Tribological Processes in the Valve Train Systems with Lightweight Valves

Tribological Processes in the Valve Train Systems with Lightweight Valves

New Research and Modelling

1st Edition - June 17, 2016

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  • Author: Krzysztof Siczek
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081009734
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081009567

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Tribological Processes in Valvetrain Systems with Lightweight Valves: New Research and Modelling provides readers with the latest methodologies to reduce friction and wear in valvetrain systems—a severe problem for designers and manufacturers. The solution is achieved by identifying the tribological processes and phenomena in the friction nodes of lightweight valves made of titanium alloys and ceramics, both cam and camless driven. The book provides a set of structured information on the current tribological problems in modern internal combustion engines—from an introduction to the valvetrain operation to the processes that produce wear in the components of the valvetrain. A valuable resource for teachers and students of mechanical or automotive engineering, as well as automotive manufacturers, automotive designers, and tuning engineers.

Key Features

  • Shows the tribological problems occurring in the guide-light valve-seat insert
  • Combines numerical and experimental solutions of wear and friction processes in valvetrain systems
  • Discusses various types of cam and camless drives the valves used in valve trains of internal combustion engines—both SI and CI
  • Examines the materials used, protective layers and geometric parameters of lightweight valves, as well as mating guides and seat inserts


Industry area – engineers in Automotive Manufactures, employees in such Manufactures, Automotive Designers, Tuning Engineers; Academic area – students and lecturers of Mechanical Departments especially in Automotive Area, Tribology Area, Postgraduates, researches

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Introduction

    • Abstract

    Chapter 2. Principles of valve train operation

    • Abstract
    • Withdrawal from the Basic Valve Timing
    • Lead, Lag, and Overlap
    • Valve Timing Diagrams
    • Four-Stroke Cycle
    • Two-Stroke Engines
    • Rotary Port System for IC Engines
    • Arrangement of Poppet Valves
    • Valve Train System with Poppet Valves
    • Classification of Variable Valve Actuation Technology
    • Variable Valve Timing
    • Deactivation of the Cylinder and Valve

    Chapter 3. Spark-ignition engine valve trains

    • Abstract
    • Effect of Variable Control on the Operation of Lightweight Valves
    • Variable Valve Timing Systems
    • Camshaft-Based Mechanisms for the Valve Variable Operation in the Produced Engines
    • Variable Valve Timing via Shifting the Camshaft Phases
    • Variable Valve Timing via Special Design

    Chapter 4. Compression-ignition engine valve trains

    • Abstract
    • Valve Timing Control Systems in Compression-Ignition Engines
    • Course of Valve Lifts during Timing Phase Changes in CI Engines
    • Hydraulic Systems of “Lost Lift”
    • Profile Generation Systems
    • Variable Speed Systems
    • Use of Variable Valve Control Systems for Standard CI Engines
    • Review of Cam Valve Drives

    Chapter 5. Valve train thermodynamic effects

    • Abstract
    • Effects of Changes to Outlet (Exhaust) Valve Opening Timing
    • Effects of Changes to Outlet Valve Closing Timing
    • Effect of Changes to Inlet Valve Opening Timing
    • Effect of Changes to Inlet Valve Closing Timing
    • Inlet (Intake) Cam Phasing
    • Outlet (Exhaust) Cam Phasing
    • Dual-Equal Cam Phasing
    • Dual-Independent Cam Phasing
    • Cold-Start Valve Phasing Strategies
    • Effects of Valve Overlap
    • Effect of Valve Stroke
    • Exhaust Gas Recirculation
    • The Effect of Valve Timing on Effective Compression Ratio
    • The Effect of Valve Train on In-Cylinder Turbulence
    • The Effect of Valve Train on the Exhaust Temperature
    • The Effect of Valve Train on Overexpansion
    • The Effect of Valve Train on Turbo Charging
    • Two- and Three-Step Strategies of Variable Valve Actuation
    • Strategies for Full Variable Valve Timing Control

    Chapter 6. Valve train kinetic effects

    • Abstract
    • Control Cycle of Valve Motion
    • Operating Conditions of the Valve Train Components
    • Valve Rotation
    • Auxiliary Rotation System
    • Misalignment of Seat Insert Relative to Valve Guide
    • Forces Loading Elements of Valve Train
    • Modeling of Valve Train
    • Stiffness of Valve Train
    • Contact Between Cam and Follower
    • Cam Profile
    • Spring
    • Lash Adjuster and Hydraulic Chain Tensioners
    • Friction Phenomena in the Nodes of the Cam Valve Train With Fixed Phases
    • Criteria for the Tribological Quality of the System

    Chapter 7. Valve train tribology

    • Abstract
    • Tribological Problems in the Guide–Lightweight Valve–Seat Insert Subsystem
    • Basic Concepts Related to Friction
    • Guidelines for the Design of the Model for the Guide–Valve–Seat Insert Assembly Treated as a Tribological System
    • The Wear Process of Friction Pairs in the HOPI–SOPG System

    Chapter 8. Mechanical component design and analysis

    • Abstract
    • Drive System of the Valve Train
    • Camshafts
    • Valve Springs
    • Small Parts in the Valve Train
    • Classical Valves
    • Lightweight Valves
    • Valve Guides
    • Seat Inserts

    Chapter 9. Advanced mechanical valve train design and analysis

    • Abstract
    • Variable Valve Stroke by Switching the Cam Profile
    • Systems with Continuous Change of Valve Stroke
    • Variable Valve Lift, Connecting the Valve Timing Change, and Changing of the Profile
    • Variable Control of the Valves via the Camshaft
    • Summary of Cam Valve Drives

    Chapter 10. Future valve train systems

    • Abstract
    • Electromagnetic Valve Drive
    • Electromechanical Valve Drive
    • Electrohydraulic Valve Drive
    • Electropneumatic Valve Drive

    Chapter 11. Research on valve trains

    • Abstract
    • Testing Methods
    • Computer Simulation of Friction and Wear at the Nodes Valve–Guide and Valve–Seat Insert
    • Effect of the Wear of Components of the HOPI–SOPG System on the Sum of Flows in the Gap Between the Valve Stem and Guide and Between the Seat Faces of the Valve and Its Insert
    • Simulation Algorithm

Product details

  • No. of pages: 298
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2016
  • Published: June 17, 2016
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081009734
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081009567

About the Author

Krzysztof Siczek

Dr. Siczek is a Master Engineer in Mechanical Engineering, with a specialization in Cars and Tractors at Technical University of Lodz, Poland. He teaches Automobile Mechatronics at the Lodz Centre of Excellence for Teacher Training and Practical Training. He is also a Lecturer in the Department of Machine Design and Exploatation/Department of Precise Design/Department of Vehicle and Fundamentals of Machine Design. Responsible for teaching of Descriptive Geometry, Technical Drawing, Informatics, CAD. His current research focuses on selfstarters, valvetrain elements, shock absorbers, loom mechanisms, and properties of composites.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lecturer, Department of Vehicles and Fundamentals of Machine Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland

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