Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

1st Edition - August 10, 2006

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  • Authors: Olga A. Shenderova, Dieter M. Gruen
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815519423

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Ultrananocrystalline Diamond: Syntheses, Properties, and Applications is a unique practical reference handbook that brings together the basic science of nanoscale carbon structures, particularly its diamond phase, with detailed information on nanodiamond synthesis, properties, and applications. Here you will learn about UNCD in its two forms, as a dispersed powder made by detonation techniques and as a chemical vapor deposited film. You will also learn about the superior mechanical, tribological, transport, electrochemical, and electron emission properties of UNCD for a wide range of applications including MEMS, NEMS, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, electrochemical sensors, coatings for field emission arrays, photonic and RF switching, biosensors, and neural prostheses, and more. This ôEverything about Ultra-nanocrystalline Diamondö book with 16 chapters is written by leading experts worldwide. It is for everyone who researches carbon nanostructures, everyone who produces them, everyone who characterizes them, and everyone who builds devices using them.


International researchers and engineers in nanotechnology, materials, thin films, deposition, optics, proteomics (protein chip technology in genomics); semiconductors, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, MEMS, NEMS industries and academia.

Table of Contents

  • Part 1. Overview: Naturally Occurring UNCD and Laboratory Synthesis
    1. Carbon Family at the Nanoscale
    1.1 Historical Overview
    1.2 Nanocarbon Classification
    1.3 Exotic Nanocarbons
    2. Extraterrestrial Nanodiamonds in the Cosmos
    2.1 Stellar Nucleosynthesis and Presolar Stardust
    2.2 Discovery and Identification of Presolar Minerals
    2.3 Origins of Meteoritic Nanodiamonds
    2.4 Isotopic Compositions of Meteoritic Nanodiamonds: Stellar Sources
    2.5 Microstructure of Meteoritic Nanodiamonds: Formation Mechanisms
    2.6 Noble Gas and N Content in Meteoritic Nanodiamonds: Nebular Processes
    2.7 Nanodiamonds in Interplanetary Dust Particles: Insights on Solar Nebula Evolution
    Summary of Experimental Data
    2.9 The New Astronomy
    3. Types of Nanocrystalline Diamond
    3.1 Nanodiamonds: Shapes
    3.2 Types of Nanodiamond and Methods of Their Synthesis
    3.3 Conclusion
    Part 2. Stability of Nanodiamond
    4. Stability of Nanodiamond
    4.1 Nanocarbon Phase Diagrams
    4.2 Theoretical Studies of the Relative Phase Stability of Nanocarbons
    4.3 Morphologies
    4.4 Conclusions
    Part 3. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films and Related Materials
    5. Electron Transport and the Potential of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond as a Thermoelectric Material
    5.1 Characterization of n-type Conductivity in UNCD Films
    5.2 Applications of n-type UNCD Films
    5.3 Electronic Structure of UNCD Grain Boundaries
    5.4 UNCD and Carbon Nanotube/UNCD Composites as Potential High-efficiency, High-temperature Thermoelectric Materials
    5.5 Summary
    6. Plasma Assisted Synthesis: Plasma Experimental Diagnostics and Modeling
    6.1 Experimental Details
    6.2 Fundamentals of Plasma Diagnostics
    6.3 Investigations of Typical NCD Deposition Conditions
    6.4 Investigations of Ar/H2/CH4 Microwave Discharges with the Plasma Thermochemical Model
    6.5 General Conclusion
    7. Nanodiamond Deposition from Energetic Species: Characterization and Formation Mechanism
    7.1 The Deposition System and Deposition Parameters
    7.2 Evolution and Properties of the Films Studied by NEXAFS: Coordination and Orientation
    7.3 Phase Composition of the Films as Reflected by Raman Spectroscopy
    7.4 Crystalline Structure of the Films by XRD
    7.5 Morphological Evolution of the Films by AFM
    7.6 Surface and Grain Boundary Phase Composition Studied by EELS
    7.7 Hydrogen Content in the Films by SIMS and ERD
    7.8 Hydrogen Bonding Configuration in the Nanodiamond Films Studied by HREELS
    7.9 Density Evolution of the Films Examined by XRR
    7.10 Visualization and Evolution of the Films Studied by HR TEM
    7.11 Formation Mechanism of the Nanodiamond Film Deposited from Energetic Species
    7.12 Summary
    8. Theoretical Studies of UNCD Synthesis
    8.1 Computational Methodologies
    8.2 Carbon Dimer Growth Mechanisms on the (110) Face of Diamond
    8.3 Carbon Dimer Growth Mechanisms on the (100) Surface of Diamond
    8.4 Electronic Structure of UNCD
    8.5 Electronic Structure of Doped UNCD
    9. Mechanical and Tribological Properties and MEMS Fabrication
    9.1 The Material
    9.2 Experimental Technique
    9.3 Experimental Results
    9.4 Fractographic Analysis
    9.5 Theoretical Strength
    9.6 Conclusions
    Part 4. UNCD Particles of Detonation Origin
    10. History of UDD
    11. Synthesis and Post-Synthesis Treatment of Detonation Nanodiamond
    11.1 Industrial Technologies of Detonation Synthesis of UNCD
    11.2 Post-synthesis Purification and Modification
    12. Characterization and Physical Properties of UNCD Particles
    12.1 Methods for Characterization of UNCD Particles
    12.2 The Structure of UNCD Clusters and the Aggregation Problem
    12.3 Mechanical Properties
    12.4 Optical Properties
    12.5 Electronic Properties
    13. Diamond Phase Transitions at Nanoscale
    13.1 Stability of Nanocarbons
    13.2 Surface Chemistry: Stability of Surface Species
    13.3 Kinetics of Diamond Graphitization
    13.4 Mechanism of Diamond Graphitization
    13.5 Catalytic Graphitization of NDs in the Presence of Metal Clusters
    13.6 Graphitization of NDs in the Presence of Oxygen- and Hydrogen-containing Gases
    13.7 Properties of ND Annealing Products: OLC, sp2/sp3 Nanocomposites
    13.8 Conclusion
    14. Applications of Detonation Nanodiamond
    14.1 Electrochemical Coatings
    14.2 Polymer Compositions and Antifriction Coatings
    14.3 Polishing
    14.4 Oils and Lubricants
    14.5 Diamond Sinters and Compacts
    14.6 Bioactivity of UNCD Particles
    14.7 Other Technological Applications of UNCD Particles
    15. Nanodiamond: Designing the Bio-Platform
    15.1 Functionalization of ND with Heteroatoms and Chemical Groups
    15.2 Modification with Nucleic Acids
    15.3 Interaction with Proteins
    15.4 Application in Biosensors and Medicine
    15.5 Biocompatibility of ND
    15.6 Conclusion
    16. History of Russian Patents on Detonation Nanodiamonds
    16.1 Patents on Methods of DND Synthesis
    16.2 Patents on Post-synthesis Treatments
    16.3 Patents on Composition of Matter
    16.4 Patents on Applications
    16.5 Conclusion

Product details

  • No. of pages: 620
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2006
  • Published: August 10, 2006
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815519423

About the Authors

Olga A. Shenderova

Affiliations and Expertise

International Technology Center, North Carolina, USA

Dieter M. Gruen

Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA

Affiliations and Expertise

Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL, USA

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