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Understanding Insulin and Insulin Resistance - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128202340

Understanding Insulin and Insulin Resistance

1st Edition

Editor: Anil Gupta
Paperback ISBN: 9780128202340
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st August 2021
Page Count: 300
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Understanding Insulin and Insulin Resistance is written in simple, clear language with diagrams that show the complex interplay of various factors in the initiation of insulin resistance. The design is systematic and meticulous, portraying topics in a flow from simple to complex. This resource is intended for a broad audience spanning across biochemistry, medicine, dentistry, academia, physicians, and research scholars. It extends the approach to biochemistry, physiology, metabolism of insulin along with the coverage of pathophysiology of insulin resistance, its effects on the body tissues, and its analysis on insulin resistance syndrome.

Key Features

  • Combines both intensive and extensive study material related to the topic
  • Describes insulin resistance syndrome encompassing details regarding its prevalence and components
  • Blends both theoretical and clinical knowledge related to insulin and insulin resistance syndrome
  • Gathers the vast knowledge about insulin and insulin resistance in one volume, eliminating searches through hundreds of journal articles


A broad audience, spanning across biochemistry, medicine, dentistry, academia, and research scholars

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Discovery of Insulin
1.1 Work of Paul Langerhans
1.2 Work of Oscar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering
1.3 Work of Nicolas C. Paulescu
1.4 Work of Banting, Best, and McLeod
1.5 Role of American Physiological Association

Chapter 2
2.1 Structure of Insulin
 Structure of polypeptide chains
 Disulfide bonds
 Variation in structure of human, pig, bovine, and sheep insulin molecules
2.2 Properties of Insulin
2.2.1 Properties of Insulin as Substance
2.2.2 Properties of Insulin Formulations
 Neutral insulin BP
 Insulin Zinc Suspension BP
 Insulin Zinc Suspension BP (Amorphous)
 Insulin Zinc Suspension BP (Crystalline)
 Biphasic Insulin BP
 Global Zinc Insulin BP
 Isophane Insulin
 Protamine Zinc Insulin

Chapter 3 Biosynthesis of Insulin
3.1 Synthesis of Preproinsulin
3.2 Maturation of Proinsulin
3.3 Post-transcriptional modifications of Insulin
3.4 Regulation of Insulin Transcription
 A element
 C elements
 C2 elements
 E element
 Z element
3.5 Regulation of Insulin Translation

Chapter 4  Mechanism of Insulin Secretion
Regulation of Secretion of Insulin
4.1 Glucose and secretion of insulin
4.2 Amino acids and secretion of insulin
4.3 Fatty acids and secretion of insulin
4.4 Hormones and secretion of insulin
 Melatonin
 Estrogen
 GLP 1
 Leptin
 Growth hormone
4.5 Adrenergic transmission and secretion of insulin
4.6 Cholinergic transmission and secretion of insulin

Chapter 5 Mechanism of Action of Insulin
5.1 Tyrosine kinase receptor
5.2 Binding of insulin and effects
5.3 Glucose Transporters
 GLUT 1
 GLUT 2
 GLUT 3
 GLUT 4

Chapter 6 Actions of Insulin
6.1 Effect on Carbohydrate metabolism
6.2 Effect on Protein metabolism
6.3 Effect on Lipid metabolism

Chapter 7 Insulin Resistance
7.1 Prevalence of Insulin resistance
7.2 Predisposing factors
7.2.1 Genetic factors
 Mutation of insulin receptor (Donohue syndrome)
 Mutation of LMNA protein ( familial Partial Lipodystrophy)
7.2.2 Demographic factors
 Age
 Sedentary life style
 Socio-economic status
 Diet
7.2.3 Diseases
 Obesity
 Metabolic syndrome
 Hypertension
 Hemochromatosis
 Polycystic ovary syndrome
 Cushing syndrome
 Autoimmunity (anti-insulin receptor antibodies, anti-insulin antibodies)
7.3 Pathogenesis of Insulin resistance
7.3.1 Obesity and insulin resistance
7.3.2 Diabetes mellitus and Insulin resistance
7.3.3 Inflammation and Insulin resistance
7.3.4 Cellular stress and Insulin resistance
7.3.5 Mitochondrial dysfunction and Insulin resistance
7.3.6 Metabolic syndrome and Insulin resistance

Chapter 8 Effects of Insulin resistance on Organs
8.1 Skeletal tissues
8.2 Liver
8.3 Adipose tissues
8.4 Vasculature and Endothelium
8.5 Brain tissues
8.6 Kidneys
8.7 Bone
8.8. Gonads

Chapter 9 Measurement of Insulin resistance
9.1 Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp
9.2 Modified insulin suppression test
9.3 Homeostatic model assessment
9.4 Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index
9.5 McAuley index
9.6 Matsuda index
9.7 Stumvoll index
9.8 Avignon Index

Chapter 10 Insulin resistance syndrome (IRS)
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Prevalence of IRS
10.3 Components of IRS
10.3.1 Glucose intolerance
10.3.2 Hemodynamic changes
10.3.3 Abnormality in Uric acid metabolism
10.3.4 Dyslipidemia
10.3.5 Endothelial dysfunction
10.3.6 Inflammation biomarkers


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2021
1st August 2021
Paperback ISBN:

About the Editor

Anil Gupta

Dr. Anil Gupta is Professor & Head, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Eklavya Dental College & Hospital, Kotputli under Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, India. He graduated in Bio-Sciences from Punjab University, received his Masters in Biochemistry, and completed his PhD in Biochemistry from SJJT University, Rajasthan. He is persistently pursuing post-doctoral research, independently, related to “Nutritional Status of Children between 2 years to below 5 years of Age.” He has got more than 30 research papers accepted and published in high impact, peer reviewed and indexed journals. He is accorded with merit certificates, merit scholarships and medals. He has more than 10 years of teaching experience and over 20 years of clinical experience. He is a mentor to PhD scholars working in fields, such as predisposition of blood groups to diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. He serves as reviewer and member, editorial boards in national and international journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Head, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Eklavya Dental College and Hospital, Kotputli under Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, India

Ratings and Reviews