Ultrasonic Transducers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845699895, 9780857096302

Ultrasonic Transducers

1st Edition

Materials and Design for Sensors, Actuators and Medical Applications

Editors: K Nakamura
eBook ISBN: 9780857096302
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845699895
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 23rd August 2012
Page Count: 722
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials


Part I: Materials and design of ultrasonic transducers

Chapter 1: Piezoelectricity and basic configurations for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers


1.1 Introduction

1.2 The piezoelectric effect

1.3 Piezoelectric materials

1.4 Piezoelectric transducers

1.5 Summary, future trends and sources of further information

Chapter 2: Electromagnetic acoustic transducers


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Physical principles

2.3 Lorentz-force-type transducers

2.4 Magnetostriction-type transducers

2.5 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Piezoelectric ceramics for transducers


3.1 The history of piezoelectrics

3.2 Piezoelectric materials: present status

Chapter 4: Thin-film PZT-based transducers


4.1 Introduction

4.2 PZT deposition using the hydrothermal process

4.3 Applications using the bending and longitudinal vibration of the d31 effect

4.4 Thickness-mode vibration, d33

4.5 Epitaxial film

4.6 Conclusions

Chapter 5: High-Curie-temperature piezoelectric single crystals of the Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 ternary system


5.1 Introduction

5.2 PIMNT ceramics

5.3 PIMNT single crystals grown by the flux method

5.4 PIMNT single crystals grown by the Bridgman method

5.5 Recent research into PIMNT single crystals and their applications

5.6 Future prospects and tasks

5.7 Conclusions

Part II: Modelling and characterisation of ultrasonic transducers

Chapter 6: Modelling ultrasonic-transducer performance: one-dimensional models


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Transducer performance expressed through the wave equation

6.3 Equivalent electrical circuit models

6.4 The linear systems model

6.5 Examples

6.6 Summary, future trends and sources of further information

Chapter 7: The boundary-element method applied to microacoustic devices: zooming into the near field


7.1 Introduction

7.2 The acoustic wave equation: shear horizontal vibrations

7.3 Construction of infinite-domain Green's functions

7.4 Near-field analysis

7.5 Normalization of the field variables

7.6 Determining the asymptotic expansion terms for Æž → 0

7.7 Future trends

7.8 Key references for further reading

7.9 Acknowledgements

Chapter 8: Electrical evaluation of piezoelectric transducers


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Equivalent electrical circuit

8.3 Electrical measurements

8.4 Characterization of piezoelectric transducers under high-power operation

8.5 Load test

8.6 Summary

Chapter 9: Laser Doppler vibrometry for measuring vibration in ultrasonic transducers


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Laser Doppler vibrometry for non-contact vibration measurements

9.3 Characterization of ultrasonic transducers and optimization of ultrasonic tools

9.4 Enhanced LDV designs for special measurements

9.5 Conclusion and summary

Chapter 10: Optical visualization of acoustic fields: the schlieren technique, the Fresnel method and the photoelastic method applied to ultrasonic transducers


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Schlieren visualization technique

10.3 Fresnel visualization method

10.4 Photoelastic visualization method

Part III: Applications of ultrasonic transducers

Chapter 11: Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Interdigital transducers (IDTs)

11.3 Transversal SAW filter

11.4 SAW resonators

11.5 Conclusions

Chapter 12: Airborne ultrasound transducers


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Basic design principles

12.3 Transducer designs for use in air

12.4 Radiated fields in air

12.5 Applications

12.6 Future trends

12.7 Sources of further information and advice

12.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 13: Transducers for non-destructive evaluation at high temperatures


13.1 Transducers for non-destructive evaluation at high temperatures

13.2 Sol-gel composite ultrasonic transducers

13.3 Structural-health monitoring demonstration

13.4 Process-monitoring demonstration

13.5 Conclusions

Chapter 14: Analysis and synthesis of frequency-diverse ultrasonic flaw-detection systems using order statistics and neural network processors


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Ultrasonic flaw-detection techniques

14.3 Neural network detection processor

14.4 Flaw-detection performance evaluation

14.5 System-on-a-chip implementation – a case study

14.6 Future trends

14.7 Conclusions

14.8 Further information

Chapter 15: Power ultrasonics: new technologies and applications for fluid processing


