Underwater Physiology

Underwater Physiology

Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Underwater Physiology

1st Edition - January 1, 1971

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  • Editor: C. J. Lambertsen
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272559

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Underwater Physiology is a collection of papers that deals with the physiologically limiting effects of undersea, high pressure exposure ranging from fundamental biological reactions, through integration of physiological stresses, and to limits actually experienced in deep diving. Papers discuss oxygen, the mechanisms of toxicity, and the effects of oxygen on cells and systems such as its pathological and physiological influences in the neurosensory ocular tissue. Other papers discuss the physical effects of pressure and gases on cellular function, protein structure, and the possibility of alleviating symptoms through the administration of drugs. Tests in mice show that various gases exhibit qualitative and semi-quantitative differences in the characteristics of sickness, reactions to hypoxia, and the time before the onset of symptoms. A computer, programmed for nonlinear gas transfer and other variables, running in real time can compute directly from the breathing mixture and provide a real time solution to decompression sickness under various conditions. A combined therapeutic approach, recompression and dextran (an effective lipemic clearing agent) should be capable of treating decompression sickness in humans. Other papers investigate the influence of inert gases and pressure on the central nervous system, as well as, situations in undersea and manned chamber operations. This collection can prove valuable for physiologists, biochemists, cellular biologists, and researchers involved in deep sea diving.

Table of Contents

  • List of Authors and Panelists



    Part I Oxygen. Mechanisms of Toxicity

    The Scope of Chemical Oxygen Poisoning

    Oxygen Toxicity in Neuronal Elements

    The Intracellular Oxidation-Reduction State at High and Low Oxygen Concentrations

    Natural Resistance to Oxygen Poisoning

    Chemical Protection against Oxygen Toxicity

    Effects of Oxygen on Blood Formation and Destruction


    Part II Oxygen Effects On Cells and Systems

    Effects of Oxygen upon Ophthalmic Structures

    Acute Oxygen Toxicity in Working Man


    Part III Physical Effects of Pressure and Gases

    Hydrostatic Effects on Cellular Function

    Effects of Inert Gas Pressures on Protein Structure and Function

    Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Mammals


    Part IV Fundamentals of Inert Gas Exchange and Bubble Formation

    Concepts of Inert Gas Exchange in Tissues during Decompression

    Decompression Characteristics of Inert Gases

    Criteria for Bubble Growth

    Dissolved Gas Washout and Bubble Absorption in Routine Decompression

    Detection of Bubbles in Tissues and Blood


    Part V Factors in Decompression. The Inert Gases

    Comparative Approaches to Prophylactic Decompression

    Calibration of Inert Gas Exchange in the Mouse

    Gas Nucleation Concept Applied to Decompression

    A Pragmatic View of Decompression

    Decompression in Saturation Diving


    Part VI Factors in Decompression. The Circulation and the Circulating Blood

    Blood Agglutination in Decompression Sickness

    Circulating Lipids and Inert Gas Exchange under Hyperbaric Conditions

    Coexistence of Lipid and Gas Emboli in Experimental Decompression Sickness

    Aseptic Bone Necrosis in Royal Navy Divers


    Part VII Senses and Communication

    Vision and Visibility

    Hearing Loss in Decompression

    Vestibular Derangement in Decompression

    Speech Distortion at High Pressures


    Part VIII Respiratory Limitations of High Ambient Pressures

    Mechanical Limitations of Exercise Ventilation at Increased Ambient Pressure

    Ventilatory Limitations on Exertion at Depth

    Respiratory and Cardiac Responses to Exercise in Subjects Breathing Helium-Oxygen Mixtures at Pressures from Sea Level to 19.2 Atmospheres

    Mechanics of Breathing with Helium-Oxygen and Neon-Oxygen Mixtures in Deep Saturation Diving

    Arterial Blood Gases, Heart Rate, and Gas Exchange during Rest and Exercise in Men Saturated at a Simulated Seawater Depth of 1000 Feet

    Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Gas Exchange during Saturation-Excursion Diving to Pressures Equivalent to 1000 Feet of Seawater


    Part IX Carbon Dioxide, Exercise, and Acclimatization to Hypercarbia

    The Effects of Breathing a High Density Gas upon Carbon Dioxide Elimination

    Respiratory Gas Exchange in Animals during Exposure to Extreme Ambient Pressures

    Rate of Acclimatization to Chronic Hypercapnia in Man

    Comparison of Physiological Responses of Normal Man to Exercise in Air and in Acute and Chronic Hypercapnia


    Part X Temperature Balance in Shallow and Deep Exposures

    Heat Exchange between Man and the Water Environment

    Thermal Balance at Depth


    Part XI Influence of Inert Gases and Pressure Upon Central Nervous Functions

    Quantitation of Performance Decrements in Narcotized Man

    Psychological, Physiological, and Biophysical Studies of Narcosis

    Neuropsychological Effects of Exposure to Compressed Air

    Human Performance at Great Depths

    Experimental Studies on the High Pressure Hyperexcitability Syndrome in Various Mammalian Species

    Electrical Activity in the Central Nervous System in Extreme Narcosis


    Part XII Undersea and Manned Chamber Operations

    Performance Aspects of an Open-Sea Saturation Exposure at 615 Feet

    1000-Foot Helium Saturation Exposure

    Helium-Oxygen Saturation-Excursion Diving for U.S. Navy

    Saturation-Excursion Diving: Operation Ludion II

    Physiological Effects Observed in the Course of Simulated Deep Chamber Dives to a Maximum of 36.5 Atmospheres in a Helium-Oxygen Atmosphere

    Project Tektite: An Open-Sea Study of Prolonged Exposures to a Nitrogen-Oxygen Environment at Increased Ambient Pressure

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
  • Published: January 1, 1971
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272559

About the Editor

C. J. Lambertsen

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