Tunneling in Rock - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444410641, 9780444601742

Tunneling in Rock, Volume 3

1st Edition

Authors: Ernest Wahlstrom
eBook ISBN: 9780444601742
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 263
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Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1. About tunnels

History of tunneling

Some definitions

Generalities about tunneling

Uses of tunnels

Tunnel sections

Tunnel supports and lining

References

Chapter 2. Petrography of unaltered rocks

Introduction

Rock minerals

General statement

Physical properties of minerals

Petrographic methods

Mineralogy of clay minerals

Rock fabrics from growth of crystals

Fabrics of fragmental rocks

Size classification

Shapes of clasts

Particle orientation

Stratification (bedding)

Matrix and cement

Igneous rocks

Some shapes of igneous bodies

Sedimentary rocks

Metamorphic rocks

References

Chapter 3. Rock alteration

Introduction

Weathering

Mechanical weathering

Weathering related to mineral composition

Weathering related to ground-water movement

Engineering properties of weathered rocks

Low-temperature alterations at moderate depths

Hydrothermal alteration

Silicification

Sericitization

Argillization

Pyritization

Propylitization

Chloritization

Dolomitization

Saussuritization

Deuteric alteration

Pneumatolytic alteration

Miscellaneous types of alteration

Chapter 4. Elementary rock mechanics

Introduction

Glossary of definitions

Force and stress

Mechanical properties of rocks

Stress—strain—time relationships

Behavior of materials under stress

Fractures in rocks

Behavior of materials under triaxial stress

Effects of temperature on strength of rocks

Effects of time on strength of rocks

Stresses in underground openings in isotropic elastic rocks

Isotropism and anisotropism in rocks

Strength of anisotropic rocks

Measurement of stress in underground openings

Strength of rocks from slope analysis

Nonequilibrium forces in rocks

Rock bursts

Squeezing ground

References

Chapter 5. Fracture and fold anisotropy in rocks

Introduction

Deformation of minerals under stress

Deformation of elastic and quasi-elastic rocks

Deformation of plastic rocks

Folds in rocks

Engineering aspects of folded rocks

Faults

Faulting as related to competency of rocks

Fault filling and gouge

Wall rock alteration associated with faults

Major faults

Joints

Field study and graphical representation of multiple joints

Spacing of joints and characteristics of joint surfaces

Original joints in igneous rocks

Original joints in sedimentary rocks

Original joints in metamorphic rocks

Tunnel sections in fractured rocks

The arching tendency

References

Chapter 6. Hydrogeology, temperatures, and gases in tunnels

Introduction

Water in rocks

Porosity and permeability

Permeability in volcanic rocks

Water table and aquifers

Sources and temperatures of underground water

Fracture permeability

Permeability in limestones

Squeezing, swelling, and running ground

Causes and mechanics of swelling in rocks

Swelling pressures of clay-bearing rocks

Squeezing ground

Running ground

Tunneling in squeezing, swelling, and running ground

Testing of permeability of rocks

Gases in rocks

References

Chapter 7. Geological investigation of proposed tunnel locations

Introduction

Geomorphology and subsurface geology

Geologic maps and cross-sections of tunnel sites

Introduction

Kinds of surface geologic maps

Geologic cross-sections

Columnar sections

Geologic and geophysical data from field and laboratory investigations

Geophysical investigations

Introduction

Seismic methods

Gravity methods

Magnetic methods

Electrical methods

Remote sensing including aerial photography

Side-looking radar imagery (SLAR)

Thermal imagery

Color infrared photography

Core drilling

Introduction

Core-hole logs

Water testing

Oriented cores

Geophysical investigation and instrumental logging of core holes

Use of equal-area plots for anisotropic rocks

Statistical analysis and computerization of geological data

References

Chapter 8. Application of geological investigations to tunnel planning and design

Introduction

Classification of geological materials

Feasibility investigations of proposed tunnel sites

Design-stage investigations

A case history

References

Chapter 9. Tunneling methods

Introduction

Conventional tunneling methods

Tunneling machines

Tunnel supports

Ground water in tunnels

Conventional versus mole tunneling

Access to tunneling operations

Tunneling terminology

Glossary of tunneling terms

References

Chapter 10. Geological investigations during tunnel construction

Introduction

Geological mapping of tunnels

Tunnel supports and the geologist

Special operations

Progress related to geology

Final report

References

Index







Description

Tunneling in Rock reviews the theory and practice of engineering geology and its application to tunneling in rocks. This book explores the history of tunneling, defines terminologies of tunneling, and illustrates tunnels. The book discusses the petrography of unaltered rocks, such as rock minerals, fragmental rocks, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. The book then describes rock alteration, which may be caused by weathering. Such alterations are low-temperature alterations at moderate depths, hydrothermal alteration, deuteric alteration, pneumatolytic alteration, and other miscellaneous types of alteration. The book also discusses elementary rock mechanics, such as isotropism and anisotropism; mechanical properties of rocks; force and stress; and the fracture and fold anisotropy in rocks, including the deformation of minerals, elastic, quasi-elastic, and plastic rocks.
The remaining chapters of the book focus on hydrogeology; geological investigation of proposed tunnel locations and its application to tunnel planning and design; different tunneling methods; and geological investigations during tunnel constructions. Those who are interested in geological aspects of planning and constructing tunnels will find this book valuable.


Details

No. of pages:
263
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1973
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444601742

About the Authors

Ernest Wahlstrom Author