Underwater Physiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124347502, 9781483272559

Underwater Physiology

1st Edition

Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Underwater Physiology

Editors: C. J. Lambertsen
eBook ISBN: 9781483272559
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 600
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Description

Underwater Physiology is a collection of papers that deals with the physiologically limiting effects of undersea, high pressure exposure ranging from fundamental biological reactions, through integration of physiological stresses, and to limits actually experienced in deep diving. Papers discuss oxygen, the mechanisms of toxicity, and the effects of oxygen on cells and systems such as its pathological and physiological influences in the neurosensory ocular tissue. Other papers discuss the physical effects of pressure and gases on cellular function, protein structure, and the possibility of alleviating symptoms through the administration of drugs. Tests in mice show that various gases exhibit qualitative and semi-quantitative differences in the characteristics of sickness, reactions to hypoxia, and the time before the onset of symptoms. A computer, programmed for nonlinear gas transfer and other variables, running in real time can compute directly from the breathing mixture and provide a real time solution to decompression sickness under various conditions. A combined therapeutic approach, recompression and dextran (an effective lipemic clearing agent) should be capable of treating decompression sickness in humans. Other papers investigate the influence of inert gases and pressure on the central nervous system, as well as, situations in undersea and manned chamber operations. This collection can prove valuable for physiologists, biochemists, cellular biologists, and researchers involved in deep sea diving.

Table of Contents


List of Authors and Panelists

Preface

Acknowledgments

Part I Oxygen. Mechanisms of Toxicity

The Scope of Chemical Oxygen Poisoning

Oxygen Toxicity in Neuronal Elements

The Intracellular Oxidation-Reduction State at High and Low Oxygen Concentrations

Natural Resistance to Oxygen Poisoning

Chemical Protection against Oxygen Toxicity

Effects of Oxygen on Blood Formation and Destruction

Discussion

Part II Oxygen Effects On Cells and Systems

Effects of Oxygen upon Ophthalmic Structures

Acute Oxygen Toxicity in Working Man

Discussion

Part III Physical Effects of Pressure and Gases

Hydrostatic Effects on Cellular Function

Effects of Inert Gas Pressures on Protein Structure and Function

Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Mammals

Discussion

Part IV Fundamentals of Inert Gas Exchange and Bubble Formation

Concepts of Inert Gas Exchange in Tissues during Decompression

Decompression Characteristics of Inert Gases

Criteria for Bubble Growth

Dissolved Gas Washout and Bubble Absorption in Routine Decompression

Detection of Bubbles in Tissues and Blood

Discussion

Part V Factors in Decompression. The Inert Gases

Comparative Approaches to Prophylactic Decompression

Calibration of Inert Gas Exchange in the Mouse

Gas Nucleation Concept Applied to Decompression

A Pragmatic View of Decompression

Decompression in Saturation Diving

Discussion

Part VI Factors in Decompression. The Circulation and the Circulating Blood

Blood Agglutination in Decompression Sickness

Circulating Lipids and Inert Gas Exchange under Hyperbaric Conditions

Coexistence of Lipid and Gas Emboli in Experimental Decompression Sickness

Aseptic Bone Necrosis in Royal Navy Divers

Discussion

Part VII Senses and Communication

Vision and Visibility

Hearing Loss in Decompression

Vestibular Derangement in Decompression

Speech Distortion at High Pressures

Discussion

Part VIII Respiratory Limitations of High Ambient Pressures

Mechanical Limitations of Exercise Ventilation at Increased Ambient Pressure

Ventilatory Limitations on Exertion at Depth

Respiratory and Cardiac Responses to Exercise in Subjects Breathing Helium-Oxygen Mixtures at Pressures from Sea Level to 19.2 Atmospheres

Mechanics of Breathing with Helium-Oxygen and Neon-Oxygen Mixtures in Deep Saturation Diving

Arterial Blood Gases, Heart Rate, and Gas Exchange during Rest and Exercise in Men Saturated at a Simulated Seawater Depth of 1000 Feet

Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Gas Exchange during Saturation-Excursion Diving to Pressures Equivalent to 1000 Feet of Seawater

Discussion

Part IX Carbon Dioxide, Exercise, and Acclimatization to Hypercarbia

The Effects of Breathing a High Density Gas upon Carbon Dioxide Elimination

Respiratory Gas Exchange in Animals during Exposure to Extreme Ambient Pressures

Rate of Acclimatization to Chronic Hypercapnia in Man

Comparison of Physiological Responses of Normal Man to Exercise in Air and in Acute and Chronic Hypercapnia

Discussion

Part X Temperature Balance in Shallow and Deep Exposures

Heat Exchange between Man and the Water Environment

Thermal Balance at Depth

Discussion

Part XI Influence of Inert Gases and Pressure Upon Central Nervous Functions

Quantitation of Performance Decrements in Narcotized Man

Psychological, Physiological, and Biophysical Studies of Narcosis

Neuropsychological Effects of Exposure to Compressed Air

Human Performance at Great Depths

Experimental Studies on the High Pressure Hyperexcitability Syndrome in Various Mammalian Species

Electrical Activity in the Central Nervous System in Extreme Narcosis

Discussion

Part XII Undersea and Manned Chamber Operations

Performance Aspects of an Open-Sea Saturation Exposure at 615 Feet

1000-Foot Helium Saturation Exposure

Helium-Oxygen Saturation-Excursion Diving for U.S. Navy

Saturation-Excursion Diving: Operation Ludion II

Physiological Effects Observed in the Course of Simulated Deep Chamber Dives to a Maximum of 36.5 Atmospheres in a Helium-Oxygen Atmosphere

Project Tektite: An Open-Sea Study of Prolonged Exposures to a Nitrogen-Oxygen Environment at Increased Ambient Pressure

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
600
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1971
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483272559

About the Editor

C. J. Lambertsen