagram

Washing

Fibrous Trash Removal

Operation

Cane Salvager

Efficiency of Cleaning

Water Reuse

Waste Disposal

Losses

References

Chapter 3. Milling

Cane Preparation

Two-Roll Crushers

Mills

Feeding Devices

Overfeed Roll

Underfeed Roll

Pressure Feeder

Two-Roll Feeder

Grooving

Circumferential Grooves

Juice (Messchaert) Grooves

Chevron Grooves

Operation

Mill Settings

Maceration

Hydraulic Loading

Speed

General Effects

Control

Juice Density Curves

Mill Juice Curve, Graph

References

Chapter 4. Diffusion

Introduction

Cane Preparation

Juice Displacement

Silver Ring Diffuser

Diagram, Silver Ring Diffuser

Diffuser Gradients, Graph

Bagasse Dewatering

Press Juice Treatment

Press Juice Percolation, Graph

Operation

Permeability Bed Depth and Diffuser Speed

Diffuser Flow Balance, Graph

Cell Rupture

Draft and Dilution

Press Return

Juice Flow Percent Fiber, Diagram

Temperature

Bagasse Dewatering

Diffuser Flooding

Control

References

Chapter 5. Bagasse Moisture

Effect on Extraction

Effect on Fuel Value

Chapter 6. The Impact of Extraneous Matter on Milling and Diffusion

Milling

Diffusion

Chapter 7. A Comparison of Diffusion and Milling with Respect to Recovery and Losses

Chapter 8. Clarification

Polyelectrolytes

Magnesium Oxide

Phosphatation

Sulfitation

Juice Heaters

Rotary Vacuum Filters

Bagasse Fines

Filter Station, Diagram

Operating Action Diagram

Mixing Fines with Settlings

Pickup Vacuum

Wash Vacuum

Washing

Speed

Cake Pol

Cake Quantity

Clarifiers

Flashing

Settling Space

Operation of Multi-Compartment Clarifiers

Holdover Juice

Clarified Juice Screening

References

Chapter 9. Evaporation

Multiple Effects

Vapor Bleeding

Capacity

Operation

Automatic Control

Condenser and Vacuum System

Condensate Removal

Noncondensible Gas

Scaling

Entrainment

Malfunctions

Evaporator Calculations

References

Chapter 10 Commercial Sugar Crystallization

Vacuum Pan Crystallization

A-Massecuite

Purity Refractometer Solids Saturation Diagram

Purity Refractometer Solids 1.2 Supersaturation Diagram

Purity Refractometer Solids Boiling Point, 1.3 Supersaturation, Nomograph

B-Massecuite

Crystal Content and Pan Drops

Vacuum Pan Design

Procedures

Quantity of Massecuites

References

Chapter 11. Low Grade Sugar Crystallization

Crystallization by Cooling

Viscosity-Temperature Relations, Saturated Molasses, Graph

Crystallizer Design

Operation

Continuous Crystallizer Flow Diagram

Vacuum Pan Crystallization

Molasses Refractometer Solids at 1.2 Supersaturation Table

Vacuum Pan Design

Procedures

References

Chapter 12. Generalizations and Data on Sucrose Crystallization

Generalizations

Temperature

Supersaturation

Viscosity

Purity

Recirculation of Final Molasses

Low Grade Seeding

Seedslurry

Crystal Yield

Exhaustion

Data

Single Crystal Measurements

Crystal Growth Rate, Table

Effect of Purity on Crystallization Rate, Figure

Variables Governing Molasses Exhaustion, Figure

3-Massecuite, 1-High Pol Sugar Boiling System, Figure

References

Chapter 13. Centrifugation

Batch Machines

Commercial Sugar

Low Grade Sugar

Continuous Machines

Commercial Sugar

Low Grade Sugar

Operation

Batch Machines, Commercial Sugar

Batch Machines, Low Grade Sugar

Continuous Machines, Low Grade Sugar

Chapter 14. Final Molasses

References

Chapter 15. Recovery Factors

96 DA Sugar Recovery % Pol in Syrup, Table

Molasses % Pol in Syrup, Table

Molasses % 96 DA Sugar, Table

Chapter 16. Sugar Quality

Pol

Crystal Size and Uniformity

Color

Crystal

Whole Sugar

Filterability

Moisture

Ash

Chapter 17. Sugar and Molasses Handling

Sugar

Molasses

Chapter 18. Steam Generation

Boiler Design

Control

Boiler Efficiency

Boiler Water

Boiler Water Treatment

Operation

Bagasse

Air Supply

Boiler Water

Oil Firing

Stack Emission

Bagasse Drying

Fibrous Trash Fuel

References

Chapter 19. Use of Steam

Steam Pressures

Steam Balance

Process Steam Requirements

Evaporation

Juice Heating

Sugar Boiling

Total Process Steam Required

Power Relations of Steam

Operation

References

Chapter 20. Instrumentation

Indicating Instruments

Temperature

Pressure

Flow

Level

Specific Purpose Instruments

Controllers

Operation

Chapter 21. Equipment Maintenance

Guidelines for Maintenance Scheduling

Conveyors

Knives

Shredder

Mills

Diffuser System

Boilers

Turbines

Generators

Electric Motors

Gear Reducers

Scales

Heaters

Clarifiers

Filters

Pans

Centrifugals

Crystallizers

Pumps

Tanks

Piping

Valves

Fans

Instruments

Chapter 22. General Rules of Thumb for Appraising Factory Operations and Operational Targets

General Rules of Thumb for Appraising Factory Operations

Cane

Tops

Fibrous Trash

Bagasse

Mixed Juice

Filter Cake

Syrup

Massecuites

Low Grade Sugar

Sugar

Final Molasses

Operational Targets

Cane Preparation

Imbibition

Bagasse

Last Expressed Juice

Filter Cake

Syrup

Massecuites

Sugar

Final Molasses

Undetermined Loss

Chapter 23. Cane

Structure

Cross Section Drawing

Juice

Fiber

Varieties

References

Chapter 24. Regional Variations in Sugar Cane Processing

Control

Milling

Diffusion

Clarification

Sugar Boiling

Steam Generation and Utilization

Manpower

Chapter 25. Engineering Specifications

Vessels

Non-Pressure Tanks

Pressure Vessels

Juice Heaters

Evaporators

Vacuum Pans

Piping

Valves

Gate Valves

Butterfly Valves

Diaphragm Valves

Globe Valves

Check Valves

Pressure Reducing Valves

Control Valves

Pumps

Electrical

Motors

Low Voltage Switchgear

Gears

Turbines

Boilers

Selected Reference Books for the Technologist

Index

Description

An indispensable, practical guide for everyone involved in the processing of sugar cane. Confined to essentials, the book is a compact and concise delineation of the unit processes in the manufacture of raw sugar from sugar cane, giving recommended procedures for achieving optimum results.


Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9781483289755

About the Authors

J.H. Payne Author