Twin Research for Everyone

Twin Research for Everyone

From Biology to Health, Epigenetics, and Psychology

1st Edition - August 19, 2022

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  • Editors: Adam Tarnoki, David Tarnoki, Jennifer Harris, Nancy Segal
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128215142

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Twin Research: Biology, Health, Epigenetics, and Psychology is a comprehensive, applied resource in twinning and twin studies that is grounded in the most impactful findings from twin research in recent years. While targeted to undergraduate and graduate students, this compendium will prove a valuable resource for scholars already familiar with twin studies, as well as those coming to the field for the first time. Here, more than forty experts across an array of disciplines examine twinning and twin research methodologies from the perspectives of biology, medicine, genetic and epigenetic influences, and neuroscience. Chapters provide clear instruction in both basic and advanced research methods, family and parenting aspects of twinning, twin studies as applied across various disease areas and medical specialties, genetic and epigenetic determinants of differentiation, and academic, neurological and cognitive development. The presentation of existing studies and methods instruction empowers students and researchers to apply twin-based research and advance new studies across a range of biomedical and behavioral fields, highlighting current research trends and future directions.

Key Features

  • Offers unique insights into twinning rates, mechanisms and factors surrounding twinship
  • Provides clear instruction on both basic and advanced twin research methods and study design
  • Features leading international experts in twin biology, genetics, health and psychology
  • Examines findings from recent twin studies across a broad array of health and behavioral studies


Human geneticists; human genomicists; translational researchers in epigenetics, developmental biology, reproductive biology; psychologists; life science researchers; oncologists

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    Jennifer Harris, Nancy Segal, Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, and David Laszlo Tarnoki

    Section 1. Background

    1. History of Twin Studies

    John Loehlin

    2. Prevalence of Twinning Worldwide

    András Pári

    3. Twin Registries Worldwide

    Yoon-Mi Hur, Veronika V. Odintsova, Juan R. Ordonana, Karri Silventoinen and Gonneke Willemsen

    Section 2. Phenomenon of Twinning

    4. Biology of Natural Twinning


    5. Management and Outcome of Twin Pregnancies

    Gian Carlo Di Renzo

    6. Conjoined Twins

    Peter Varjassy and Julia Metneki

    Section 3. Twin Families

    7. Growing up as Twins: The Perspective of Twin Researchers

    Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, David Laszlo Tarnoki, Julia Metneki, Dora Melicher and Nancy Segal

    8. Parenting of Twins

    Monica Rankin

    9. Reared Apart Twins: Background, Research, Case Studies and What They Reveal About Human Development

    Nancy Segal and Francisca J. Niculae

    10. Opposite Sex Twins in Medical Research

    Lucas Calais Ferreira, Susan (Sue) Malta and John Hopper

    Section 4. Twin Methodologies

    11. Establishing a resource for genetic, epidemiological and biomarker studies: the important role of twin registers

    Dorret Irene Boomsma, Gonneke Willemsen and Veronika V. Odintsova

    12. Twin Methodologies: Concept of Twin Studies

    Michael C. Neale

    13. Twin Studies of Complex Traits and Diseases

    Christopher R. Beam, Alice Kim, and Tinca Polderman

    14. Use of Twin Studies to Make Inference About Causation by Examining Familial Confounding

    John Hopper, Shuai Li and Minh Bui

    15. Time to Event Analyses and Censoring

    Jacob von Bornemann Hjelmborg

    16. Twin Research in Clinical Trials

    Athula Sumathipala

    Section 5. Behavior

    17. Twin Studies in Social Sciences

    Elena Cristina Mitrea and Levente Littvay

    18. Childhood Development of Psychiatric Disorders

    Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson and Isabell Brikell

    19. Well-being

    Meike Bartels, Margot Petra van de Weijer and Lianne P. de Vries

    20. Personality

    Juko Ando

    21. Twin Research in Psychopathology

    Lisabeth Fisher DiLalla, Matthew R. Jamnik, Riley L. Marshall, Emily C. Pali and David DiLalla

    22. Cognitive Aging

    Deborah Finkel, Nancy Pedersen and Chandra A. Reynolds

    23. Twin studies of Smoking and Tobacco Use

    Jaakko Kaprio

    Section 6. Health

    24. Anthropometric Twin Studies

    Karri Silventoinen

    25. Cardiorespiratory twin studies. Ambulatory monitoring of cardiovascular activity. Imaging of twins

    Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, David Laszlo Tarnoki and Gonneke Willemsen

