Twin Research for Everyone

Twin Research for Everyone

From Biology to Health, Epigenetics, and Psychology

1st Edition - August 17, 2022

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  • Editors: Adam Tarnoki, David Tarnoki, Jennifer Harris, Nancy Segal
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128215142
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128215159

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Description

Twin Research: Biology, Health, Epigenetics, and Psychology is a comprehensive, applied resource in twinning and twin studies that is grounded in the most impactful findings from twin research in recent years. While targeted to undergraduate and graduate students, this compendium will prove a valuable resource for scholars already familiar with twin studies, as well as those coming to the field for the first time. Here, more than forty experts across an array of disciplines examine twinning and twin research methodologies from the perspectives of biology, medicine, genetic and epigenetic influences, and neuroscience. Chapters provide clear instruction in both basic and advanced research methods, family and parenting aspects of twinning, twin studies as applied across various disease areas and medical specialties, genetic and epigenetic determinants of differentiation, and academic, neurological and cognitive development. The presentation of existing studies and methods instruction empowers students and researchers to apply twin-based research and advance new studies across a range of biomedical and behavioral fields, highlighting current research trends and future directions.

Key Features

  • Offers unique insights into twinning rates, mechanisms and factors surrounding twinship
  • Provides clear instruction on both basic and advanced twin research methods and study design
  • Features leading international experts in twin biology, genetics, health and psychology
  • Examines findings from recent twin studies across a broad array of health and behavioral studies

Readership

Human geneticists; human genomicists; translational researchers in epigenetics, developmental biology, reproductive biology; psychologists; life science researchers; oncologists

Table of Contents

  • Cover Image
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Table of Contents
  • Contributors
  • Editor Biographies
  • Preface
  • Introduction to twin research for everyone: From biology to health, epigenetics, and psychology
  • Section 1 Background
  • Chapter 1 History of Twin Studies
  • 1.1 Twins
  • 1.2 Twin studies
  • 1.3 History of twin studies
  • 1.4 Early twin studies of cognition and personality
  • 1.5 Combining other relatives with twins
  • 1.6 Heritability over age
  • 1.7 Increasing sample sizes
  • 1.8 Twin studies nowadays
  • 1.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Prevalence of twinning worldwide
  • 2.1 How is that possible? One delivery and two childbirths at least
  • 2.2 Questions of the methodology of twinning rate
  • 2.3 Effect of assisted reproductive treatment
  • 2.4 One out of twenty-eight births
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further readings
  • Chapter 3 Twin family registries worldwide
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Twin family registries across the continents
  • 3.3 International consortia
  • 3.4 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Section 2 Phenomenon of Twinning
  • Chapter 4 Biology of natural twinning
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Defining factors
  • 4.3 Conception issues
  • 4.4 Maternal dietary factors affecting the frequency of multifetal gestations
  • 4.5 Maternal physical factors and the rate of twinning
  • 4.6 Biological factors tending to increase twinning
  • 4.7 Some unique complications in twin pregnancies
  • 4.8 Maternal risks with a twin pregnancy
  • 4.9 Conclusions and prospectus
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Management and outcome of twin pregnancies
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Antenatal care
  • 5.3 Antenatal complications
  • 5.4 Specific monochorionic pregnancy complications
  • 5.5 Peripartum care
  • 5.6 Peri-conceptional period: a “key window” of intervention?
  • 5.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Conjoined twins
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 History of conjoined twins
  • 6.3 Conjoined status in plants and animals
  • 6.4 Development of conjoined twins
  • 6.5 Embryology of conjoined twins, mechanism of their development
  • 6.6 Classification of conjoined twins
  • 6.7 Etiology
  • 6.8 Epidemiology of conjoined twins, genetic and demographic risk factors
  • 6.9 Ethnicity
  • 6.10 Summary
  • References
  • Section 3 Twin Families
  • Chapter 7 Growing up as twins: the perspectives of twin researchers
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Adam & David Tarnoki (MZ twins or Identical Twins)
  • 7.3 Julia Metneki (MZ twin)
  • 7.4 Nancy L. Segal (DZ twin)
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Parenting twins, triplets, or more
  • 8.1 Parenting twins, triplets, or more
  • 8.2 Pregnancy
  • 8.3 Birth
  • 8.4 Early months
  • 8.5 Toddler
  • 8.6 School years
  • 8.7 Adolescence
  • 8.8 Special situations
  • 8.9 Adult twins
  • Chapter 9 Reared apart twins: Background, research, case studies and what they reveal about human development
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Twins raised apart: Past, present, and future
  • 9.3 Fullerton study of Chinese twins reared apart
  • 9.4 Unique case studies
  • 9.5 Twin study controversy
  • 9.6 Research directions
  • 9.7 A quote that will endure
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Opposite-sex twins in medical research
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Sharing more than a womb
  • 10.3 What can sex differences in opposite-sex twin pairs tell us?
  • 10.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Section 4 Twin Methodologies
  • Chapter 11 Establishing a resource for genetic, epidemiological, and biomarker studies: The important role of twin registers
  • 11.1 The first steps
  • 11.2 Strategic planning
  • 11.3 Basic elements
  • 11.4 Conclusion
  • Appendix
  • Acknowledgments
  • Disclosure of Interests
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Methodology of twin studies
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 A brief note on the biometrical model
  • 12.3 Classical twin study
  • 12.4 Methodological assumptions
  • 12.5 Use of structural equation modeling in twin analysis
  • 12.6 Analysis of discrete traits
  • 12.7 Extension of the classical twin model
  • 12.8 Gene–environment correlation vs interaction
  • 12.9 Structural equation modeling for rGE and G × E interaction
  • 12.10 Final remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Twin studies of complex traits and diseases
  • 13.1 All traits are heritable
  • 13.2 Landmark study in twin research: MATCH
  • 13.3 Sex differences in heritability
  • 13.4 Are twin designs the holy grail in heritability studies?
  • 13.5 Psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, and genetic overlap
  • 13.6 Gene-environment interplay
  • 13.7 Mechanisms that lead to rGE and GxE
  • 13.8 Future directions of twin studies of traits and diseases
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Use of twin studies to make inference about causation for measured exposures by examining familial confounding
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Previous twin and family study approaches to address causation
  • 14.3 Inference about causation from examination of familial confounding (ICE FALCON)
  • 14.4 Comparison of the CMTM, DoC model, and ICE FALCON
  • 14.5 Applications of ICE FALCON
  • 14.6 Further developments
  • Funding
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Twins in clinical trials
  • 15.1 What is a randomized controlled trial?
  • 15.2 Role of twins in RCTs
  • 15.3 Zygosity and twin assignment across the randomized controlled trials
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Section 5 Behavior
  • Chapter 16 Twin studies in social science
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Findings from the literature
  • 16.3 The classical twin design
  • 16.4 Assumptions of the twin model
  • 16.5 The future of twin research in the social sciences
  • 16.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Childhood development of psychiatric disorders and related traits
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Heritability of childhood psychiatric disorders and traits
  • 17.3 Childhood psychiatric disorder and population traits have shared genetic origins
  • 17.4 Genetic contributions to comorbidity across childhood psychiatric disorders and traits
  • 17.5 Stability and change in the development of childhood psychiatric disorders and traits
  • 17.6 Environmental influences on the developmental of childhood psychiatric disorders and traits
  • 17.7 Implications & concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Happiness and well-being: The value and findings from genetic studies
  • 18.1 What is well-being?
  • 18.2 Earlier reviews on twin studies on well-being
  • 18.3 New findings of twin studies on well-being
  • 18.4 Related phenotypes
  • 18.5 Specific molecular genetic and environmental influences
  • 18.6 Future directions
  • 18.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Twin study of personality
  • 19.1 Description of personality
  • 19.2 Twin studies of personality traits
  • 19.3 Development trends of personality
  • 19.4 Genetic structure of personality
  • 19.5 Personality as a social behavior
  • 19.6 Discordant identical twin method
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Twin research in psychopathology
  • 20.1 Schizophrenia
  • 20.2 Depression and bipolar disorders
  • 20.3 Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)
  • 20.4 Implications and future directions
  • References
  • Chapter 21 Cognitive aging: the role of genes and environments in patterns of change
  • 21.1 General cognitive ability
  • 21.2 Specific cognitive abilities
  • 21.3 Molecular genetics
  • 21.4 Cognitive aging in context
  • 21.5 Future directions
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Twin studies of smoking and tobacco use
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Natural history of smoking behavior
  • 22.3 Twin studies past and present—the aim of the review
  • 22.4 Genetic and environmental influences on smoking behavior
  • 22.5 Beyond twins
  • 22.6 Causes and consequences of tobacco use
  • 22.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 6 Health
  • Chapter 23 Anthropometric twin studies
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Genetic and environmental variation in anthropometric measures
  • 23.3 Birth outcomes
  • 23.4 Height
  • 23.5 Body mass index
  • 23.6 Other anthropometric measures
  • 23.7 Genetics of growth and development
  • 23.8 Growth in height
  • 23.9 Development of body mass index
  • 23.10 Gene–environment interactions
  • 23.11 Height
  • 23.12 Body mass index
  • 23.13 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Twin studies of cardiorespiratory disease, daily cardiovascular activity and imaging
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Cardiorespiratory twin studies
  • 24.3 Twin studies of common chronic lung diseases
  • 24.4 Gaining insight into the heritability of everyday cardiovascular function by twin studies
  • 25.5 Imaging of twins
  • 25.6 Future directions: radiogenomics and imaging epigenetics
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Pediatric twin studies
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.2 Respiratory and allergic diseases
  • 25.3 Autoimmune disorders
  • 25.4 Hemato-oncological disorders
  • 25.5 Comorbidity
  • 25.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 26 Twin-singleton differences
  • 26.1 Why are twin-singleton differences of interest to twin research generally?
  • 26.2 Intrauterine and perinatal twin-singleton differences
  • 26.3 Twin-singleton differences in development
  • 26.4 Twin-singleton differences in behavior and personality
  • 26.5 Twin-singleton differences in morbidity and survival
  • 26.6 Twin-singleton differences in genetic studies
  • 26.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 27 Twin studies of puberty and behavior
  • 27.1 What is puberty?
  • 27.2 Measuring puberty
  • 27.3 Variations in puberty: Gene and environment
  • 27.4 Twin studies of puberty
  • 27.5 Other uses of twin data on puberty when studying behavior
  • 27.6 Methodological issues
  • 27.7 Future directions
  • 27.8 Conclusion
  • 27.9 Takeaways
  • References
