Tufted Carpet

Tufted Carpet

Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes and Processes

1st Edition - April 1, 2000

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  • Authors: Von Moody, Howard L. Needles
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815519409
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781884207990

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Description

This book combines Von Moody's original work and research in the carpet industry with the well respected 1986 textile source book, Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes: A Concise Guide, by Howard L. Needles to produce a unique practical guide on all aspects of the preparation, manufacture, and performance of carpet. It addresses the structure and properties of fiber, carpet construction, coatings, dyes, finishes, performance, and recycling, among other topics. This volume is an indispensable reference for all practitioners in the carpet industry.

Readership

Professionals and technicians throughout the entire carpet industry (and suppliers of the industry as well) will find this book invaluable to their activities.

Table of Contents

  • Part 1: Introduction to Carpet Fiber
    1. Fiber Theory and Formation
    1.1 FIBER CLASSIFICATION
    1.2 FIBER PROPERTIES
    1.2.1 Primary Properties
    1.2.2 Secondary Properties
    1.2.3 Primary Fiber Properties from an Engineering Perspective
    1.3 FIBER FORMATION AND MORPHOLOGY
    1.3.1 Polymer Formation
    1.3.2 Fiber Spinning
    1.3.3 Fiber Drawing and Morphology
    1.3.4 Bulking and Texturizing
    1.3.5 Staple Formation
    1.4 STRUCTURE PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS

    2. Fiber Indentification and Characterization
    2.1 FIBER IDENTIFICATION
    2.1.1 Microscopic Identification
    2.1.2 Solubility
    2.1.3 Heating and Burning Characteristics
    2.1.4 Density or Specific Gravity
    2.1.5 Staining
    2.2 STRUCTURAL, PHYSICAL, and CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION
    2.2.1 Optical and Electron Microscopy
    2.2.2 Elemental and End-Group Analysis
    2.2.3 Infrared Spectroscopy
    2.2.4 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy
    2.2.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    2.2.6 X-Ray Diffraction
    2.2.7 Thermal Analysis
    2.2.8 Molecular Weight Determination
    2.2.9 Mechanical and Tensile Property Measurements
    2.2.10 Specific Gravity
    2.2.11 Environmental Properties
    2.2.12 Chemical Properties
    2.3 END-USE PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION
    2.3.1 Characteristics Related to Identity, Aesthetics and Comfort
    2.3.2 Characteristics Related to Durability and Wear
    2.3.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    3. Major Fiber and Their Properties
    3.1 NYLON 6 and NYLON 6,6 FIBERS
    3.1.1 Structural Properties
    3.1.2 Effect of Single-Step Versus Two-Step Production of Nylon
    3.1.3 Physical Properties
    3.1.4 Chemical Properties
    3.1.5 Nylon End-Use Properties
    3.2 POLYESTER FIBERS
    3.2.1 Structural Properties
    3.2.2 Physical Properties
    3.2.3 Chemical Properties
    3.2.4 Polyester End-Use Properties
    3.3 ACRYLIC FIBERS
    3.3.1 Structural Properties
    3.3.2 Physical Properties
    3.3.3 Chemical Properties
    3.3.4 Acrylic End-Use Properties
    3.4 MODACRYLIC FIBERS
    3.4.1 Structural Properties
    3.4.2 Physical Properties
    3.4.3 Chemical Properties
    3.4.4 Modacrylic End-Use Properties
    3.5 POLYOLEFIN FIBERS
    3.5.1 Polyethylene and Polypropylene
    3.5.2 Structural Properties
    3.5.3 Physical Properties
    3.5.4 Chemical Properties
    3.5.5 Polyolefin End-Use Properties
    3.6 WOOL
    3.6.1 Structural Properties
    3.6.2 Physical Properties
    3.6.3 Chemical Properties
    3.6.4 Wool End-Use Properties


