Tribology in Machine Design - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780434918263, 9781483144566

Tribology in Machine Design

1st Edition

Authors: T. A. Stolarski
eBook ISBN: 9781483144566
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 1st February 1983
Page Count: 310
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Tribology in Machine Design aims to promote a better appreciation of the increasingly important role played by tribology at the design stage in engineering. This book shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications. The concept of tribodesign is introduced in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief discussion of the basic principles of tribology, including some concepts and models of lubricated wear and friction under complex kinematic conditions. Elements of contact mechanics, presented in Chapter 3, are confined to the most technically important topics. Tribology of lower kinematic pairs, sliding element bearings, and higher kinematic pairs are discussed in Chapters 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Chapter 7 contains a discussion of rolling contact bearings with particular emphasis on contact problems, surface fatigue, and lubrication techniques. Finally, Chapter 8 concentrates on lubrication and surface failures of involute gears. This book is planned as a comprehensive reference and source that will not only be useful to practicing designers, researchers, and postgraduate students, but will also find an essential place in libraries catering for engineering students on degree courses in universities and polytechnics.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction to the Concept of Tribodesign

1.1. Specific Principles of Tribodesign

1.2. Tribological Problems in Machine Design

1.2.1. Plain Sliding Bearings

1.2.2. Rolling Contact Bearings

1.2.3. Piston, Piston Rings and Cylinder Liners

1.2.4. Cam and Cam Followers

1.2.5. Friction Drives

1.2.6. Involute Gears

1.2.7. Hypoid Gears

1.2.8. Worm Gears

2. Basic Principles of Tribology

2.1. Origins of Sliding Friction

2.2 Contact between Bodies in Relative Motion

2.3 Friction Due to Adhesion

2.4. Friction Due to Ploughing

2.5. Friction Due to Deformation

2.6 Energy Dissipation during Friction

2.7 Friction under Complex Motion Conditions

2.8. Types of Wear and Their Mechanisms

2.8.1. Adhesive Wear

2.8.2. Abrasive Wear

2.8.3. Wear Due to Surface Fatigue

2.8.4. Wear Due to Chemical Reactions

2.9. Sliding Contact between Surface Asperities

2.10. The Probability of Surface Asperity Contact

2.11. Wear in Lubricated Contacts

2.11.1. Rheological Lubrication Regime

2.11.2. Functional Lubrication Regime

2.11.3. Fractional Film Defect

2.11.4. Load Sharing in Lubricated Contacts

2.11.5. Adhesive Wear Equation

2.11.6. Fatigue Wear Equation

2.11.7. Numerical Example

2.12 Relation between Fracture Mechanics and Wear

2.12.1. Estimation of Stress Intensity under Non-Uniform Applied Loads

2.13. Film Lubrication

2.13.1 Coefficient of Viscosity

2.13.2. Fluid Film in Simple Shear

2.13.3. Viscous Flow between Very Close Parallel Surfaces

2.13.4. Shear Stress Variations within the Film

2.13.5. Lubrication Theory by Osborne Reynolds

2.13.6. High-Speed Unloaded Journal

2.13.7. Equilibrium Conditions in a Loaded Bearing

2.13.8. Loaded High-Speed Journal

2.13.9. Equilibrium Equations for Loaded High-Speed Journal

2.13.10. Reaction Torque Acting on the Bearing

2.13.11. The Virtual Coefficient of Friction

2.13.12. The Sommerfeld Diagram


3. Elements of Contact Mechanics

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Concentrated and Distributed Forces on Plane Surfaces

3.3. Contact between Two Elastic Bodies in the Form of Spheres

3.4. Contact between Cylinders and between Bodies of General Shape

3.5. Failures of Contacting Surfaces

3.6. Design Values and Procedures

3.7. Thermal Effects in Surface Contacts

3.7.1 Analysis of Line Contacts

3.7.2. Refinement for Unequal Bulk Temperatures

3.7.3. Refinement for Thermal Bulging in the Conjunction Zone

3.7.4. The Effect of Surface Layers and Lubricant Films

3.7.5. Critical Temperature for Lubricated Contacts

3.7.6. The Case of Circular Contact

3.7.7. Contacts for Which Size is Determined by Load

3.7.8. Maximum Attainable Flash Temperature

3.8. Contact between Rough Surfaces

3.8.1. Characteristics of Random Rough Surfaces

3.8.2. Contact of Nominally Flat Rough Surfaces

3.9. Representation of Machine Element Contacts


4. Friction, Lubrication and Wear in Lower Kinematic Pairs

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The Concept of Friction Angle