  • Chapter 28 Musculoskeletal twin studies
  • 28.1 Introduction (MSK conditions)
  • 28.2 How twins can help musculoskeletal research
  • References
  • Chapter 29 Contributions of twin studies to cancer epidemiology
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 Risk of cancer in twins compared to singletons
  • 29.3 Patterns of occurrence of cancer in twins
  • 29.4 Studies of acquired risk factors for cancer in twins
  • 29.5 Intraplacental metastasis of infantile leukemia
  • 29.6 Cancer treatment, screening and survivorship in twins
  • 29.7 A novel epidemiological approach to quantify the familial and non-familial, genetic and non-genetic, measured and unmeasured causes of variation in risk
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 30 Epigenetic studies of neurodevelopment in twins
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.2 The role of epigenetics in neurodevelopmental disorders
  • 30.3 The role of twins in studying epigenetics of NDDs
  • 30.4 Epigenetic twin studies in autism spectrum disorder
  • 30.5 Epigenetic twin studies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • 30.6 Epigenetic twin studies of dimensions of cognitive development
  • 30.7 Epigenetic twin studies in cerebral palsy
  • 30.8 Epigenetic twin studies in epilepsy
  • 30.9 Current issues for study of NDDs in twins
  • 30.10 The future of twin studies in contributing to understanding the role of epigenetics in neurodevelopmental disorders
  • References
  • Chapter 31 Contributions of twin research to the study of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias
  • 31.1 Genetic and environmental influences of ADRD
  • 31.2 Evaluating ADRD risk and protective factors
  • 31.3 A new conceptualization of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias
  • Summary and future directions
  • References
  • Section 7 Twin Research: Genetics, Epigenetics, Microbiome, and Environmental Adaptation
  • Chapter 32 Twins and omics: the role of twin studies in multi-omics
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 Genomics
  • 32.3 Epigenomics
  • 32.4 Transcriptomics
  • 32.5 Metabolomics
  • 32.6 Twin studies in other omics domains
  • 32.7 Discussion
  • 32.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 33 Epigenetics
  • 33.1 Introduction to epigenetics and epigenomics
  • 33.2 Challenges in epigenetic research
  • 33.3 Value of twins in epigenetic research
  • 33.4 Key findings from epigenetic studies involving twins
  • 33.5 Technical and statistical methods in epigenetics
  • 33.6 Future of epigenetic twin studies
  • References
  • Chapter 34 An experiment in cotwin control: adaptation to space travel
  • 34.1 Introduction
  • 34.2 Twins reared apart and together
  • 34.3 Space travel: effects on adaptive systems
  • 34.4 Review of findings: a twin in space
  • 34.5 Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 35 Environmental risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders: Evidence from twin studies
  • 35.1 Rationale and aims
  • 35.2 Introduction
  • 35.3 Zygosity and chorionicity
  • 35.4 Twins as a model for developmental variation
  • 35.5 The intrauterine environment
  • 35.6 Twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS)
  • 35.7 Selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR)
  • 35.8 Twin anemia–polycythemia sequence (TAPS)
  • 35.9 Neurodevelopmental disorders
  • 35.10 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • 35.11 Autism spectrum disorder
  • 35.12 Cerebral palsy
  • 35.13 Schizophrenia
  • 35.14 Epilepsy
  • 35.15 Environmental influences on neurodevelopment in twins
  • 35.16 Maternal immune activation
  • 35.17 Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes
  • 35.18 Maternal hypertension
  • 35.19 Maternal smoking
  • 35.20 Alcohol
  • 35.21 The female reproductive microbiome
  • 35.22 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 36 Microbiome studies and twin research
  • 36.1 Basic concepts of the microbiome and microbial analysis: what are the differences between classical microbiology and microbiome studies?
  • 36.2 Analytic approaches in microbiome studies
  • 36.3 Assessing taxonomic composition, function, and diversity of microbial community
  • 36.4 Microbiome associations with human diseases and the application of the knowledge to the treatment
  • 36.5 Twin research for microbiome studies
  • 36.6 Summary and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 37 Chromosomal anomalies, monogenetic diseases, and leukaemia in twins
  • 37.1 Genetic background
  • 37.2 Mechanisms of twin discordance
  • 37.3 Postzygotic chromosomal nondisjunction and chromosomal mosaicism
  • 37.4 Different levels of triplet repeat expansion
  • 37.5 Postzygotic point mutations
  • 37.6 Skewed X-inactivation
  • 37.7 Other epigenetic mechanisms
  • 37.8 Copy number variations (CNVs)
  • 37.9 The value of twin studies in leukaemia research
  • Gene abbreviation list
  • References
  • Section 8 Conclusion
  • Summary and concluding ­statement
  • Appendix—Resources
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 738
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: August 17, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128215142
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128215159