15.1 Introduction

15.2 New power ultrasonic technologies for fluids and multiphase media

15.3 Application of the new power ultrasonic technology to processing

15.4 Conclusions

15.5 Acknowledgements

Chapter 16: Nonlinear acoustics and its application to biomedical ultrasonics


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Basic aspects of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation and associated phenomena

16.3 Measurements of and advances in the determination of B/A

16.4 Advances in tissue harmonic imaging

16.5 Nonlinear acoustics in ultrasound metrology

16.6 Nonlinear wave propagation in hydrophone probe calibration

16.7 Nonlinear acoustics in therapeutic applications

16.8 Conclusions

16.9 Acknowledgements

Chapter 17: Therapeutic ultrasound with an emphasis on applications to the brain


17.1 Introduction and summary

17.2 Fundamentals of propagation and absorption of ultrasound

17.3 Acoustic attenuation as absorption plus scattering

17.4 Physical and chemical processes engendered by medical ultrasound

17.5 Bubble formation and growth

17.6 Inertial cavitation and associated material stresses

17.7 Mechanical index

17.8 Diagnostic ultrasound

17.9 Therapeutic ultrasound

17.10 Ultrasound-facilitated delivery of drugs and antibodies into the brain

17.11 Neuromodulation by ultrasound

17.12 Conclusion

Chapter 18: Microscale ultrasonic sensors and actuators


18.1 Introduction: ultrasonic horn actuators

18.2 Advantages of silicon-based technology

18.3 Silicon ultrasonic horns

18.4 Sensor integration and fabrication of silicon horns

18.5 Planar electrode characterization

18.6 Piezoresistive strain gauges

18.7 Applications: tissue penetration force reduction

18.8 Applications: cardiac electrophysiological measurement

18.9 Applications: microscale tissue metrology in testicular sperm extraction (TESE) surgery

18.10 Conclusions

Chapter 19: Piezoelectric and fibre-optic hydrophones


19.1 Introduction

19.2 General hydrophone considerations

19.3 Piezoelectric hydrophones

19.4 Fibre-optic hydrophones

19.5 Summary

Chapter 20: Ultrasonic motors


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Standing-wave ultrasonic motors

20.3 Traveling-wave ultrasonic motors

20.4 Ultrasonic motor performance

20.5 Summary and future trends



Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as in power, biomedical and other applications of ultrasound. Ultrasonic transducers reviews recent research in the design and application of this important technology.

Part one provides an overview of materials and design of ultrasonic transducers. Piezoelectricity and basic configurations are explored in depth, along with electromagnetic acoustic transducers, and the use of ceramics, thin film and single crystals in ultrasonic transducers. Part two goes on to investigate modelling and characterisation, with performance modelling, electrical evaluation, laser Doppler vibrometry and optical visualisation all considered in detail. Applications of ultrasonic transducers are the focus of part three, beginning with a review of surface acoustic wave devices and air-borne ultrasound transducers, and going on to consider ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems, power, biomedical and micro-scale ultrasonics, therapeutic ultrasound devices, piezoelectric and fibre optic hydrophones, and ultrasonic motors are also described.

With its distinguished editor and expert team of international contributors,Ultrasonic transducers is an authoritative review of key developments for engineers and materials scientists involved in this area of technology as well as in its applications in sectors as diverse as electronics, wireless communication and medical diagnostics.

Key Features

  • Reviews recent research in the design and application of ultrasonic transducers
  • Provides an overview of the materials and design of ultrasonic transducers, with an in-depth exploration of piezoelectricity and basic configurations
  • Investigates modelling and characterisation, applications of ultrasonic transducers, and ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems


Engineers and materials scientists in the electronic component industry; Engineers working with transducers; Material scientists working with piezoelectric materials and looking for an overview of their use in ultrasonic transducers; Those working in specific application areas, such as the development of ultrasonic medical treatments; Students studying specialized courses or with a project involving ultrasonic transducers


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© Woodhead Publishing 2012
Woodhead Publishing
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About the Editors

K Nakamura Editor

Kentaro Nakamura is a Professor in the Tokyo Institute of Technology’s Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Japan. He has published extensively on a variety of aspects of ultrasonic devices and equipment as well as measurement engineering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan