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Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 3: Industrial Processes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080969886, 9780080969893

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 3: Industrial Processes

1st Edition

Editor in Chief: Seshadri Seetharaman
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969886
eBook ISBN: 9780080969893
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 18th December 2013
Page Count: 1810
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Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products.

Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled Process Fundamentals, encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; Processing Phenomena, encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and Industrial Processes, encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design.

The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality.

The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert Cahn and Peter Haasen’s famous reference family, Physical Metallurgy (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono (publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy are fields within their own right, and this work will be of interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area.

Key Features

  • Synthesizes the most pertinent contemporary developments within process metallurgy so scientists have authoritative information at their fingertips
  • Replaces existing articles and monographs with a single complete solution, saving time for busy scientists
  • Helps metallurgists to predict changes and consequences and create or modify whatever process is deployed


For teaching and research faculty, upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and post-doctoral research associates in metallurgy and materials science and technology and related areas of study (physics, chemistry and biomedical science) as well as researchers and staff members of government and industrial research laboratories. Particularly useful for more experienced research workers who require an overview of fields comparatively new to them, or with which they wish to renew contact after a gap of some years.

Table of Contents



Editor in Chief


Contributors to Volume 3


The Review Committee

Part A

Chapter 1. Iron and Steel Technology

Chapter 1.1. Ironmaking


1.1.1 Introduction

1.1.2 The Ironmaking Blast Furnace

1.1.3 Iron-Bearing Materials and Additives

1.1.4 Reducing Agents

1.1.5 Counter-Current Movements of Burden and Gas

1.1.6 Blast Furnace Reactions

1.1.7 Energy Consumption and Blast Furnace Performance

1.1.8 Process Instrumentation and Control

1.1.9 Future Trends in Ironmaking


Chapter 1.2. The Direct Reduction of Iron


1.2.1 Introduction

1.2.2 Raw Materials

1.2.3 DR Processes

1.2.4 Applications of DRI

1.2.5 Energy and Emissions

1.2.6 Concluding Remarks



Further Reading

Chapter 1.3. Hot Metal Pretreatment


1.3.1 Introduction

1.3.2 Desulfurization

1.3.3 Dephosphorization

1.3.4 Desiliconization

1.3.5 Influence of Hot Metal Pretreatment on Scrap Melting Capacity

1.3.6 Hot Metal Heating Device


Chapter 1.4. Converter Steelmaking


1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 History of Development of Converter Steelmaking

