Tufted Carpet - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781884207990, 9780815519409

Tufted Carpet

1st Edition

Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes and Processes

Authors: Von Moody Howard L. Needles
eBook ISBN: 9780815519409
Hardcover ISBN: 9781884207990
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 28th September 2004
Page Count: 267
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Table of Contents

Part 1: Introduction to Carpet Fiber

  1. Fiber Theory and Formation 1.1 FIBER CLASSIFICATION 1.2 FIBER PROPERTIES 1.2.1 Primary Properties 1.2.2 Secondary Properties 1.2.3 Primary Fiber Properties from an Engineering Perspective 1.3 FIBER FORMATION AND MORPHOLOGY 1.3.1 Polymer Formation 1.3.2 Fiber Spinning 1.3.3 Fiber Drawing and Morphology 1.3.4 Bulking and Texturizing 1.3.5 Staple Formation 1.4 STRUCTURE PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS

  2. Fiber Indentification and Characterization 2.1 FIBER IDENTIFICATION 2.1.1 Microscopic Identification 2.1.2 Solubility 2.1.3 Heating and Burning Characteristics 2.1.4 Density or Specific Gravity 2.1.5 Staining 2.2 STRUCTURAL, PHYSICAL, and CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION 2.2.1 Optical and Electron Microscopy 2.2.2 Elemental and End-Group Analysis 2.2.3 Infrared Spectroscopy 2.2.4 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy 2.2.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 2.2.6 X-Ray Diffraction 2.2.7 Thermal Analysis 2.2.8 Molecular Weight Determination 2.2.9 Mechanical and Tensile Property Measurements 2.2.10 Specific Gravity 2.2.11 Environmental Properties 2.2.12 Chemical Properties 2.3 END-USE PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION 2.3.1 Characteristics Related to Identity, Aesthetics and Comfort 2.3.2 Characteristics Related to Durability and Wear 2.3.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics

  3. Major Fiber and Their Properties 3.1 NYLON 6 and NYLON 6,6 FIBERS 3.1.1 Structural Properties 3.1.2 Effect of Single-Step Versus Two-Step Production of Nylon 3.1.3 Physical Properties 3.1.4 Chemical Properties 3.1.5 Nylon End-Use Properties 3.2 POLYESTER FIBERS 3.2.1 Structural Properties 3.2.2 Physical Properties 3.2.3 Chemical Properties 3.2.4 Polyester End-Use Properties 3.3 ACRYLIC FIBERS 3.3.1 Structural Properties 3.3.2 Physical Properties 3.3.3 Chemical Properties 3.3.4 Acrylic End-Use Properties 3.4 MODACRYLIC FIBERS 3.4.1 Structural Properties 3.4.2 Physical Properties 3.4.3 Chemical Properties 3.4.4 Modacrylic End-Use Properties 3.5 POLYOLEFIN FIBERS 3.5.1 Polyethylene and Polypropylene 3.5.2 Structural Properties 3.5.3 Physical Properties 3.5.4 Chemical Properties 3.5.5 Polyolefin End-Use Properties 3.6 WOOL 3.6.1 Structural Properties 3.6.2 Physical Properties 3.6.3 Chemical Properties 3.6.4 Wool End-Use Properties

Part 2: Carpet Making

  1. Yarn Formation 4.1 WOOLEN AND WORSTED SYSTEMS 4.2 STAPLE SYSTEMS 4.3 FILAMENT SYSTEMS
  2. Primary and Secondary Backing Construction 5.1 WOVEN 5.1.1 Woven Primary or Secondary Backing Manufacture 5.1.2 Textile Substrate Formation 5.1.3 Weaving 5.1.4 Shedding Mechanism 5.1.5 Fill Insertion 5.2 NONWOVEN 5.2.1 Nonwoven Primary or Secondary Backing Formation 5.2.2 Mechanical Bonding or Entanglement of Nonwovens 5.2.3 Stitching or Stitch Bonding 5.2.4 Self Bonding 5.2.5 Adhesive Bonding 5.3 COMPOSITE FORMATION 5.4 NEW TUFTING PRIMARY BACKINGS
  3. Carpet Construction 6.1 DESCRIPTION OF LAYERS OF PILE CARPET 6.1.1 Primary Backings 6.1.2 Loop Pile Created by Tufting 6.1.3 Shearing 6.1.4 Secondary Backing 6.2 FINISHING