    26. Pediatric Twin Studies

    Catarina Almqvist and Paul Lichtenstein

    27. Twin-Singleton Differences

    Kaare Christensen and Matt McGue

    28. Twin Studies of Puberty

    Holly T. Pham, Adriene M. Beltz, Robin Corley and Sheri A. Berenbaum

    29. Muscoloskeletal Twin Studies

    Paulo Ferreira and Munkh-Erdene Bayartai

    30. Cancer and Twin Research

    Wendy Cozen, Esther Lam, Maryam Salehi, Victoria K. Cortessis, Tuong L. Nguyen, James Dowty, John L. Hopper, Shuai Li, and Thomas M. Mack

    31. Epigenetic Studies of Neurodevelopment in Twins

    Jeffrey Mark Craig, Namitha Mohandas, Yuk Jing Loke, Jennifer Eleanor Snowball, Yen Ting Wong and Garth Stephenson

    32. Dementia

    Matthew Sebastian Panizzan

    Section 7. Twin Research: Genetics, Epigenetics, Microbiome, and Environmental Adaptation

    33. Twins and Omics

    Dorret Irene Boomsma, Fiona Alysa Hagenbeek, Jenny van Dongen and Rene Pool

    34. Epigenetics

    Miina Ollikainen, Aino Heikkinen and Sara Lundgren

    35. Telomeres

    Jennifer Harris and Abraham Aviv

    36. Environmental Differences in Twins and Developmental Disorders

    Garth Stephenson and Jeffrey Mark Craig

    37. Microbiome

    Hanga Park, Joohon Sung, Soo Ji Lee

    38. Monogenetic/Monochromosomal Disorders

    Iren Haltrich and Anna Lengyel

    Section 8. Conclusion


    Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, David Laszlo Tarnoki, Jennifer Harris, and Nancy Segal

    Appendix: Resources, Websites, Twin Organizations, and Further Reading

    Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, David Laszlo Tarnoki, Jennifer Harris, and Nancy Segal

Product details

  • No. of pages: 424
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: August 19, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128215142

About the Editors

Adam Tarnoki

Dr. Adam D. Tarnoki is an assistant professor, radiologist and twin researcher at Semmelweis University Medical Imaging Center and Department Head, Department of Radiology at National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary. He is a founding member of the Hungarian Twin Registry. He has presented more than 200 international lectures and has authored over 150 publications. He is a board member of the Hungarian Society of Radiologists and teaches radiology in English, German and Hungarian at Semmelweis University. Dr. Tarnoki serves as vice-president of the Hungarian Medical Association of America Hungary Chapter. He has also served as a member of the local organizing committee and Faculty of the 3rd World Congress on Twin Pregnancy and the 15th Congress of the International Society for Twin Studies (ISTS) in Budapest, Hungary, 2014. He serves as a deputy editor-in-chief of the Hungarian Radiology journal.

Affiliations and Expertise

Radiologist and Researcher at Semmelweis University, Hungary

David Tarnoki

David L. Tarnoki is a Radiologist and Researcher at Semmelweis University, Hungary. Like his twin brother Adam, he is also a Board Member and Secretary at the Hungarian Medical Association of America, and a Representative of the Hungarian Medical Chamber. He has lectured widely on twin research and radiology and published in such peer reviewed journals as Twin Research and Human Genetics, Lung, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Early Human development, PLoS ONE, and the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Affiliations and Expertise

Radiologist and Researcher at Semmelweis University, Hungary

Jennifer Harris

Dr. Jennifer Harris has interdisciplinary training in life-span development and genetics. She has been conducting twin research throughout her academic career. She is the past-president of the International Society for Twin Studies, a recipient of the James Shields Award for outstanding research in behavioral genetics, and is the scientific director of the Norwegian Twin Registry. She has broad commitment to the wider scientific community and serves on several expert panels, boards, steering groups, scientific advisory committees and editorial boards.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Research, Center for Fertility and Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway

Nancy Segal

Dr. Nancy L. Segal is currently Professor of Psychology at California State University, Fullerton and Director of the Twin Studies Center. She has authored over 250 scientific articles and book chapters, as well as seven books on twins, most recently, Deliberately Divided: Inside the Controversial Study of Twins and Triplets Adopted Apart. Her 2012 book, Born Together-Reared Apart: The Landmark Minnesota twin Study, won the 2013 William James Award from the American Psychological Association. Dr. Segal has received several international awards, including the James Shields Award for Lifetime Contributions to Twin Research (International Society for Twin Studies) and the International Making a Difference Award (Multiple Births Canada). She is also the 2016 recipient of the prestigious Wang Family Excellence Award from California State University. Dr. Segal has contributed to national and international media, including the New York Times and the Washington Post. She has been a frequent guest on national and international television and radio programs, such as the Today Show, Good Morning America, the Martha Stewart Show, the Oprah Winfrey Show and The Forum (BBC).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Psychology, California State University, Fullerton and Director of the Twin Studies Center, California, USA

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