1.4.3 Basic Oxygen Furnace

1.4.4 Basic Oxygen Steelmaking

1.4.5 Converter Processes for Stainless Steelmaking

1.4.6 On the Physicochemical Basis of Oxygen Steelmaking

1.4.7 Future Aspects of Oxygen Converter Process


Chapter 1.5. Electric Furnace Steelmaking


1.5.1 Introduction to Electric Steelmaking

1.5.2 Raw Materials, Availability, Scrap Classes, Scrap Trading

1.5.3 Furnace Construction

1.5.4 Melting Practice and Metallurgy

1.5.5 Energy Balance of EAF Process, Electric Energy, Chemical Heating, Preheating, Postcombustion

1.5.6 Special Furnace Constructions

1.5.7 Environmental and Safety Issues

1.5.8 Future Aspects


Chapter 1.6. Secondary Steelmaking


1.6.1 Introduction

1.6.2 Deoxidation

1.6.3 Desulfurization

1.6.4 Degassing

1.6.5 Decarburization

1.6.6 Dephosphorization

1.6.7 Heating

1.6.8 Alloying

1.6.9 Summarizing Discussion


Chapter 1.7. Inclusion Engineering


1.7.1 Introduction

1.7.2 Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel

1.7.3 Formation, Growth, and Removal of Inclusions

1.7.4 Inclusion Engineering in Practical Steelmaking—A Case of Ball-Bearing Steel

1.7.5 Special Methods for Ultra-Clean Steels

1.7.6 Future Trends


Chapter 1.8. Continuous Casting of Steel


1.8.1 Introduction

1.8.2 Types of Continuous Casting Machines

1.8.3 Basic Equipment in Continuous Casting

1.8.4 Fundamentals of Solidification in Continuous Casting

1.8.5 Modeling of Microstructures

1.8.6 Defects


Chapter 1.9. How Mold Fluxes Work


Symbols, Units, and Abbreviations

1.9.1 Introduction

1.9.2 Lubrication of Shell by Mold Flux

1.9.3 Heat Transfer in the Mold

1.9.4 Using Mold Fluxes to Adjust Process Variables

1.9.5 Effect of Casting Variables on Mold Flux Performance

1.9.6 Properties of Mold Fluxes

1.9.7 Selection of Mold Fluxes

1.9.8 Using Mold Fluxes to Minimize Defects and Process Problems


Chapter 1.10. Production of Ferroalloys



1.10.1 Classification, Manufacture, and Use of Ferroalloys

1.10.2 Thermodynamics in the Production of Main Ferroalloys

1.10.3 Ferrochromium Smelting Technology

1.10.4 Reduction of Manganese Oxides and Production of Manganese Alloys

1.10.5 General Process Description


Chapter 2. Non-Ferrous Process Principles and Production Technologies

Chapter 2.1. Copper Production


Nomenclature used in Section 2.1.1




2.1.1 Principles of Copper Production

2.1.2 Industrial Technologies for Copper Production

2.1.3 Refractories in Copper Production

Glossary used in Section 2.1.1


Chapter 2.2. Nickel and Cobalt Production


2.2.1 Synopsis

2.2.2 Occurrences

2.2.3 Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Laterite Ores

2.2.4 Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulfide Ores

2.2.5 Production of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulfide Intermediates

2.2.6 Cobalt from Central African Copper–Cobalt Ores

2.2.7 Recovering Nickel and Cobalt from End-of-Use Scrap

2.2.8 Summary


Chapter 2.3. Lead and Zinc Production


2.3.1 Lead Production

2.3.2 Zinc Production


Chapter 2.4. Process Modeling in Non-Ferrous Metallurgy



2.4.1 General Approach to Process Modeling

2.4.2 Thermodynamic Equilibrium Process Modeling

2.4.3 Reaction Engineering Models

2.4.4 CFDs Modeling

Glossary for Section 2.4.2

Glossary for Section 2.4.3

Glossary for Section 2.4.4


Chapter 2.5. Aluminum Production



2.5.1 Hydrometallurgy of the Bayer Process

2.5.2 Electrometallurgy of Aluminum

2.5.3 Aluminum Recycling



Chapter 2.6. Silicon Production


2.6.1 Introduction

2.6.2 Polysilicon Production Processes

2.6.3 Conclusions and Future Trends

Relevant Websites



Chapter 2.7. Hydrometallurgical Processing



2.7.1 Introduction to Hydrometallurgical Processing

2.7.2 Application of Hydrometallurgical Fundamentals

2.7.3 Gold Processing

2.7.4 Copper Processing

2.7.5 Zinc Processing



Chapter 2.8. Biohydrometallurgy



2.8.1 Introduction

2.8.2 Growth, Metabolism, and Kinetics

2.8.3 Mineral Degradation/Metal Extraction

2.8.4 Summary of Biohydrometallurgy Commercialization History

2.8.5 Commercially Oriented Processes for Biooxidation

2.8.6 Process and Waste Water Treatment Applications



Chapter 2.9. Rare Earth, Titanium Group Metals, and Reactive Metals Production

2.9.1 Rare Earth Metals

2.9.2 Titanium Group Metals (Ti, Zr, and Hf)

2.9.3 Reactive Metals


Chapter 2.10. Platinum Group Metals Production

2.10.1 Introduction

2.10.2 Uses of PGMs [,]

2.10.3 Sources of Raw PGMs

2.10.4 Material Flow of PGMs

2.10.5 Smelting and Refining of PGMs

2.10.6 Recycling of PGMs

2.10.7 Conclusions


Part B

Chapter 3. Metallurgical Production Technology

Chapter 3.1. Process Concept for Scaling-Up and Plant Studies


3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Physical Modeling

