Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics

Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics

1st Edition - January 1, 1969

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  • Authors: Rohn Truell, Charles Elbaum, Bruce B. Chick
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483275994

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Description

Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techniques of ultrasonic pulse echo measurements, and the physics of ultrasonically measurable properties of solids. It is hoped that this book will provide the reader with the special background necessary to read critically the many research papers and special articles concerned with the use of ultrasonic methods in solid state physics. The book is intended to help the person beginning work in this field. At the same time, it will also be useful to those actively involved in such work. An attempt has been made to provide a fairly general and unified treatment suitable for graduate students and others without extensive experience.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Introduction

    Chapter 1. Propagation of Stress Waves in Solids

    1. Introduction

    2. Stress, Strain, and Displacement Relations

    3. Equations of Motion and Solutions

    4. Propagation Directions and Velocities

    5. Energy and Energy Flux

    6. Scattering Relations

    7. Orientation Dependence of Stress Waves in Single Crystals

    8. Explicit Expressions for Fractional Velocity Change as Function of Misorientation for Several Crystal Systems

    9. Some Numerical Results for Misorientation Effects in Cubic Crystals

    10. Energy Flux Associated with Stress Waves

    11. Stress Waves in Piezoelectric Crystals

    12. Nonlinear or Anharmonic Effects

    Chapter 2. Measurement of Attenuation and Velocity by Pulse Methods

    13. The Pulse Echo Method

    14. Definitions of the Attenuation α, of the Decrement δ, and of the Dissipation Q

    15. Methods of Measuring Attenuation

    16. Coupling with Two Transducers (through Transmission)

    17. Coupling Losses

    18. Velocity Measurements

    19. Systems for Velocity Measurements

    20. Measurement Losses

    21. Diffraction Losses

    22. Nonparallelism and Wedging Effects

    23. Effects of Wedging of Elastic Properties

    24. The Spectrum Analyzer and Its Uses

    25. Specific Application of the Spectrum Analyzer: Factors Affecting the Spectrum

    26. Attenuation Equipment Considerations

    27. Velocity Equipment Considerations

    28. Microwave Ultrasonic Equipment

    Chapter 3. Causes of Losses and Associated Velocity Changes

    29. Introduction to Loss Interactions

    I. Scattering

    30. Statement of the Problem

    31. Scattering Cross Section and Attenuation

    32. Calculation of Scattering Cross Sections

    33. Numerical Calculations of Scattering Cross Sections

    34. Multiple Scattering and Scattering Density

    II. Thermoelastic Effects

    35. Physical Description of the Effect

    36. Phenomenological Analysis

    37. Attenuation and Velocity Changes Due to the Thermoelastic Effect

    38. Calculations for Cubic and Hexagonal Crystals

    III. Dislocation Damping

    39. Description of the Model for Dislocation Damping

    40. Equations of Motion and Solutions

    41. Attenuation and Velocity

    42. Distribution of Dislocation Loop Lengths

    43. Strain Amplitude Effects

    44. Thermal Effects in Dislocation Damping

    45. Anomalous Ultrasonic Velocity Effects Associated with Dislocation Behavior

    46. The Generation of Harmonics in Crystalline Solids Due to Dislocations

    47. Some Selected Experimental Results

    48. Bordoni Peaks

    49. The Kink Model of Dislocation Damping

    IV. Magnetoelastic Interactions

    50. Stress Wave Interaction with Magnetic Domain Walls: Experimental Results

    51. Outline of an Analytical Approach to Domain Wall Motion

    52. Interaction of Spin Waves and Ultrasonic Waves in Ferromagnetic Crystals

    53. Experimental Observations concerning Spin Waves and Ultrasonic Waves

    V. Stress Wave Interaction with Conduction Electrons in Metals

    54. Conditions for Interaction

    55. More Complete Classical Interpretation

    56. Quantum-Mechanical Interpretation

    57. Influence of Magnetic Field

    58. Application to Fermi Surface Study

    59. Application to Superconductivity Study

    VI. Ultrasonic Stress Wave Interaction with Thermal Waves: Phonon-Phonon Interaction

    60. Description of the Problem

    61. Experimental Situation

    62. Theoretical Situation and Calculation of Attenuation

    VII. Stress Wave Interactions with Nuclear Spin Systems

    63. Preliminary Remarks

    64. Conditions for Interaction

    65. The Ultrasonic Attenuation Coefficient

    66. Coupling through the Dynamic Electric Quadrupole Moment

    VIII. Stress Wave Interaction with Electron Spins of Paramagnetic Centers

    67. Stress Waves and Electron Spin Level Transitions

    IX. Stress Waves and Electrical Phenomena in Piezoelectric Crystals

    68. Wave Propagation in Piezoelectric Semiconductors

    69. Light-Sensitive Ultrasonic Attenuation in CdS

    70. Ultrasonic Amplification in CdS

    X. Acoustoelectric Effect in Semiconductors

    71. General Description

    Appendix A. Elastic Constants of Trigonal Crystals (Al2O3)

    Appendix B. Fractional Velocity Changes and Eigenvectors Associated with Section 8

    Appendix C. Sample Preparation, Transducer and Bond Considerations

    Appendix D. Some Useful Physical Constants for Various Crystalline Solids

    Appendix E. Automatic Attenuation Measurement System

    Appendix F. Automatic Time Measurement System

    Appendix G. Evaluation of Coefficients in Scattering Cross Section for Transverse Waves

    Appendix H. Numerical Computation of Normalized Cross Sections yN

    Appendix I. Method of the Boltzmann Transport Equation

    Appendix J. Quantum-Mechanical Treatment of Attenuation by the Three Phonon Process

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 478
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1969
  • Published: January 1, 1969
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483275994

About the Authors

Rohn Truell

Charles Elbaum

Bruce B. Chick

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