4.2.1. Friction in Slideways

4.2.2. Friction Stability

4.3. Friction in Screws with a Square Thread

4.3.1. Application of a Threaded Screw in a Jack

4.4. Friction in Screws with a Triangular Thread

4.5. Plate Clutch - Mechanism of Operation

4.6. Cone Clutch - Mechanism of Operation

4.6.1. Driving Torque

4.7. Rim Clutch - Mechanism of Operation

4.7.1. Equilibrium Conditions

4.7.2. Auxiliary Mechanisms

4.7.3. Power Transmission Rating

4.8. Centrifugal Clutch - Mechanism of Operation

4.9. Boundary Lubricated Sliding Bearings

4.9.1. Axially Loaded Bearings

4.9.2. Pivot and Collar Bearings

4.10. Drives Utilizing Friction Force

4.10.1. Belt Drive

4.10.2. Mechanism of Action

4.10.3. Power Transmission Rating

4.10.4. Relationship between Belt Tension and Modulus

4.10.5. V-Belt and Rope Drives

4.11. Frictional Aspects of Brake Design

4.11.1. The Band Brake

4.11.2. The Curved Brake Block

4.11.3. The Band and Block Brake

4.12. The Role of Friction in the Propulsion and the Braking of Vehicles

4.13. Tractive Resistance

4.14. Pneumatic Tires

4.14.1. Creep of an Automobile Tire

4.14.2. Transverse Tangential Forces

4.14.3. Functions of the Tire in Vehicle Application

4.14.4. Design Features of the Tire Surface

4.14.5. The Mechanism of Rolling and Sliding

4.14.6. Tire Performance on a Wet Road Surface

4.14.7. The Development of Tires with Improved Performance

4.15. Tribodesign Aspects of Mechanical Seals

4.15.1. Operation Fundamentals

4.15.2. Utilization of Surface Tension

4.15.3. Utilization of Viscosity

4.15.4. Utilization of Hydrodynamic Action

4.15.5. Labyrinth Seals

4.15.6. Wear in Mechanical Seals

4.15.7. Parameters Affecting Wear

4.15.8. Analytical Models of Wear

4.15.9. Parameters Defining Performance Limits

4.15.10. Material Aspects of Seal Design

4.15.11. Lubrication of Seals


5. Sliding-Element Bearings

5.1. Derivation of the Reynolds Equation

5.2. Hydrostatic Bearings

5.3. Squeeze-Film Lubrication Bearings

5.4. Thrust Bearings

5.4.1. Flat Pivot

5.4.2. The Effect of the Pressure Gradient in the Direction of Motion

5.4.3. Equilibrium Conditions

5.4.4. The Coefficient of Friction and Critical Slope

5.5. Journal Bearings

5.5.1. Geometrical Configuration and Pressure Generation

5.5.2. Mechanism of Load Transmission

5.5.3. Thermoflow Considerations

5.5.4. Design for Load-Bearing Capacity

5.5.5. Unconventional Cases of Loading

5.5.6. Numerical Example

5.5.7. Short Bearing Theory - CAD Approach

5.6. Journal Bearings for Specialized Applications

5.6.1. Journal Bearings with Fixed Non-Preloaded Pads

5.6.2. Journal Bearings with Fixed Preloaded Pads

5.6.3. Journal Bearings with Special Geometric Features

5.6.4. Journal Bearings with Movable Pads

5.7. Gas Bearings

5.8. Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings

5.8.1. Connecting-Rod Big-End Bearing

5.8.2. Loads Acting on Main Crankshaft Bearing

5.8.3. Minimum Oil Film Thickness

5.9. Modern Developments in Journal Bearing Design

5.9.1. Bearing Fit

5.9.2. Grooving

5.9.3. Clearance

5.9.4. Bearing Materials

5.10. Selection and Design of Thrust Bearings

5.10.1. Tilting-Pad Bearing Characteristics

5.10.2. Design Features of Hydrostatic Thrust Bearings

5.11. Self-Lubricating Bearings

5.11.1. Classification of Self-Lubricating Bearings

5.11.2. Design Considerations


6. Friction, Lubrication and Wear in Higher Kinematic Pairs

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Loads Acting on Contact Area

6.3. Traction in the Contact Zone

6.4. Hysteresis Losses

6.5. Rolling Friction

6.6. Lubrication of Cylinders

6.7. Analysis of Line Contact Lubrication

6.8. Heating at the Inlet to the Contact

6.9. Analysis of Point Contact Lubrication

6.10. Cam-Follower System


7. Rolling-Contact Bearings

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Analysis of Friction in Rolling-Contact Bearings

7.2.1. Friction Torque Due to Differential Sliding

7.2.2. Friction Torque Due to Gyroscopic Spin

7.2.3. Friction Torque Due to Elastic Hysteresis

7.2.4. Friction Torque Due to Geometric Errors

7.2.5. Friction Torque Due to the Effect of the Raceway

7.2.6. Friction Torque Due to Shearing of the Lubricant

7.2.7. Friction Torque Caused by the Working Medium

7.2.8. Friction Torque Caused by Temperature Increase

7.3. Deformations in Rolling-Contact Bearings

7.4. Kinematics of Rolling-Contact Bearings

7.4.1. Normal Speeds

7.4.2. High Speeds

7.5. Lubrication of Rolling-Contact Bearings

7.5.1. Function of a Lubricant

7.5.2. Solid Film Lubrication

7.5.3. Grease Lubrication

7.5.4. Jet Lubrication

7.5.5. Lubrication Utilizing Under-Race Passages

7.5.6. Mist Lubrication

7.5.7. Surface Failure Modes Related to Lubrication

7.5.8. Lubrication Effects on Fatigue Life

7.5.9. Lubricant Contamination and Filtration

7.5.10. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in Design Practice

7.6. Acoustic Emission in Rolling-Contact Bearings

7.6.1. Inherent Source of Noise

7.6.2. Distributed Defects on Rolling Surfaces

7.6.3. Surface Geometry and Roughness

7.6.4. External Influences on Noise Generation

7.6.5. Noise Reduction and Vibration Control Methods


8. Lubrication and Efficiency of Involute Gears

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Generalities of Gear Tribodesign

8.3. Lubrication Regimes

8.4. Gear Failure Due to Scuffing

8.4.1. Critical Temperature Factor

8.4.2. Minimum Film Thickness Factor

8.5. Gear Pitting

8.5.1. Surface Originated Pitting

8.5.2. Evaluation of Surface Pitting Risk

8.5.3. Subsurface Originated Pitting

8.5.4. Evaluation of Subsurface Pitting Risk

8.6. Assessment of Gear Wear Risk

8.7. Design Aspect of Gear Lubrication

8.8. Efficiency of Gears

8.8.1. Analysis of Friction Losses

8.8.2. Summary of Efficiency Formula




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About the Author

T. A. Stolarski

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