    Part 2: Carpet Making
    4. Yarn Formation
    4.1 WOOLEN AND WORSTED SYSTEMS
    4.2 STAPLE SYSTEMS
    4.3 FILAMENT SYSTEMS
    5. Primary and Secondary Backing Construction
    5.1 WOVEN
    5.1.1 Woven Primary or Secondary Backing Manufacture
    5.1.2 Textile Substrate Formation
    5.1.3 Weaving
    5.1.4 Shedding Mechanism
    5.1.5 Fill Insertion
    5.2 NONWOVEN
    5.2.1 Nonwoven Primary or Secondary Backing Formation
    5.2.2 Mechanical Bonding or Entanglement of Nonwovens
    5.2.3 Stitching or Stitch Bonding
    5.2.4 Self Bonding
    5.2.5 Adhesive Bonding
    5.3 COMPOSITE FORMATION
    5.4 NEW TUFTING PRIMARY BACKINGS
    6. Carpet Construction
    6.1 DESCRIPTION OF LAYERS OF PILE CARPET
    6.1.1 Primary Backings
    6.1.2 Loop Pile Created by Tufting
    6.1.3 Shearing
    6.1.4 Secondary Backing
    6.2 FINISHING


    Part 3: Coatings, Raw Materials, and Their Processes
    7. Latex Coatings
    7.1 LATEX COMPOUNDS
    7.1.1 Filler
    7.1.2 Surfactants
    7.1.3 Thickeners
    7.1.4 Water
    7.1.5 Flame Retardants
    7.1.6 Miscellaneous
    7.2 EXAMPLES OF LATEX COMPOUNDS
    7.3 EFFECT OF FILLER ON LATEX COATED CARPET
    7.4 EFFECT OF DENIER ON TUFTBIND
    7.5 FLAME RETARDANCY
    7.6 SUMMARY


    Polyurethane Coating
    8.1 POLYURETHANE RAW MATERIALS AND BASIC CHEMISTRY
    8.2 MECHANICALLY FROTHED POLYURETHANE
    8.3 WATER-BLOWN POLYURETHANE


    Cushion
    9.1 RESIDENTIAL
    9.2 COMMERCIAL
    9.3 FOAM PERFORMANCE
    9.4 CUSHIONS AND PADS


    10. Polyvinyl Chloride Plastisol Coating
    10.1 RAW MATERIALS
    10.1.1 Dispersion Resin
    10.1.2 Blending Resin
    10.1.3 Plasticizer
    10.1.4 Stabilizers
    10.1.5 Thixotropic Agents
    10.1.6 Surfactants
    10.1.7 Pigments
    10.1.8 Fillers
    10.1.9 Lubricants
    10.1.10 Blowing Agents
    10.1.11 Solvents or Diluents
    10.2 TROUBLESHOOTING
    10.3 FORMULATION
    10.4 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY
    10.5 FLEXIBILITY
    10.6 INDENTATION
    10.7 CUTTING CARPET INTO TILE
    10.8 IMPERMEABILITY
    10.9 SUMMARY

    11. Hot Melt Coating
    11.1 DISCUSSION OF HOT MELTS
    11.2 INGREDIENTS
    11.2.1 Polymers
    11.2.2 Resins
    11.2.3 Wax
    11.2.4 Filler
    11.2.5 Oils
    11.2.6 Antioxidants
    11.2.7 Flame Retardants
    11.3 HOT MELT COATING PROCESS
    11.4 COMPOUNDING
    11.5 EXAMPLES OF HOT MELT COATING COMPOUNDS

    12. Extrusion Coating Technology
    12.1 EXTRUSION COATING PROCESS
    12.2 THE EXTRUDER
    12.3 EXTRUDER DIE
    12.4 DOWNSTREAM EQUIPMENT
    12.5 POLYMERS AND COMPOUNDS
    12.6 EXAMPLES OF EXTRUSION COATING COMPOUNDS

    13. Carpet Tile Coatings and Reinforcements
    13.1 COATING SYSTEMS FOR CARPET TILE
    13.1.1 Polyurethane
    13.1.2 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
    13.1.3 Hot Melt
    13.1.4 Extrusion
    13.2 FIBERGLASS REINFORCEMENT
    13.3 SUMMARY