3.1.3 Challenges in Scaling-Up of a Process in Process Metallurgy

3.1.4 Scaling-Up and Scaling-Down Operations in Process Metallurgy

3.1.5 Applications

3.1.6 Case Study One

3.1.7 Case Study Two

3.1.8 Conclusions


Chapter 3.2. Project Technology and Management


3.2.1 Introduction

3.2.2 Project Identification

3.2.3 Project Feasibility Analysis

3.2.4 Choice of Technology

3.2.5 Choice of Location

3.2.6 Cost of Project

3.2.7 Appraisal Criteria

3.2.8 Social Cost–Benefit Analysis

3.2.9 Planning, Scheduling, and Resources Management

3.2.10 Challenges of a Metallurgical Project

Appendix A Project Investment Costs with a Classification

Appendix B

Appendix C Operating Costs and Revenue

Appendix D Cash Flow Projections

Appendix E Sources and Applications

Further Reading

Chapter 3.3. Metallurgical Production Plant—Energy and Environment



3.3.1 Planning for Energy Efficiency


Chapter 3.4. Intellectual Property Rights and the Technology Transfer Process


3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Intellectual Property Rights

3.4.3 International Framework Governing IPR

3.4.4 Patents

3.4.5 Inventorship, Ownership, Compensation

3.4.6 Technology Transfer and Commercialization of Patents

3.4.7 Case Study 1

3.4.8 Case Study 2

Case Study 1. Extraction of Rare Earths for Advanced Applications

1 Introduction

2 The Resources

3 Extraction of Rare Earths from Minerals

4 Extraction of Rare Earth Metals

5 Applications of Rare Earths

6 The Base Rare Earth Market

7 Conclusions


Further Reading

Case Study 2. Ferrous Metallurgical Process Industry: Visakhapatnam Steel Plant – From Conceptualization to Commissioning

1 Introduction

2 Overview

3 Background

4 Plant Location and Project Report

5 Revised Detailed Project Report: Salient Features

6 Production Technology

7 Commissioning Sequence for Major Units of VSP

Chapter 4. Environmental Aspects and the Future of Process Metallurgy

Chapter 4.1. Sustainability


4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 The Long-Term Supply of Minerals and Metals

4.1.3 The Long-Term Demand for Minerals and Metals

4.1.4 Toward Zero Waste

4.1.5 Toward Sustainability


Chapter 4.2. Energy Resources, Its Role and Use in Metallurgical Industries


4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 Energy and Environment Relationship

4.2.3 Energy Use in Steel Plants

4.2.4 Energy Use in Aluminum Plants

4.2.5 Possible Solutions to the Problems Caused by Energy Use

4.2.6 Alternate Energy Sources for Metallurgical Use

4.2.7 Conclusions

List of Relevant Websites


Chapter 4.3. Methods to Evaluate Environmental Aspects of Materials


Acronyms used in Section 4.3.1

4.3.1 Life Cycle Assessment and Related Methodologies

4.3.2 Material Flow Analysis


Chapter 4.4. Processes for Recycling

4.4.1 Metals from Slag

4.4.2 Retention of Metals and Metals Recovery

4.4.3 Ironmaking and Steelmaking Slags

4.4.4 Ironmaking and Steelmaking Dusts


Chapter 4.5. Future of Process Metallurgy


Nomenclature Used in Section 4.5.2

Acknowledgments to Section 4.5.2

4.5.1 Control of CO2 Emission

4.5.2 Future Steelmaking Process From Nonferrous Flash Smelting to Flash Ironmaking: Development of an Ironmaking Technology with Greatly Reduced CO2 Emissions and Energy Consumption FINEX® Process—Process of Promise Rotary Hearth Furnace Process Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Iron- and Steelmaking

Glossary Used in Section 4.5.2




No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2014
18th December 2013
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editor in Chief

Seshadri Seetharaman

Seshadri Seetharaman is Professor Emeritus at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Professor Seetharaman has more than 320 publications in peer-reviewed journals, 130 conference presentations and 10 patents. He is the editor for the books, "Fundamentals of Metallurgy" and "Treatise on Process Metallurgy". He received the President’s award for teaching merits in 1994. He was nominated as the best teacher in Materials Science eight times and was chosen as the best teacher of the Royal Inst. of Technol. In 2004. He has been visiting professor at Kyushu Inst. Technol., Kyoto university, Japan and TU-Bergakademie, Freiberg, Germany. He was awarded the Brimacomb prize for the year 2010 Hon. Doctor at Aalto University, Finland in 2011 and Hon. Professor at the Ukrainian Metallurgical Academy, 2011. Prof. Seetharaman is an Hon. Member of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2011, He has been honoured as the Distinguished Alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India in the year 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

Ratings and Reviews