Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781437734676, 9781437734683

Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes

2nd Edition

Authors: Ioan D. Marinescu W. Brian Rowe Boris Dimitrov Hitoshi Ohmori
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437734676
eBook ISBN: 9781437734683
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 4th December 2012
Page Count: 600
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This book draws upon the science of tribology to understand, predict and improve abrasive machining processes. Pulling together information on how abrasives work, the authors, who are renowned experts in abrasive technology, demonstrate how tribology can be applied as a tool to improve abrasive machining processes.

Each of the main elements of the abrasive machining system are looked at, and the tribological factors that control the efficiency and quality of the processes are described. Since grinding is by far the most commonly employed abrasive machining process, it is dealt with in particular detail.

Solutions are posed to many of the most commonly experienced industrial problems, such as poor accuracy, poor surface quality, rapid wheel wear, vibrations, work-piece burn and high process costs. This practical approach makes this book an essential tool for practicing engineers.

Key Features

  • Uses the science of tribology to improve understanding and of abrasive machining processes in order to increase performance, productivity and surface quality of final products
  • A comprehensive reference on how abrasives work, covering kinematics, heat transfer, thermal stresses, molecular dynamics, fluids and the tribology of lubricants
  • Authoritative and ground-breaking in its first edition, the 2nd edition includes 30% new and updated material, including new topics such as CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing) and precision machining for micro-and nano-scale applications


Mechanical and manufacturing engineers; Machining process engineers, technicians, consultants; researchers and students of Manufacturing

Table of Contents

Preface to the first edition

Preface to the second edition

About the authors

Part 1: Introduction

1. Introduction

1.1 Abrasive processes

1.2 Abrasives

1.3 Tribological principles

1.4 A typical grinding process

1.5 A tribological system


2. Tribosystems of abrasive machining processes

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Structure of tribomechanical processing

2.3 The three tribosystems in abrasive machining

2.4 Modeling tribosystems of abrasive processes

2.5 Conclusions


Part 2: Physical Mechanisms

3. Kinematic models of abrasive contacts

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Surface grinding

3.3 Cylindrical grinding

3.4 Implications of the stochastic nature of grinding

3.5 Effect of dressing

3.6 Summary of kinematic parameters


4. Contact mechanics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Contact area

4.3 Contact length

4.4 Smooth body analysis

4.5 Rough surface analysis

4.6 Experimental measurements of Rr

4.7 Elastic stresses due to abrasion

4.8 Summary of contact stress implications


5. Forces, friction, and energy

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Forces and power

5.3 Forces, specific energy, and efficiency

5.4 Examples—materials and grinding conditions

5.5 The size effect

5.6 Effect of wear flat area on specific energy

5.7 Wear and dressing conditions

5.8 Effect of dressing tool wear

5.9 The nature of the grinding forces

5.10 Force ratio and friction coefficient

5.11 Adhesive and abrasive wheel wear

5.12 Slip-line field solutions

5.13 Three-dimensional pyramid model of grinding

5.14 Limit charts

5.15 Process optimization and wheelspeed


6. Thermal design of processes

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Surface damage

6.3 Temperatures in grinding

6.4 Monitoring and estimating temperatures

6.5 Heat input to the process

6.6 Workpiece heat conduction

6.7 Approximate temperature formulas

6.8 Heat partition

6.9 Case studies on process variations and process design


7. Molecular dynamics for nano-contact simulation

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Background

7.3 Concept and basic elements of MDs

7.4 Characterization of the model

7.5 Elastic to plastic transformation and initial temperature of the workpiece

7.6 Parallel version of the MDs-code

7.7 Application examples

7.8 Summary and outlook


8. Fluid delivery

8.1 The role of process fluids

8.2 Overcoming the air barrier in high-speed grinding

8.3 Nozzles for high-speed grinding

8.4 Fluid power and velocity requirements

8.5 Nozzle flow and “useful flow”

8.6 Cooling in creep grinding

8.7 Summary


Part 3: Application of Abrasive Tools

9. Abrasives and abrasive tools

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Conventional abrasive grain materials

