Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 3: Industrial Processes

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 3: Industrial Processes

1st Edition - December 9, 2013

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Seshadri Seetharaman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080969893
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969886

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Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products. Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled Process Fundamentals, encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; Processing Phenomena, encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and Industrial Processes, encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design. The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality. The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert Cahn and Peter Haasen’s famous reference family, Physical Metallurgy (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono (publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy are fields within their own right, and this work will be of interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area.

Key Features

  • Synthesizes the most pertinent contemporary developments within process metallurgy so scientists have authoritative information at their fingertips
  • Replaces existing articles and monographs with a single complete solution, saving time for busy scientists
  • Helps metallurgists to predict changes and consequences and create or modify whatever process is deployed


For teaching and research faculty, upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and post-doctoral research associates in metallurgy and materials science and technology and related areas of study (physics, chemistry and biomedical science) as well as researchers and staff members of government and industrial research laboratories. Particularly useful for more experienced research workers who require an overview of fields comparatively new to them, or with which they wish to renew contact after a gap of some years.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication


    Editor in Chief


    Contributors to Volume 3


    The Review Committee

    Part A

    Chapter 1. Iron and Steel Technology

    Chapter 1.1. Ironmaking


    1.1.1 Introduction

    1.1.2 The Ironmaking Blast Furnace

    1.1.3 Iron-Bearing Materials and Additives

    1.1.4 Reducing Agents

    1.1.5 Counter-Current Movements of Burden and Gas

    1.1.6 Blast Furnace Reactions

    1.1.7 Energy Consumption and Blast Furnace Performance

    1.1.8 Process Instrumentation and Control

    1.1.9 Future Trends in Ironmaking


    Chapter 1.2. The Direct Reduction of Iron


    1.2.1 Introduction

    1.2.2 Raw Materials

    1.2.3 DR Processes

    1.2.4 Applications of DRI

    1.2.5 Energy and Emissions

    1.2.6 Concluding Remarks



    Further Reading

    Chapter 1.3. Hot Metal Pretreatment


    1.3.1 Introduction

    1.3.2 Desulfurization

    1.3.3 Dephosphorization

    1.3.4 Desiliconization

    1.3.5 Influence of Hot Metal Pretreatment on Scrap Melting Capacity

    1.3.6 Hot Metal Heating Device


    Chapter 1.4. Converter Steelmaking


    1.4.1 Introduction

    1.4.2 History of Development of Converter Steelmaking

    1.4.3 Basic Oxygen Furnace

    1.4.4 Basic Oxygen Steelmaking

    1.4.5 Converter Processes for Stainless Steelmaking

    1.4.6 On the Physicochemical Basis of Oxygen Steelmaking

    1.4.7 Future Aspects of Oxygen Converter Process


    Chapter 1.5. Electric Furnace Steelmaking


    1.5.1 Introduction to Electric Steelmaking

    1.5.2 Raw Materials, Availability, Scrap Classes, Scrap Trading

    1.5.3 Furnace Construction

    1.5.4 Melting Practice and Metallurgy

    1.5.5 Energy Balance of EAF Process, Electric Energy, Chemical Heating, Preheating, Postcombustion

    1.5.6 Special Furnace Constructions

    1.5.7 Environmental and Safety Issues

    1.5.8 Future Aspects


    Chapter 1.6. Secondary Steelmaking


    1.6.1 Introduction

    1.6.2 Deoxidation

    1.6.3 Desulfurization

    1.6.4 Degassing

    1.6.5 Decarburization

    1.6.6 Dephosphorization

    1.6.7 Heating

    1.6.8 Alloying

    1.6.9 Summarizing Discussion


    Chapter 1.7. Inclusion Engineering


    1.7.1 Introduction

    1.7.2 Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel

    1.7.3 Formation, Growth, and Removal of Inclusions

