Tunneling in Rock

Tunneling in Rock

1st Edition - January 1, 1973

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  • Author: Ernest Wahlstrom
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601742

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Tunneling in Rock reviews the theory and practice of engineering geology and its application to tunneling in rocks. This book explores the history of tunneling, defines terminologies of tunneling, and illustrates tunnels. The book discusses the petrography of unaltered rocks, such as rock minerals, fragmental rocks, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. The book then describes rock alteration, which may be caused by weathering. Such alterations are low-temperature alterations at moderate depths, hydrothermal alteration, deuteric alteration, pneumatolytic alteration, and other miscellaneous types of alteration. The book also discusses elementary rock mechanics, such as isotropism and anisotropism; mechanical properties of rocks; force and stress; and the fracture and fold anisotropy in rocks, including the deformation of minerals, elastic, quasi-elastic, and plastic rocks. The remaining chapters of the book focus on hydrogeology; geological investigation of proposed tunnel locations and its application to tunnel planning and design; different tunneling methods; and geological investigations during tunnel constructions. Those who are interested in geological aspects of planning and constructing tunnels will find this book valuable.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1. About tunnels

    History of tunneling

    Some definitions

    Generalities about tunneling

    Uses of tunnels

    Tunnel sections

    Tunnel supports and lining


    Chapter 2. Petrography of unaltered rocks


    Rock minerals

    General statement

    Physical properties of minerals

    Petrographic methods

    Mineralogy of clay minerals

    Rock fabrics from growth of crystals

    Fabrics of fragmental rocks

    Size classification

    Shapes of clasts

    Particle orientation

    Stratification (bedding)

    Matrix and cement

    Igneous rocks

    Some shapes of igneous bodies

    Sedimentary rocks

    Metamorphic rocks


    Chapter 3. Rock alteration



    Mechanical weathering

    Weathering related to mineral composition

    Weathering related to ground-water movement

    Engineering properties of weathered rocks

    Low-temperature alterations at moderate depths

    Hydrothermal alteration









    Deuteric alteration

    Pneumatolytic alteration

    Miscellaneous types of alteration

    Chapter 4. Elementary rock mechanics


    Glossary of definitions

    Force and stress

    Mechanical properties of rocks

    Stress—strain—time relationships

    Behavior of materials under stress

    Fractures in rocks

    Behavior of materials under triaxial stress

    Effects of temperature on strength of rocks

    Effects of time on strength of rocks

    Stresses in underground openings in isotropic elastic rocks

    Isotropism and anisotropism in rocks

    Strength of anisotropic rocks

    Measurement of stress in underground openings

    Strength of rocks from slope analysis

    Nonequilibrium forces in rocks

    Rock bursts

    Squeezing ground


    Chapter 5. Fracture and fold anisotropy in rocks


    Deformation of minerals under stress

    Deformation of elastic and quasi-elastic rocks

    Deformation of plastic rocks

    Folds in rocks

    Engineering aspects of folded rocks


    Faulting as related to competency of rocks

    Fault filling and gouge

    Wall rock alteration associated with faults

    Major faults


    Field study and graphical representation of multiple joints

    Spacing of joints and characteristics of joint surfaces

    Original joints in igneous rocks

    Original joints in sedimentary rocks

    Original joints in metamorphic rocks

    Tunnel sections in fractured rocks

    The arching tendency


    Chapter 6. Hydrogeology, temperatures, and gases in tunnels


    Water in rocks

    Porosity and permeability

    Permeability in volcanic rocks

    Water table and aquifers

    Sources and temperatures of underground water

    Fracture permeability

    Permeability in limestones

    Squeezing, swelling, and running ground

    Causes and mechanics of swelling in rocks

    Swelling pressures of clay-bearing rocks

    Squeezing ground

    Running ground

    Tunneling in squeezing, swelling, and running ground

    Testing of permeability of rocks

    Gases in rocks


    Chapter 7. Geological investigation of proposed tunnel locations


    Geomorphology and subsurface geology

    Geologic maps and cross-sections of tunnel sites


    Kinds of surface geologic maps

    Geologic cross-sections

    Columnar sections

    Geologic and geophysical data from field and laboratory investigations

    Geophysical investigations


    Seismic methods

    Gravity methods

    Magnetic methods

    Electrical methods

    Remote sensing including aerial photography

    Side-looking radar imagery (SLAR)

    Thermal imagery

    Color infrared photography

    Core drilling


    Core-hole logs

    Water testing

    Oriented cores

    Geophysical investigation and instrumental logging of core holes

    Use of equal-area plots for anisotropic rocks

    Statistical analysis and computerization of geological data


    Chapter 8. Application of geological investigations to tunnel planning and design


    Classification of geological materials

    Feasibility investigations of proposed tunnel sites

    Design-stage investigations

    A case history


    Chapter 9. Tunneling methods


    Conventional tunneling methods

    Tunneling machines

    Tunnel supports

    Ground water in tunnels

    Conventional versus mole tunneling

    Access to tunneling operations

    Tunneling terminology

    Glossary of tunneling terms


    Chapter 10. Geological investigations during tunnel construction


    Geological mapping of tunnels

    Tunnel supports and the geologist

    Special operations

    Progress related to geology

    Final report



Product details

  • No. of pages: 263
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1973
  • Published: January 1, 1973
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601742

About the Author

Ernest Wahlstrom

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