9.3 Super-abrasives

9.4 Structure of super-abrasives

9.5 Grit sizes, grit shapes, and properties

9.6 Bonds

9.7 Design and specification of grinding wheels

9.8 Abrasive pastes

9.9 Coated abrasives and abrasive belts


10. Grinding wheel and abrasive topography

10.1 Basic wheel shape

10.2 The importance of micro-topography

10.3 Topographical definitions

10.4 Measurement techniques

10.5 Topography changes in grinding

10.6 Grinding inconel 718


11. Conditioning of abrasive wheels

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Grinding wheel preparation

11.3 Grinding wheel conditioning

11.4 Dressing tools

11.5 Technologies for conditioning vitrified conventional wheels

11.6 Technologies for conditioning super-abrasive wheels

11.7 Nonconventional technologies for wheel conditioning

11.8 Removal mechanisms in conventional conditioning

11.9 Micro-topography of a conditioned wheel

11.10 Wear of dressing tools

11.11 Conclusions


12. Electrolytic in-process dressing grinding and polishing

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Basic system

12.3 Basic principles

12.4 Electrical aspects of ELID grinding

12.5 Grinding wheels for ELID applications

12.6 ELID grinding of ceramics

12.7 Material removal mechanisms in grinding of ceramics and glasses

12.8 Comparison of ELID and other grinding techniques

12.9 Applications of ELID grinding

12.10 Conclusions


13. Loose abrasive processes

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Two- and three-body abrasion (mechanisms)

13.3 The lapping process

13.4 Polishing process

13.5 Chemo-mechanical polishing


14. Desktop machine tools and applications

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Desktop 4-axis cutting and grinding machine

14.3 Micro-tool

Part 4: Process Fluids, Tribo-chemistryand Materials

15. Process fluids for abrasive machining

15.1 Process fluids as lubricants

15.2 Lubrication regimes

15.3 Viscosity

15.4 Friction coefficient in mixed/boundary lubrication

15.5 Classification of process fluids

15.6 Neat oils

15.7 Water-based fluids

15.8 Water solutions

15.9 Water–oil emulsions

15.10 The influence of additives

15.11 Physical properties of process fluids

15.12 Chemical properties of process fluids

15.13 Tribological properties of process fluids

15.14 Biological properties of process fluids

15.15 Degradation of fluid properties during operation

15.16 Analysis of physico-chemical and biological properties

15.17 Tribological and application characteristics

15.18 Adjustment of fluid properties in operation

15.19 Selection of process fluids

15.20 Conclusions and recommendations


16. Tribochemistry of abrasive machining

16.1 Definition of tribochemistry

16.2 Modeling a tribochemical process

16.3 Tribochemical behavior of abrasive tools

16.4 Tribochemical aspects of the work-material structure

16.5 Tribochemical aspects of dry abrasive machining

16.6 Tribochemical aspects of wet abrasive machining

16.7 Conclusions


17. Processed materials

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Structural aspects of metals

17.3 Structural aspects of nonmetals

17.4 Structural aspects of transitional materials

17.5 Adverse tribochemical effects in abrasive machining

17.6 Tribological aspects of abrasive machining

17.7 Conclusions


Symbols and units


SI units

Consistency of units in equations

SI — British conversion factors (values rounded to 4 significant figures)




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About the Author

Ioan D. Marinescu

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Toledo, OH, USA

W. Brian Rowe

W. Brian Rowe is a consulting engineer and recognized bearing expert with more than 30 years’ experience working on a wide range of machinery design problems across all industries. He has previously run courses on bearings at Coventry University in the UK and Stanford University in the USA, as well as sessions on the topic for industrial engineers in Chengdu, China. He has received awards in recognition of his work, including the Walter R. Evans Award for significant contributions to the field of rotor dynamics in 2004.

Affiliations and Expertise

Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Tribology Research Laboratory (AMTTREL) at Liverpool John Moores University, UK

Boris Dimitrov

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute for Applied Mechanics and the Institute for Precision Mechanics in Bucharest Romania

Hitoshi Ohmori

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Scientist, Materials Fabrication Laboratory, RIKEN, Japan


"The breadth of knowledge presented is excellent, providing a wide body of test to reference regarding abrasive processes." --Dr Matthew Marshall, University of Sheffield

"I find myself turning to Marinescu’s Tribology when I want fundamental information on the nature of grit-workpiece contact" --Dr Jeffrey Badger, Consultant Engineer