Ultrananocrystalline Diamond - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781437734652, 9781437734669

Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

2nd Edition

Synthesis, Properties and Applications

Authors: Olga A. Shenderova Dieter M. Gruen
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437734652
eBook ISBN: 9781437734669
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 11th September 2012
Page Count: 584
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Table of Contents


List of Contributors

PART 1: Advances in Synthesis and Processing

Chapter 1. Stability of Diamond at the Nanoscale

1.1 Introduction: phase stability of carbon

1.2 Nanocarbon phase diagrams

1.3 Structure, stability, and morphology

1.4 Stability in response to external stimuli

1.5 Surface passivation and functionalization

1.6 Impurities, dopants, and functional defects

1.7 Stability of quasi-1D nanocarbon

1.8 Conclusions



Chapter 2. Advances in Plasma Synthesis of UNCD Films

2.1 Introduction and historical development of UNCD films

2.2 UNCD growth: theory, modeling, and diagnostics

2.3 Scaling up the MPACVD process: large-area UNCD synthesis using a floating substrate holder

2.4 Hot-filament CVD UNCD synthesis

2.5 Summary



Chapter 3. Theoretical Studies of UNCD Properties

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Computational methodologies

3.3 Bulk properties of UNCD

3.4 Surface properties: CNT-diamond hybrid nanomaterials

3.5 Concluding remarks



Chapter 4. n-Type Nanocrystalline Diamond Films: Synthesis, Structure, Composition, Properties, and Applications

4.1 Introduction

4.2 n-type (nitrogen) carbon materials

4.3 Synthesis of n-type NCD films

4.4 Structural and compositional analysis of n-type NCD/UNCD

4.5 Physical and chemical properties of n-type NCD/UNCD

4.6 Applications

4.7 Conclusions



Chapter 5. Advances in Synthesis of Nanodiamond Particles

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Brief history of DND discovery

5.3 Types of NDs and methods of ND synthesis

5.4 Conclusion and future outlook



Chapter 6. Deagglomeration of Detonation Nanodiamond

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Why are the agglutinates useful?

6.3 Methods of deagglomeration

6.4 Beads-milling

6.5 Primary particles

6.6 Conclusion



Chapter 7. Diamond Phase Transitions at Nanoscale

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Stability of nanocarbons

7.3 Surface chemistry: stability of surface species

7.4 Kinetics of diamond graphitization

7.5 Mechanism of diamond graphitization

7.6 Catalytic graphitization of NDs in the presence of metal clusters

7.7 Graphitization of NDs in the presence of oxygen- and hydrogen-containing gases

7.8 Properties of ND annealing products: OLC, sp2/sp3 nanocomposites

7.9 Conclusion



PART 2: Advances in Nanodiamond Characterization and Property Measurements

Chapter 8. Bonding and Concentration of Hydrogen and Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The polycrystalline diamond films: brief description of deposition methods and microstructure of the films

8.3 Hydrogen atom concentrations in polycrystalline diamond films as a function of grain size studied by SIMS

8.4 Hydrogen bonding configuration in diamond film bulk studied by Raman spectroscopy

8.5 Hydrogen bonding configuration on diamond film surface studied by HR-EELS

8.6 Bulk and surface thermal stability of UNC diamond films with 10–30 nm grain size

8.7 Computational study

8.8 Summary


Chapter 9. Recent Results on Characterization of Detonation Nanodiamonds

9.1 Introduction

9.2 TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

9.3 Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

9.4 XRD and small-angle X-ray scattering

9.5 ESR spectroscopy

9.6 Photoluminescence spectroscopy

9.7 Conclusion


Chapter 10. Optical and Spin Properties of Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers in Diamond Crystals, Nanodiamonds, and Proximity to Surfaces

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Electronic structure and emission properties of the NV center