About the Editors

Adam Tarnoki

Dr. Adam D. Tarnoki is an assistant professor, radiologist and twin researcher at Semmelweis University Medical Imaging Center and Department Head, Department of Radiology at National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary. He is a founding member of the Hungarian Twin Registry. He has presented more than 200 international lectures and has authored over 150 publications. He is a board member of the Hungarian Society of Radiologists and teaches radiology in English, German and Hungarian at Semmelweis University. Dr. Tarnoki serves as vice-president of the Hungarian Medical Association of America Hungary Chapter. He has also served as a member of the local organizing committee and Faculty of the 3rd World Congress on Twin Pregnancy and the 15th Congress of the International Society for Twin Studies (ISTS) in Budapest, Hungary, 2014 and the local host of the 19th International Congress on Twin Studies hold online in November, 2021. He serves as a deputy editor-in-chief of the Hungarian Radiology journal and he is the president of the International Society of Twin Studies (ISTS) since 2022.

Affiliations and Expertise

Radiologist and Researcher, Department of Medical Imaging, Semmelweis University, Hungarian Twin Registry, Budapest, Hungary

David Tarnoki

Dr. David L. Tarnoki is an assistant professor, radiologist and twin researcher at the Semmelweis University Medical Imaging Center and Head of Oncologic Imaging Diagnostic Center, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary. He is a founding member of the Hungarian Twin Registry and has presented more than 200 international lectures and authored over 150 publications. He is the board member of the Hungarian Society of Radiologists and teaches radiology in English, German and Hungarian at Semmelweis University. Dr. Tarnoki serves as secretary of the Hungarian Medical Association of America Hungary Chapter and is a member of the Academy of Young Researchers, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He has also served as a member of the local organizing committee and Faculty of the 3rd World Congress on Twin Pregnancy and the 15th Congress of the International Society for Twin Studies (ISTS) in Budapest, Hungary, 2014 and the local host of the 19th International Congress on Twin Studies hold online in November, 2021. He is the secretary of the International Society of Twin Studies (ISTS) since 2022.

Affiliations and Expertise

Radiologist and Researcher, Department of Medical Imaging, Semmelweis University, Hungarian Twin Registry, Budapest, Hungary

Jennifer Harris

Dr. Jennifer R. Harris is currently a Research Director at the Center of Fertility and Health at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Oslo, Norway. She has interdisciplinary training in life-span development and genetics. She has been conducting twin research throughout her academic career. She is the past president of the International Society for Twin Studies, a recipient of the James Shields Award for outstanding research in behavioral genetics, and is the scientific director of the Norwegian Twin Registry. Dr. Harris has broad commitment to the wider scientific community and serves on several expert panels, boards, steering groups, scientific advisory committees and editorial boards.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Research, Center for Fertility and Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway

Nancy Segal

Dr. Nancy L. Segal is currently Professor of Psychology at California State University, Fullerton and Director of the Twin Studies Center. She has authored over 250 scientific articles and book chapters, as well as seven books on twins, most recently, Deliberately Divided: Inside the Controversial Study of Twins and Triplets Adopted Apart. Her 2012 book, Born Together-Reared Apart: The Landmark Minnesota twin Study, won the 2013 William James Award from the American Psychological Association. Dr. Segal has received several international awards, including the James Shields Award for Lifetime Contributions to Twin Research (International Society for Twin Studies) and the International Making a Difference Award (Multiple Births Canada). She is also the 2016 recipient of the prestigious Wang Family Excellence Award from California State University. Dr. Segal has contributed to national and international media, including the New York Times and the Washington Post. She has been a frequent guest on national and international television and radio programs, such as the Today Show, Good Morning America, the Martha Stewart Show, the Oprah Winfrey Show, The Forum (BBC) and the Hidden Brain National Public Radio).

Affiliations and Expertise

Psychology Professor of Psychology at California State University, Fullerton and Director of the Twin Studies Center, CA, USA

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