Part 3: Coatings, Raw Materials, and Their Processes

  1. Latex Coatings 7.1 LATEX COMPOUNDS 7.1.1 Filler 7.1.2 Surfactants 7.1.3 Thickeners 7.1.4 Water 7.1.5 Flame Retardants 7.1.6 Miscellaneous 7.2 EXAMPLES OF LATEX COMPOUNDS 7.3 EFFECT OF FILLER ON LATEX COATED CARPET 7.4 EFFECT OF DENIER ON TUFTBIND 7.5 FLAME RETARDANCY 7.6 SUMMARY

Polyurethane Coating 8.1 POLYURETHANE RAW MATERIALS AND BASIC CHEMISTRY 8.2 MECHANICALLY FROTHED POLYURETHANE 8.3 WATER-BLOWN POLYURETHANE

Cushion 9.1 RESIDENTIAL 9.2 COMMERCIAL 9.3 FOAM PERFORMANCE 9.4 CUSHIONS AND PADS

  1. Polyvinyl Chloride Plastisol Coating 10.1 RAW MATERIALS 10.1.1 Dispersion Resin 10.1.2 Blending Resin 10.1.3 Plasticizer 10.1.4 Stabilizers 10.1.5 Thixotropic Agents 10.1.6 Surfactants 10.1.7 Pigments 10.1.8 Fillers 10.1.9 Lubricants 10.1.10 Blowing Agents 10.1.11 Solvents or Diluents 10.2 TROUBLESHOOTING 10.3 FORMULATION 10.4 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY 10.5 FLEXIBILITY 10.6 INDENTATION 10.7 CUTTING CARPET INTO TILE 10.8 IMPERMEABILITY 10.9 SUMMARY

  2. Hot Melt Coating 11.1 DISCUSSION OF HOT MELTS 11.2 INGREDIENTS 11.2.1 Polymers 11.2.2 Resins 11.2.3 Wax 11.2.4 Filler 11.2.5 Oils 11.2.6 Antioxidants 11.2.7 Flame Retardants 11.3 HOT MELT COATING PROCESS 11.4 COMPOUNDING 11.5 EXAMPLES OF HOT MELT COATING COMPOUNDS

  3. Extrusion Coating Technology 12.1 EXTRUSION COATING PROCESS 12.2 THE EXTRUDER 12.3 EXTRUDER DIE 12.4 DOWNSTREAM EQUIPMENT 12.5 POLYMERS AND COMPOUNDS 12.6 EXAMPLES OF EXTRUSION COATING COMPOUNDS

  4. Carpet Tile Coatings and Reinforcements 13.1 COATING SYSTEMS FOR CARPET TILE 13.1.1 Polyurethane 13.1.2 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 13.1.3 Hot Melt 13.1.4 Extrusion 13.2 FIBERGLASS REINFORCEMENT 13.3 SUMMARY

Part 4: Carpet Enhancers

  1. Antimicrobial Agents 14.1 USE 14.2 BACTERIAL SOURCES AND CONDITIONS FAVORABLE TO GROWTH 14.3 ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT SELECTION AND CONSIDERATION 14.4 RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS 14.5 PROOF OF CLAIMS 14.6 MICROORGANISM STRUCTURE 14.7 TYPES OF ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENTS 14.8 VARIOUS ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENTS 14.9 TESTING 14.10 PLACEMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS 14.11 SUMMARY

