Understanding Emotions

Understanding Emotions

1st Edition - October 5, 2006
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors: Silke Anders, Gabriele Ende, Markus Junghofer, johanna Kissler, Dirk Wildgruber
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080466064
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444521828

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Description

Emotions shape all aspects of our thinking and behavior, particularly when we communicate with others. How does our brain respond to emotions conveyed by picture media, human faces, voices, and written language? How do we integrate this information in social interaction? What goes wrong in the brains of people suffering from emotional disorders? This book reviews modern neuroscientific and psychological research providing answers to these questions. In this volume, leading researchers give comprehensive overviews of the current knowledge on different aspects of emotional perception and the underlying brain mechanisms and highlight outstanding research questions for the future. This book provides essential information for other researchers in the fields of affective and cognitive neuroscience as well as for advanced students.

Readership

Researchers and advances students in the fields of affective and cognitive neuroscience.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Emotion, motivation, and the brain: Reflex foundations in animal and human research

    Introduction

    Working on a definition of emotion

    Affective valence and arousal

    Attention, perception, and emotion

    Neural substrates of emotion: Attention, action and the role of the amygdala

    Extra-amygdalar projections of the basolateral nucleus

    Studies of the amygdala in humans

    Emotional arousal: Physiology and cognition

    The startle reflex and emotional priming

    The amygdala and conditioned fear: Startle modulation in the rat

    Emotional processing: From attention to action

    Emotion and the brain: Concluding thoughts

    Emotion and attention: event-related brain potential studies

    A biphasic view of emotion

    Emotion and attention: event-related brain potentials

    Exploring the emotion–attention interface

    Selective attention to emotion: two-stage models of stimulus perception

    Abbreviations

    Implicit and explicit categorization of natural scenes

    Categorization of natural scenes

    Perception and categorization of emotional scenes

    Explicit categorization and affective modulation: emotional scenes as distractors

    Affective modulation and habituation

    Summary and future directions

    Dynamics of emotional effects on spatial attention in the human visual cortex

    Introduction

    Emotion and spatial attention

    Time-course of spatial orienting to threat locations

    Early responses to emotional faces preceding visual targets

    Cascade of neural events and source of sensory gain in extrastriate visual cortex

    fMRI correlates for benefits and cost in spatial attention produced by threat cues

    fMRI responses to peripheral faces alone

    Role of anxiety in emotion–attention interactions

    Conclusions

    The neural basis of narrative imagery: emotion and action

    Method

    Results

    Discussion

    Abbreviations

    Appendix

    Subliminal emotion perception in brain imaging: findings, issues, and recommendations

    Findings

    Issues

    Threshold concepts in signal detection theory

    Recommendations

    Neuroimaging methods in affective neuroscience: Selected methodological issues

    Event-related brain potentials and brain sources

    Sparse sensor sampling and the reference issue

    Event-related magnetic fields: effects of sensor standardization

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging: effects of proportional global signal scaling

    Distributed EEG/MEG source analysis with statistical parametric mapping

    Conclusion

    Abbreviations

    Emotional and semantic networks in visual word processing: insights from ERP studies

    Introduction

    Early effects — occurring within 300 ms after stimulus onset

    Clinical studies

    Comparing early emotional and early semantic processing

    Late components (after 300 ms)

    Late components — clinical studies

    Comparing late emotional and late semantic word processing

    Processing emotional words — electrophysiological conjectures

    Appendix

    Acknowledgments

    Event-related potential studies of language and emotion: words, phrases, and task effects

    The motivational organization of emotion

    The potency of single words

    Effects of encoding task on ERPs to single emotional words

    When words combine: comprehension of simple emotion phrases

    Comprehending words, phrases, and sentences

    Emotional connotation of words: role of emotion in distributed semantic systems

    Relevant theories of semantic processing

    Relevant theories of emotion processing

    Review of three studies from our laboratory

    Discussion

    Macroscopic brain dynamics during verbal and pictorial processing of affective stimuli

    Introduction

    Affective words and pictures: behavioral data

    Neurobehavioral correlates of affective picture processing

    Neurobehavioral correlates of emotional language processing

    Conclusions

    Intonation as an interface between language and affect

    The coding of information in prosody

    What is the role of intonation in vocal affect communication?

    Are the emotions specific intonation contours?

    The neural dynamics of intonation perception

    Impact of attention on decoding of emotional prosody

    Conclusion

    Abbreviations

    Cerebral processing of linguistic and emotional prosody: fMRI studies

    Introduction

    Extraction of suprasegmental acoustic information

    Representation of meaningful prosodic sequences

    Explicit judgment of emotional prosody

    Connectivity within the prosody network

    Implicit processing of emotional prosody

    Cross-modal integration of emotional communicative signals

    Abbreviations

    Affective and linguistic processing of speech prosody: DC potential studies

    Biological theories of prosody processing

    DC potentials and prosodic evaluation

    Processing of affective prosody mediated by pitch and temporal cues

    Processing of linguistic prosody mediated by pitch direction

    Conclusion

    Abbreviations

    Lateralization of emotional prosody in the brain: an overview and synopsis on the impact of study design

    Emotion and its supporting brain network

    Tuning into emotional tone — the lateralization of emotional prosody

    Factors influencing the lateralization of emotional prosody

    Psychoacoustic studies on the processing of vocal interjections: how to disentangle lexical and prosodic information?

    Introduction

    Lexical meaning of verbal emotional interjections

    Influence of lexical semantics on recognition rates

    Interaction of prosodic and lexical information

    Conclusions

    Abbreviations

    Appendix

    Judging emotion and attitudes from prosody following brain damage

    Isolating prosodic functions in the brain

    On the “attitudinal” functions of prosody

    Understanding prosody as a cue to speaker confidence

    Understanding prosody as a cue to speaker politeness

    Individual profiles of impairment for understanding emotions versus prosodic attitudes

    On the source of failures to appreciate prosodic attitudes following RHD

    Abbreviations

    Processing of facial identity and expression: a psychophysical, physiological, and computational perspective

    Introduction

    Psychophysical perspective

    Physiological perspective

    Computational perspective

    Summary and conclusions

    Abbreviations

    Investigating audiovisual integration of emotional signals in the human brain

    Behavioural studies

    Neuroanatomical studies

    Electrophysiological studies

    Neuroimaging studies

    Conclusion

    Abbreviations

    Role of the amygdala in processing visual social stimuli

    Introduction

    Shifting views of the amygdala in social cognition

    Impaired social cognition in humans following amygdala damage

    The amygdala influences early visual processing of faces and affective stimuli

    The amygdala influences face gaze

    The amygdala mediates autonomic arousal elicited by faces

    The amygdala and simulation: somatosensory attention as a component of emotional response to faces in social judgment

    The new model for how the amygdala contributes to the recognition of emotion from visual social stimuli

    Towards a unifying neural theory of social cognition

    Shared circuits for actions

    Sensations

    Emotions

    Shared circuits for actions, sensations and emotions

    Demystifying shared circuits through a Hebbian perspective

    Shared circuits and the inanimate world

    Shared circuits and communication

    The limits of simulation — a word of caution

    Simulation and theory of mind — a hypothesis

    Empathizing: neurocognitive developmental mechanisms and individual differences

    Introduction

    Shortcomings of the Mindreading System model: the Empathizing SyStem

    M-representations versus E-representations

    Dissociations between TED, ToMM, and TESS from neuropsychiatry

    Developmental dissociations

    Sex differences in empathizing

    Neuroimaging studies of empathizing and emotion

    Neuroimaging of discrete emotions

    ‘Empathizing’ with discrete emotions?

    Abbreviations

    The multiple facets of empathy: a survey of theory and evidence

    Introduction

    Theoretical background

    Evidence from peripheral physiological and neuroimaging studies

    Summary and conclusions

    Abbreviations

    Partly dissociable neural substrates for recognizing basic emotions: a critical review

    Introduction

    Fear

    Disgust

    Anger

    Surprise

    Happiness

    Sadness

    General conclusion

    Integration of emotion and cognition in patients with psychopathy

    Concepts of psychopathy

    Psychopathy and emotion

    Cognition and psychopathy

    The influence of emotions on cognitive processes

    The interaction of emotion and cognition in psychopathy

    Conclusion

    Disordered emotional processing in schizophrenia and one-sided brain damage

    Hemispheric specialization for emotional processing

    The perception of emotional chimeric faces in schizophrenia and brain damage: further evidence of right-hemisphere dysfunction

    Emotion perception in schizophrenia and one-sided brain damage

    Emotional expression in schizophrenia and brain damage

    Conclusions

    The biochemistry of dysfunctional emotions: proton MR spectroscopic findings in major depressive disorder

    Introduction

    Emotional and behavioral biases and their neuronal correlates

    Brain structural alterations in MDD

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and MDD

    Conclusions

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 522
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2006
  • Published: October 5, 2006
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080466064
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444521828
  • About the Serial Volume Editors

    Silke Anders

    Gabriele Ende

    Markus Junghofer

    johanna Kissler

    Dirk Wildgruber