    Part 4: Carpet Enhancers
    14. Antimicrobial Agents
    14.1 USE
    14.2 BACTERIAL SOURCES AND CONDITIONS FAVORABLE TO GROWTH
    14.3 ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT SELECTION AND CONSIDERATION
    14.4 RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS
    14.5 PROOF OF CLAIMS
    14.6 MICROORGANISM STRUCTURE
    14.7 TYPES OF ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENTS
    14.8 VARIOUS ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENTS
    14.9 TESTING
    14.10 PLACEMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
    14.11 SUMMARY

    15. Color, Dyes, Dyeing, and Printing
    15.1 COLOR THEORY
    15.1.1 The Munsell System
    15.1.2 Additive and Subractive Systems
    15.1.3 Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage System
    15.2 DYES AND DYE CLASSIFICATION
    15.2.1 Dyes Containing Anionic Functional Groups
    15.2.2 Dyes Containing Cationion Groups (Basic Dyes)
    15.2.3 Special Colorant Classes
    15.2.4 Dyeing of Blends
    15.3 APPLICATION METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING DYEING
    15.3.1 Dyeing Methods
    15.3.2 Printing Techniques
    15.3.3 Physical Factors Affecting Dyeing
    15.3.4 Chemical Reagents
    15.4 DYES APPLIED TO FIBER CLASSES
    15.4.1 Dyes for Protein Fibers
    15.4.2 Dyes for Polyamide Fibers
    15.4.3 Dyes for Polyester Fibers
    15.4.4 Dyes for Acrylic Fibers
    15.4.5 Dyes for Polyolefin Fibers

    16. Stain Blockers and Fluorochemicals
    16.1 BACKGROUND
    16.2 STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS FOR NYLON CARPET
    16.3 TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY
    16.4 FLUOROCHEMICALS
    16.5 STAIN RESISTANCE TECHNOLOGY
    16.6 APPLICATION OF STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS
    16.6.1 Basic Information
    16.6.2 Development of the Foam Application
    16.7 EXAMPLES OF STAIN RESISTANT APPLICATIONS
    16.7.1 Batch Exhaust
    16.7.2 Continuous Exhaust
    16.7.3 Use in Drying Only
    16.7.4 Foam Application
    16.7.5 Exhaustion of Stain Blocker on Nylon
    16.8 PERFORMANCE TESTING

    Part 5: Performance, Cleaning, and Recycling
    17. Performance Issues
    17.1 STANDARDS AND TESTS
    17.1.1 Standards and Tests for Carpets
    17.1.2 Standards and Tests for Backing
    17.2 APPEARANCE RETENTION
    17.3 FLAMMABILITY
    17.3.1 Pill Test
    17.3.2 Discussion of Pill Test Results
    17.3.3 Radiant Panel Test
    17.4 SOUND ABSORPTION
    17.4.1 Testing Terminology
    17.4.2 Testing of Carpet
    17.4.3 Impact Sound Insulation
    17.5 OTHER PERFORMANCE ISSUES
    17.5.1 Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) Yellowing
    17.5.2 Discoloration from Stain Blockers
    17.5.3 Pile Crush or Matting
    17.5.4 Shading
    17.5.5 Pilling
    17.5.6 Fuzzing
    17.5.7 Delamination or Backing Separation
    17.5.8 Indentation
    17.5.9 Static
    17.5.10 Grinning

    18. Maintenance and Cleaning
    18.1 CLEANING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT
    18.2 REMOVAL OF STAINS AND CLEANING HINTS
    18.3 CLEANING STAINS AND SPILLS
    18.3.1 Common Spill Removal

    19. Recycling
    19.1 DISCUSSION
    19.2 USES
    19.2.1 Plastic Lumber
    19.2.2 Concrete Reinforcement
    19.2.3 Asphalt Modification
    19.2.4 Use in Soil
    19.3 RECOVERY PROCESSES
    19.3.1 Individual Carpet Component Separation
    19.3.2 Compatiblization of Carpet Components
    19.3.3 Depolymerization
    19.4 EXAMPLES OF CARPET RECYCLING
    19.4.1 Carpet Used for Energy
    19.4.2 Company Specific Examples of Recycli

Product details

  • No. of pages: 267
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2004
  • Published: April 1, 2000
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815519409
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781884207990

About the Authors

Von Moody

Affiliations and Expertise

Auburn University

Howard L. Needles

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