10.3 NV center interconversion

10.4 Recent progress toward production and understanding of ultra-small NV–NDs

10.5 Diamond matrix size and surface effects on NV color center emission properties

10.6 Conclusion


PART 3: Emerging Applications

Chapter 11. Nanocarbons in Energy Conversion

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Entropy-of-mixing of charge carriers with quantum states

11.3 Thermoelectric properties of core/shell UNCD/graphene

11.4 Synthesis and properties of nanosilicon carbide core/graphene shell nanoensembles

11.5 Concluding remarks



Chapter 12. Science and Technology of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD™) Film-Based MEMS and NEMS Devices and Systems

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Fundamentals of UNCD film synthesis and properties

12.3 MEMS and NEMS devices based on UNCD films

12.4 Future scientific and technological developments based on UNCD films and integration into MEMS/NEMS structures

12.5 Conclusions



Chapter 13. Advances in Surface Chemistry of Nanodiamond and Nanodiamond–Polymer Composites

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Chemical modification of the surface of NDs

13.3 Introduction to polymer nanocomposites

13.4 Mechanical properties of polymer–ND composites

13.5 Thermal properties of polymer–ND composites

13.6 Optical properties of polymer–ND composites

13.7 Electromagnetic shielding of polymer–ND composites

13.8 Other applications for polymer–ND composites

13.9 Future work


Chapter 14. Nanodiamond Nanoparticles as Additives to Lubricants

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Formation of ND colloids in oils

14.3 Tribological properties and mechanism of action of ND-related additives in oil and greases

14.4 Conclusion



Chapter 15. Engineering Nanoparticulate Diamond for Applications in Nanomedicine and Biology

15.1 Nanodiamond synthesis and processing techniques

15.2 ND therapeutics

15.3 Future outlook



Chapter 16. Characterization of Detonation Nanodiamonds for Biocompatibility

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Worker, patient, and environmental safety: priorities

16.3 Methods for studying biocompatibility at the cellular and organism levels

16.4 Factors influencing nanoparticle biocompatibility

16.5 Studies of ND biocompatibility

16.6 In vivo considerations for ND biocompatibility

16.7 Future goals for biological assessment of NDs




Ultrananocrystalline Diamond: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications is a unique practical reference handbook. Written by the leading experts worldwide it introduces the science of UNCD for both the R&D community and applications developers using UNCD in a diverse range of applications from macro to nanodevices, such as energy-saving ultra-low friction and wear coatings for mechanical pump seals and tools, high-performance MEMS/NEMS-based systems (e.g. in telecommunications), the next generation of high-definition flat panel displays, in-vivo biomedical implants, and biosensors.

This work brings together the basic science of nanoscale diamond structures, with detailed information on ultra-nanodiamond synthesis, properties, and applications. The book offers discussion on UNCD in its two forms, as a powder and as a chemical vapor deposited film. Also discussed are the superior mechanical, tribological, transport, electrochemical, and electron emission properties of UNCD for a wide range of applications including MEMS/ NEMS, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, electrochemical sensors, coatings for field emission arrays, photonic and RF switching, biosensors, and neural prostheses, etc.

Key Features

  • Ultrananocrystalline Diamond summarises the most recent developments in the nanodiamond field, and presents them in a way that will be useful to the R&D community in both academic and corporate sectors.
  • Coverage of both nanodiamond particles and films make this a valuable resource for both the nanotechnology community and the field of thin films / vacuum deposition.
  • Written by the world’s leading experts in nanodiamond, this second edition builds on its predecessor’s reputation as the most up-to-date resource in the field.


R&D community (academic and corporate) and engineers in the fields of nanotechnology, materials, thin films, deposition, biomedical engineering, optics, proteomics (protein chip technology in genomics), semiconductors, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and MEMS / NEMS.


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© William Andrew 2012
William Andrew
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About the Authors

Olga A. Shenderova Author

Affiliations and Expertise

International Technology Center, North Carolina, USA

Dieter M. Gruen Author

Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA

Affiliations and Expertise

Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL, USA