Understanding Immunology

Understanding Immunology

1st Edition - January 28, 1977

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  • Editor: Alastair Cunningham
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139076

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Description

Understanding Immunology deals with immunology and its unifying principles, based on the view that the immune system has evolved to combat infectious disease. This book describes the phylogenetic emergence of the immune system; immune reactions in invertebrates and vertebrates; antibody-antigen reactions and the induction of the antibody response; the development of the immune repertoire and self-tolerance; and memory and tolerance in T-cells. This text is organized into 15 chapters and begins with an overview of the immune system, paying particular attention to its basic requirements and properties. This book then discusses antibodies and antigens; the molecular biology of antibody formation; and the role of lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue, and antibody forming cells in the immune response. The following chapters focus on immunocompetent cells and the mechanisms of cell cooperation in the induction of the antibody response, properties of the cells responsible for memory, and the genetic basis of antibody diversity. The reader is also introduced to allelic exclusion and the ontogeny of the immune repertoire; differentiation of T-cells; and cancer and transplantation immunology. The remaining chapters explore aberrations of the immune system and immunity to infectious disease. A comparison of the strategies of vertebrates and invertebrates in adapting to unexpected changes in the environment concludes the book. This book will prove useful as an introduction to immunology to those with some background in biology, particularly, undergraduate or graduate students as well as established researchers in other fields.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1 Basic Requirements and Properties of an Immune System

    1.1 The Basic Pattern of an Immune Response

    1.2 Basic Requirements of an Immune System

    1.3 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    2 The Reaction of Antibody with Antigen

    2.1 Main Properties of Antibodies

    2.2 Ways of Detecting Antibody

    2.3 Specificity and Diversity of Antibody

    2.4 Protective Immunity

    2.5 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    3 Molecular Biology of Antibody Formation

    3.1 Gross Structure of Ig G. Myelomas

    3.2 Other Ig Classes

    3.3 Allotypes

    3.4 Amino Acid Sequences: V Regions

    3.5 Two Genes, One Polypeptide Chain

    3.6 How Many V Genes?

    3.7 Molecular Hybridization

    3.8 Evolution of Ig Genes

    3.9 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    4 Lymphocytes, Lymphoid Tissue, and Antibody Forming Cells

    4.1 The Single Cell as the Unit in Immunology

    4.2 Lymphoid Tissue

    4.3 Local Antigenic Stimulation

    4.4 General Pattern of Cellular Events in an Immune Response

    4.5 Methods for Detecting Single Antibody Forming Cells

    4.6 Properties of the Antibody Forming Cell

    4.7 Kinetics of Appearance of Antibody Forming Cells in Lymphoid Tissue

    4.8 Antibody Feedback

    4.9 Clonal Proliferation of Antibody Forming Cells

    4.10 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    5 Immunocompetent Cells and Induction of the Antibody Response

    5.1 Immunocompetent Cells

    5.2 The Immunocompetent B Cell

    5.3 The Immunocompetent T Cell

    5.4 Cell Cooperation in the Induction of Antibody Formation

    5.5 Mechanisms of Cell Cooperation

    5.6 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    6 Memory and Tolerance

    6.1 Examples of Memory

    6.2 Facts about Memory

    6.3 What Causes Memory?

    6.4 Properties of the Cells Responsible for Memory

    6.5 Generation of Memory Cells

    6.6 "Maturation of Affinity"

    6.7 Tolerance

    6.8 Facts about Tolerance

    6.9 What Causes Tolerance?

    6.10 The Cells Affected in Tolerance

    6.11 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    7 Antibody Diversity: Its Genetic Basis

    7.1 Instruction versus Selection

    7.2 Germline versus Somatic Mutation

    7.3 Which Is Correct-Germline or Somatic Mutation?

    7.4 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    8 Development of the Immune Repertoire and Self-Tolerance in the Individual

    8.1 Allelic Exclusion

    8.2 Self-Tolerance Is Acquired

    8.3 Views on Generation of Diversity

    8.4 Ontogeny of the Immune Repertoire

    8.5 General Remarks

    8.6 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    9 More about T Cells

    9.1 Differentiation of T Cells

    9.2 Immune Receptors on T Cells

    9.3 Memory and Tolerance in T Cells

    9.4 T Cell Effector Functions

    9.5 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    10 Transplantation Immunology

    10.1 Graft Rejection

    10.2 Terminology

    10.3 Evidence that Graft Rejection Is an Immunological Process

    10.4 Transplantation Antigens

    10.5 Rejection Mechanisms

    10.6 Graft versus Host Reactions

    10.7 Transplantation Tolerance

    10.8 Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction

    10.9 Anomalous Features of Allogeneic Reactions

    10.10 Possible Explanations for the Anomalies in Allogeneic Reactions

    10.11 Preventing Graft Rejection

    10.12 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    11 Regulation of the Immune Response

    11.1 Degeneracy of Immune Responses

    11.2 Suppressor Regulation of Immune Responses

    11.3 Genetic Control of Immune Responses

    11.4 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    12 Aberrations of the Immune System: Immune Deficiency, Allergy, and Autoimmune Disease

    12.1 Immunological Deficiency Diseases

    12.2 Allergic or Hypersensitivity Reactions

    12.3 Autoimmune Disease

    12.4 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    13 Immunity to Infectious Disease

    13.1 Immune Mechanisms

    13.2 Acquired Immunity

    13.3 The Immune Response to Different Classes of Invading Organisms

    13.4 Immunological Intervention

    13.5 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    14 Cancer Immunology

    14.1 Development of a Tumor

    14.2 What Provokes Cancer?

    14.3 Immune Control of Cancer

    14.4 The Immune Surveillance Hypothesis

    14.5 Possible Immunotherapy against Cancer

    14.6 Summary

    Further Reading

    Questions

    15 Evolution of the Immune System

    15.1 A Recapitulation of the Properties of the Vertebrate Immune System

    15.2 Phylogenetic Emergence of an Immune System

    15.3 How Do Many Organisms Manage without an Immune System?

    15.4 Comparison of the Strategies of Vertebrates and Invertebrates

    15.5 Summary

    Further Reading

    Appendix: Answers to Questions

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 268
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 28, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139076

About the Editor

Alastair Cunningham

Affiliations and Expertise

John Curtin School of Medical Research

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