    1.7.4 Inclusion Engineering in Practical Steelmaking—A Case of Ball-Bearing Steel

    1.7.5 Special Methods for Ultra-Clean Steels

    1.7.6 Future Trends


    Chapter 1.8. Continuous Casting of Steel


    1.8.1 Introduction

    1.8.2 Types of Continuous Casting Machines

    1.8.3 Basic Equipment in Continuous Casting

    1.8.4 Fundamentals of Solidification in Continuous Casting

    1.8.5 Modeling of Microstructures

    1.8.6 Defects


    Chapter 1.9. How Mold Fluxes Work


    Symbols, Units, and Abbreviations

    1.9.1 Introduction

    1.9.2 Lubrication of Shell by Mold Flux

    1.9.3 Heat Transfer in the Mold

    1.9.4 Using Mold Fluxes to Adjust Process Variables

    1.9.5 Effect of Casting Variables on Mold Flux Performance

    1.9.6 Properties of Mold Fluxes

    1.9.7 Selection of Mold Fluxes

    1.9.8 Using Mold Fluxes to Minimize Defects and Process Problems


    Chapter 1.10. Production of Ferroalloys



    1.10.1 Classification, Manufacture, and Use of Ferroalloys

    1.10.2 Thermodynamics in the Production of Main Ferroalloys

    1.10.3 Ferrochromium Smelting Technology

    1.10.4 Reduction of Manganese Oxides and Production of Manganese Alloys

    1.10.5 General Process Description


    Chapter 2. Non-Ferrous Process Principles and Production Technologies

    Chapter 2.1. Copper Production


    Nomenclature used in Section 2.1.1




    2.1.1 Principles of Copper Production

    2.1.2 Industrial Technologies for Copper Production

    2.1.3 Refractories in Copper Production

    Glossary used in Section 2.1.1


    Chapter 2.2. Nickel and Cobalt Production


    2.2.1 Synopsis

    2.2.2 Occurrences

    2.2.3 Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Laterite Ores

    2.2.4 Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulfide Ores

    2.2.5 Production of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulfide Intermediates

    2.2.6 Cobalt from Central African Copper–Cobalt Ores

    2.2.7 Recovering Nickel and Cobalt from End-of-Use Scrap

    2.2.8 Summary


    Chapter 2.3. Lead and Zinc Production


    2.3.1 Lead Production

    2.3.2 Zinc Production


    Chapter 2.4. Process Modeling in Non-Ferrous Metallurgy



    2.4.1 General Approach to Process Modeling

    2.4.2 Thermodynamic Equilibrium Process Modeling

    2.4.3 Reaction Engineering Models

    2.4.4 CFDs Modeling

    Glossary for Section 2.4.2

    Glossary for Section 2.4.3

    Glossary for Section 2.4.4


    Chapter 2.5. Aluminum Production



    2.5.1 Hydrometallurgy of the Bayer Process

    2.5.2 Electrometallurgy of Aluminum

    2.5.3 Aluminum Recycling



    Chapter 2.6. Silicon Production


    2.6.1 Introduction

    2.6.2 Polysilicon Production Processes

    2.6.3 Conclusions and Future Trends

    Relevant Websites



    Chapter 2.7. Hydrometallurgical Processing



    2.7.1 Introduction to Hydrometallurgical Processing

    2.7.2 Application of Hydrometallurgical Fundamentals

    2.7.3 Gold Processing

    2.7.4 Copper Processing

    2.7.5 Zinc Processing



    Chapter 2.8. Biohydrometallurgy



    2.8.1 Introduction

    2.8.2 Growth, Metabolism, and Kinetics

    2.8.3 Mineral Degradation/Metal Extraction

    2.8.4 Summary of Biohydrometallurgy Commercialization History

    2.8.5 Commercially Oriented Processes for Biooxidation

    2.8.6 Process and Waste Water Treatment Applications



    Chapter 2.9. Rare Earth, Titanium Group Metals, and Reactive Metals Production

    2.9.1 Rare Earth Metals

    2.9.2 Titanium Group Metals (Ti, Zr, and Hf)

    2.9.3 Reactive Metals


    Chapter 2.10. Platinum Group Metals Production

    2.10.1 Introduction

    2.10.2 Uses of PGMs [,]

    2.10.3 Sources of Raw PGMs

    2.10.4 Material Flow of PGMs

    2.10.5 Smelting and Refining of PGMs

    2.10.6 Recycling of PGMs

    2.10.7 Conclusions


    Part B

    Chapter 3. Metallurgical Production Technology

    Chapter 3.1. Process Concept for Scaling-Up and Plant Studies


    3.1.1 Introduction

    3.1.2 Physical Modeling

    3.1.3 Challenges in Scaling-Up of a Process in Process Metallurgy

    3.1.4 Scaling-Up and Scaling-Down Operations in Process Metallurgy

    3.1.5 Applications

    3.1.6 Case Study One

    3.1.7 Case Study Two

    3.1.8 Conclusions


    Chapter 3.2. Project Technology and Management


    3.2.1 Introduction

    3.2.2 Project Identification

    3.2.3 Project Feasibility Analysis

    3.2.4 Choice of Technology

    3.2.5 Choice of Location

    3.2.6 Cost of Project

    3.2.7 Appraisal Criteria

    3.2.8 Social Cost–Benefit Analysis

