Tree Ecology and Preservation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444416063, 9780444599384

Tree Ecology and Preservation

1st Edition

Authors: A. Bernatzky
eBook ISBN: 9780444599384
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 366
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Table of Contents


1. Trees in the History of Civilisation

2. A brief History of the Evolution of Trees

3. The Structure and Functions of Trees — A Brief Morphology and Physiology

3.1. The Trunk

3.2. The Tree Crown

3.3. The Roots — The "underground" Tree

3.4. Aging of Trees

4. Trees in their Environment

4.1. Basic Elements

4.1.1. Sunlight as the Source of Energy

4.1.2. Heat Economy (Budget)

4.1.3. Carbon Economy

4.1.4. Water Economy

4.1.5. Mineral Economy

4.1.6. Nitrogen Economy

4.1.7. Mechanical Factors of Environment

4.1.8. Interference of Ecological Factors

4.2. Phytocoenoses

4.3. Trees in the Landscape

4.3.1. Trees in Forests

4.3.2. Trees in Parks

4.3.3. Trees on Traffic Routes

4.4. Trees in the Town

4.4.1. The Ecological Situation

4.4.2. Trees in Physical Planning

4.4.3. Trees in Front Gardens

4.4.4. Roof Gardens

4.4.5. Trees for Visual Protection

4.4.6. Age Distribution of Trees

4.4.7. Domestic Versus Exotic Trees

5. The Contributions of Trees to the Ecosystem "Town"

5.1. Peculiarities of the Urban Climate

5.2. Effects of Trees

5.2.1. Reduction of Particulate Pollution

5.2.2. Reduction of Gaseous Pollution

5.2.3. Shelter Belts (Protective Plantation Screens)

5.2.4. Protection Against Radioactivity

5.2.5. Reduction of Temperature

5.2.6. Influence of Trees and Green Spaces on Urban Ventilation

5.2.7. Noise Reduction by Trees and Shrubs

5.2.8. Oxygen Release by Trees in Towns and Forests

5.3. Effects of Trees on Physical and Mental Health

6. General Phytopathology

7. Tree Preservation

7.1. Why Trees Die

7.2. Standards of Tree Maintenance

7.2.1. Pruning of Trees

7.3. Peeling Bark

7.4. Bridging of Trunk Wounds

7.5. Bracing

7.6. Frost Cracks

7.7. Cabling

7.8. Cavity Treatment

Cleaning the Cavities


Reinforcement of Cavity-Weakened Trees

Filling up a Cavity or Not?

Open Cavities

Filling of Cavities

The Use of Polyurethane for Filling of Cavities

False Fillings

Supporting Structures

Tools and Equipment for Tree Surgery

7.9. Protecting Trees Against Damage from Construction Work

7.9.1. Filling up the Root Areas of Trees

7.9.2. Soil Removal

7.9.3. Measures in the Root Zone of Trees

7.9.4. Lowering of Ground Water

7.9.5. Isolating of Single Trees

7.9.6. Overhead Wires

7.9.7. Measures to Protect Trees on Building Sites

7.9.8. Trees on Parking Areas

8. Tree Planting and Inspection

8.1. Technique of Tree Planting

8.2. Transplanting Large Trees

8.2.1. Aftercare Following Transplanting

8.3. Anchoring of Trees

8.4. Inspection and Estimation of Trees

9. Tree Nutrition

9.1. Fertilizing

9.2. Ground Feeding

9.3. Foliar Feeding

9.4. Soil Improving Agents

10. The Use of False-Colour Infrared Photographs in Remote Sensing to Check the Health of Tree Populations

10.1. What will be Observed on the IR Picture?

10.2. Advantages of False Colour IR Photographs

10.3. When to Take Aerial Pictures

10.4. Interpretation of the Photographs

10.5. Drawing up a Tree Register

10.6. Costs of Picture Flights

10.7. Infrared Thermography

10.8. Summary

11. Control of Pests and Diseases

11.1. Chemical Pest Control

11.2. Biological Pest Control

11.3. Microbiological Pest Control

11.4. Autocidal Control (Self-Annihilation)

11.5. Integrated Pest Control

12. Evaluation of Trees

12.1. The Individual Factors

12.2. Calculation of Partial Losses




Containing more than 225 illustrations, this is probably the first book to cover both scientific research on trees and tree surgery. It is an authoritative work, written by a man who has had a lifetime's experience of working with trees, and as such, the book will undoubtedly appeal to a wide-ranging readership.


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 1978
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:


@qu:This undoubtedly is the best current European text on arboriculture. @source: Journal of Arboriculture

About the Authors

A. Bernatzky Author