Trigeminocardiac Reflex is a comprehensive tutorial reference to the science, diagnosis, and possible treatment of the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) that is usually initiated when the trigeminal nerve is disturbed during intercranial surgery. Since first reported in 1999 by co-Editor Bernhard Schaller, the research focused on TCR is expanding. While its instance is rare, new discoveries are not only increasing diagnosis, but also providing more effective treatment protocols. This text is ideal as a reference for clinical and research neurologists, as a general introduction for clinical presentation, and as a foundation for new research.

Key Features

  • Represents the first tutorial reference focused on the Trigeminocardiac Reflex (TCR)
  • Content organized by two of the leading scientists in the area, Dr. Tumul Chowdhury (University of Manitoba) and Prof. Bernhard Schaller (University of Southampton)
  • Defines TCR, its onset, and possible treatments
  • Establishes a knowledge base for the future study of the TCR and treatment protocols


Professionals in Neurology, Neurosurgery, Neurophysiology, Neuroanesthesiology

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Chapter 1. History of the Trigeminocardiac Reflex: An Odyssey
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 2. The Trigeminal Nerve: Anatomical Pathways. Trigeminocardiac Reflex Trigger Points
    • Introduction
    • Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve
    • Topographical Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve Branches and the Occurrence of the TCR
    • Difference in the Incidence of the TCR During Neurosurgical Interventions: Anatomical Perspective. TCR Trigger Points
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 3. The Trigeminal Nerve and the Autonomous Nerve System: Physiological Considerations
    • Introduction
    • Correlation Between the Trigeminal Nerve and the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
    • Central Mechanisms of Trigeminal Integration
    • Trigeminal Reflexes Mediated by the ANS
    • Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 4. The Trigeminal Nerve and the Heart
    • Introduction
    • Trigeminocardiac Reflex
    • Diving Reflex
    • Nasopharyngeal Reflex
    • Role of Sympathetic–Parasympathetic Interaction in Trigeminovagal Reflexes
    • Cardiac Responses to Trigeminal Reflexes
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Trigeminocardiac Reflex: Definition and Introduction
    • Introduction
    • TCR: A Unique Clinical Entity
    • Definition of the TCR
    • Cause–Effect Relationship
    • The Traditional Classification: TCRs Centrally and Peripherally Located with Respect to the Gasserian Ganglion
    • Extended Classification: Toward a Comprehensive Understanding of the TCR
    • The Role of HR in the Context of Classification
    • The Role of Blood Pressure in the Context of Classification
    • Chronic Versus Acute TCR
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • References


No. of pages:
© 2015
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Print ISBN:

About the editors

Tumul Chowdhury

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Bernhard Schaller

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Southampton, Southampton, UK