Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

Synthesis, Properties and Applications

2nd Edition - September 11, 2012

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  • Authors: Olga A. Shenderova, Dieter M. Gruen
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437734669

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Ultrananocrystalline Diamond: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications is a unique practical reference handbook. Written by the leading experts worldwide it introduces the science of UNCD for both the R&D community and applications developers using UNCD in a diverse range of applications from macro to nanodevices, such as energy-saving ultra-low friction and wear coatings for mechanical pump seals and tools, high-performance MEMS/NEMS-based systems (e.g. in telecommunications), the next generation of high-definition flat panel displays, in-vivo biomedical implants, and biosensors. This work brings together the basic science of nanoscale diamond structures, with detailed information on ultra-nanodiamond synthesis, properties, and applications. The book offers discussion on UNCD in its two forms, as a powder and as a chemical vapor deposited film. Also discussed are the superior mechanical, tribological, transport, electrochemical, and electron emission properties of UNCD for a wide range of applications including MEMS/ NEMS, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, electrochemical sensors, coatings for field emission arrays, photonic and RF switching, biosensors, and neural prostheses, etc.

Key Features

  • Ultrananocrystalline Diamond summarises the most recent developments in the nanodiamond field, and presents them in a way that will be useful to the R&D community in both academic and corporate sectors
  • Coverage of both nanodiamond particles and films make this a valuable resource for both the nanotechnology community and the field of thin films / vacuum deposition
  • Written by the world’s leading experts in nanodiamond, this second edition builds on its predecessor’s reputation as the most up-to-date resource in the field


R&D community (academic and corporate) and engineers in the fields of nanotechnology, materials, thin films, deposition, biomedical engineering, optics, proteomics (protein chip technology in genomics), semiconductors, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and MEMS / NEMS

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    List of Contributors

    PART 1: Advances in Synthesis and Processing

    1. Stability of Diamond at the Nanoscale
    1.1 Introduction: phase stability of carbon
    1.2 Nanocarbon phase diagrams
    1.3 Structure, stability, and morphology
    1.4 Stability in response to external stimuli
    1.5 Surface passivation and functionalization
    1.6 Impurities, dopants, and functional defects
    1.7 Stability of quasi-1D nanocarbon
    1.8 Conclusions

    2. Advances in Plasma Synthesis of UNCD Films
    2.1 Introduction and historical development of UNCD films
    2.2 UNCD growth: theory, modeling, and diagnostics
    2.3 Scaling up the MPACVD process: large-area UNCD synthesis using a floating substrate holder
    2.4 Hot-filament CVD UNCD synthesis
    2.5 Summary

    3. Theoretical Studies of UNCD Properties
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Computational methodologies
    3.3 Bulk properties of UNCD
    3.4 Surface properties: CNT-diamond hybrid nanomaterials
    3.5 Concluding remarks

    4. n-Type Nanocrystalline Diamond Films: Synthesis, Structure, Composition, Properties, and Applications
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 n-type (nitrogen) carbon materials
    4.3 Synthesis of n-type NCD films
    4.4 Structural and compositional analysis of n-type NCD/UNCD
    4.5 Physical and chemical properties of n-type NCD/UNCD
    4.6 Applications
    4.7 Conclusions

    5. Advances in Synthesis of Nanodiamond Particles
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Brief history of DND discovery
    5.3 Types of NDs and methods of ND synthesis
    5.4 Conclusion and future outlook

    6. Deagglomeration of Detonation Nanodiamond
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Why are the agglutinates useful?
    6.3 Methods of deagglomeration
    6.4 Beads-milling
    6.5 Primary particles
    6.6 Conclusion

    7. Diamond Phase Transitions at Nanoscale
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Stability of nanocarbons
    7.3 Surface chemistry: stability of surface species
    7.4 Kinetics of diamond graphitization
    7.5 Mechanism of diamond graphitization
    7.6 Catalytic graphitization of NDs in the presence of metal clusters
    7.7 Graphitization of NDs in the presence of oxygen- and hydrogen-containing gases
    7.8 Properties of ND annealing products: OLC, sp2/sp3 nanocomposites
    7.9 Conclusion

    PART 2: Advances in Nanodiamond Characterization and Property Measurements

    8. Bonding and Concentration of Hydrogen and Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 The polycrystalline diamond films: brief description of deposition methods and microstructure of the films
    8.3 Hydrogen atom concentrations in polycrystalline diamond films as a function of grain size studied by SIMS
    8.4 Hydrogen bonding configuration in diamond film bulk studied by Raman spectroscopy
    8.5 Hydrogen bonding configuration on diamond film surface studied by HR-EELS
    8.6 Bulk and surface thermal stability of UNC diamond films with 10–30 nm grain size
    8.7 Computational study
    8.8 Summary

    9. Recent Results on Characterization of Detonation Nanodiamonds
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy
    9.3 Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy
    9.4 XRD and small-angle X-ray scattering
    9.5 ESR spectroscopy
    9.6 Photoluminescence spectroscopy
    9.7 Conclusion

    10. Optical and Spin Properties of Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers in Diamond Crystals, Nanodiamonds, and Proximity to Surfaces
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Electronic structure and emission properties of the NV center
    10.3 NV center interconversion
    10.4 Recent progress toward production and understanding of ultra-small NV–NDs
    10.5 Diamond matrix size and surface effects on NV color center emission properties
    10.6 Conclusion

    PART 3: Emerging Applications

    11. Nanocarbons in Energy Conversion
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Entropy-of-mixing of charge carriers with quantum states
    11.3 Thermoelectric properties of core/shell UNCD/graphene
    11.4 Synthesis and properties of nanosilicon carbide core/graphene shell nanoensembles
    11.5 Concluding remarks

    12. Science and Technology of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD™) Film-Based MEMS and NEMS Devices and Systems
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Fundamentals of UNCD film synthesis and properties
    12.3 MEMS and NEMS devices based on UNCD films
    12.4 Future scientific and technological developments based on UNCD films and integration into MEMS/NEMS structures
    12.5 Conclusions

    13. Advances in Surface Chemistry of Nanodiamond and Nanodiamond–Polymer Composites
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Chemical modification of the surface of NDs
    13.3 Introduction to polymer nanocomposites
    13.4 Mechanical properties of polymer–ND composites
    13.5 Thermal properties of polymer–ND composites
    13.6 Optical properties of polymer–ND composites
    13.7 Electromagnetic shielding of polymer–ND composites
    13.8 Other applications for polymer–ND composites
    13.9 Future work

    14. Nanodiamond Nanoparticles as Additives to Lubricants
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Formation of ND colloids in oils
    14.3 Tribological properties and mechanism of action of ND-related additives in oil and greases
    14.4 Conclusion

    15. Engineering Nanoparticulate Diamond for Applications in Nanomedicine and Biology
    15.1 Nanodiamond synthesis and processing techniques
    15.2 ND therapeutics
    15.3 Future outlook

    16. Characterization of Detonation Nanodiamonds for Biocompatibility
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Worker, patient, and environmental safety: priorities
    16.3 Methods for studying biocompatibility at the cellular and organism levels
    16.4 Factors influencing nanoparticle biocompatibility
    16.5 Studies of ND biocompatibility
    16.6 In vivo considerations for ND biocompatibility
    16.7 Future goals for biological assessment of NDs


Product details

  • No. of pages: 584
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2012
  • Published: September 11, 2012
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437734669

About the Authors

Olga A. Shenderova

Affiliations and Expertise

International Technology Center, North Carolina, USA

Dieter M. Gruen

Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA

Affiliations and Expertise

Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL, USA

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