  2. Color, Dyes, Dyeing, and Printing 15.1 COLOR THEORY 15.1.1 The Munsell System 15.1.2 Additive and Subractive Systems 15.1.3 Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage System 15.2 DYES AND DYE CLASSIFICATION 15.2.1 Dyes Containing Anionic Functional Groups 15.2.2 Dyes Containing Cationion Groups (Basic Dyes) 15.2.3 Special Colorant Classes 15.2.4 Dyeing of Blends 15.3 APPLICATION METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING DYEING 15.3.1 Dyeing Methods 15.3.2 Printing Techniques 15.3.3 Physical Factors Affecting Dyeing 15.3.4 Chemical Reagents 15.4 DYES APPLIED TO FIBER CLASSES 15.4.1 Dyes for Protein Fibers 15.4.2 Dyes for Polyamide Fibers 15.4.3 Dyes for Polyester Fibers 15.4.4 Dyes for Acrylic Fibers 15.4.5 Dyes for Polyolefin Fibers

  3. Stain Blockers and Fluorochemicals 16.1 BACKGROUND 16.2 STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS FOR NYLON CARPET 16.3 TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 16.4 FLUOROCHEMICALS 16.5 STAIN RESISTANCE TECHNOLOGY 16.6 APPLICATION OF STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS 16.6.1 Basic Information 16.6.2 Development of the Foam Application 16.7 EXAMPLES OF STAIN RESISTANT APPLICATIONS 16.7.1 Batch Exhaust 16.7.2 Continuous Exhaust 16.7.3 Use in Drying Only 16.7.4 Foam Application 16.7.5 Exhaustion of Stain Blocker on Nylon 16.8 PERFORMANCE TESTING

Part 5: Performance, Cleaning, and Recycling

  1. Performance Issues 17.1 STANDARDS AND TESTS 17.1.1 Standards and Tests for Carpets 17.1.2 Standards and Tests for Backing 17.2 APPEARANCE RETENTION 17.3 FLAMMABILITY 17.3.1 Pill Test 17.3.2 Discussion of Pill Test Results 17.3.3 Radiant Panel Test 17.4 SOUND ABSORPTION 17.4.1 Testing Terminology 17.4.2 Testing of Carpet 17.4.3 Impact Sound Insulation 17.5 OTHER PERFORMANCE ISSUES 17.5.1 Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) Yellowing 17.5.2 Discoloration from Stain Blockers 17.5.3 Pile Crush or Matting 17.5.4 Shading 17.5.5 Pilling 17.5.6 Fuzzing 17.5.7 Delamination or Backing Separation 17.5.8 Indentation 17.5.9 Static 17.5.10 Grinning

  2. Maintenance and Cleaning 18.1 CLEANING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT 18.2 REMOVAL OF STAINS AND CLEANING HINTS 18.3 CLEANING STAINS AND SPILLS 18.3.1 Common Spill Removal

  3. Recycling 19.1 DISCUSSION 19.2 USES 19.2.1 Plastic Lumber 19.2.2 Concrete Reinforcement 19.2.3 Asphalt Modification 19.2.4 Use in Soil 19.3 RECOVERY PROCESSES 19.3.1 Individual Carpet Component Separation 19.3.2 Compatiblization of Carpet Components 19.3.3 Depolymerization 19.4 EXAMPLES OF CARPET RECYCLING 19.4.1 Carpet Used for Energy 19.4.2 Company Specific Examples of Recycli


Description

This book combines Von Moody's original work and research in the carpet industry with the well respected 1986 textile source book, Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes: A Concise Guide, by Howard L. Needles to produce a unique practical guide on all aspects of the preparation, manufacture, and performance of carpet. It addresses the structure and properties of fiber, carpet construction, coatings, dyes, finishes, performance, and recycling, among other topics. This volume is an indispensable reference for all practitioners in the carpet industry.

Readership

Professionals and technicians throughout the entire carpet industry (and suppliers of the industry as well) will find this book invaluable to their activities.


Details

No. of pages:
267
Language:
English
Copyright:
© William Andrew 2004
Published:
Imprint:
William Andrew
eBook ISBN:
9780815519409
Hardcover ISBN:
9781884207990

About the Authors

Von Moody Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Auburn University

Howard L. Needles Author