    3.2.9 Planning, Scheduling, and Resources Management

    3.2.10 Challenges of a Metallurgical Project

    Appendix A Project Investment Costs with a Classification

    Appendix B

    Appendix C Operating Costs and Revenue

    Appendix D Cash Flow Projections

    Appendix E Sources and Applications

    Further Reading

    Chapter 3.3. Metallurgical Production Plant—Energy and Environment



    3.3.1 Planning for Energy Efficiency


    Chapter 3.4. Intellectual Property Rights and the Technology Transfer Process


    3.4.1 Introduction

    3.4.2 Intellectual Property Rights

    3.4.3 International Framework Governing IPR

    3.4.4 Patents

    3.4.5 Inventorship, Ownership, Compensation

    3.4.6 Technology Transfer and Commercialization of Patents

    3.4.7 Case Study 1

    3.4.8 Case Study 2

    Case Study 1. Extraction of Rare Earths for Advanced Applications

    1 Introduction

    2 The Resources

    3 Extraction of Rare Earths from Minerals

    4 Extraction of Rare Earth Metals

    5 Applications of Rare Earths

    6 The Base Rare Earth Market

    7 Conclusions


    Further Reading

    Case Study 2. Ferrous Metallurgical Process Industry: Visakhapatnam Steel Plant – From Conceptualization to Commissioning

    1 Introduction

    2 Overview

    3 Background

    4 Plant Location and Project Report

    5 Revised Detailed Project Report: Salient Features

    6 Production Technology

    7 Commissioning Sequence for Major Units of VSP

    Chapter 4. Environmental Aspects and the Future of Process Metallurgy

    Chapter 4.1. Sustainability


    4.1.1 Introduction

    4.1.2 The Long-Term Supply of Minerals and Metals

    4.1.3 The Long-Term Demand for Minerals and Metals

    4.1.4 Toward Zero Waste

    4.1.5 Toward Sustainability


    Chapter 4.2. Energy Resources, Its Role and Use in Metallurgical Industries


    4.2.1 Introduction

    4.2.2 Energy and Environment Relationship

    4.2.3 Energy Use in Steel Plants

    4.2.4 Energy Use in Aluminum Plants

    4.2.5 Possible Solutions to the Problems Caused by Energy Use

    4.2.6 Alternate Energy Sources for Metallurgical Use

    4.2.7 Conclusions

    List of Relevant Websites


    Chapter 4.3. Methods to Evaluate Environmental Aspects of Materials


    Acronyms used in Section 4.3.1

    4.3.1 Life Cycle Assessment and Related Methodologies

    4.3.2 Material Flow Analysis


    Chapter 4.4. Processes for Recycling

    4.4.1 Metals from Slag

    4.4.2 Retention of Metals and Metals Recovery

    4.4.3 Ironmaking and Steelmaking Slags

    4.4.4 Ironmaking and Steelmaking Dusts


    Chapter 4.5. Future of Process Metallurgy


    Nomenclature Used in Section 4.5.2

    Acknowledgments to Section 4.5.2

    4.5.1 Control of CO2 Emission

    4.5.2 Future Steelmaking Process From Nonferrous Flash Smelting to Flash Ironmaking: Development of an Ironmaking Technology with Greatly Reduced CO2 Emissions and Energy Consumption FINEX® Process—Process of Promise Rotary Hearth Furnace Process Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Iron- and Steelmaking

    Glossary Used in Section 4.5.2



Product details

  • No. of pages: 1810
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: December 9, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080969893
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969886

About the Editor in Chief

Seshadri Seetharaman

Seshadri Seetharaman is Professor Emeritus at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Professor Seetharaman has more than 320 publications in peer-reviewed journals, 130 conference presentations and 10 patents. He is the editor for the books, "Fundamentals of Metallurgy" and "Treatise on Process Metallurgy". He received the President’s award for teaching merits in 1994. He was nominated as the best teacher in Materials Science eight times and was chosen as the best teacher of the Royal Inst. of Technol. In 2004. He has been visiting professor at Kyushu Inst. Technol., Kyoto university, Japan and TU-Bergakademie, Freiberg, Germany. He was awarded the Brimacomb prize for the year 2010 Hon. Doctor at Aalto University, Finland in 2011 and Hon. Professor at the Ukrainian Metallurgical Academy, 2011. Prof. Seetharaman is an Hon. Member of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2011, He has been honoured as the Distinguished Alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India in the year 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

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