Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 2: Process Phenomena

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 2: Process Phenomena

Volume 2: Process Phenomena

1st Edition - November 22, 2013

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Seshadri Seetharaman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080969855
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969848

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Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products. Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled Process Fundamentals, encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; Processing Phenomena, encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and Industrial Processes, encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design. The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality. The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert Cahn and Peter Haasen’s famous reference family, Physical Metallurgy (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono (publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy are fields within their own right, and this work will be of interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area.

Key Features

  • Synthesizes the most pertinent contemporary developments within process metallurgy so scientists have authoritative information at their fingertips
  • Replaces existing articles and monographs with a single complete solution, saving time for busy scientists
  • Helps metallurgists to predict changes and consequences and create or modify whatever process is deployed


For teaching and research faculty, upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and post-doctoral research associates in metallurgy and materials science and technology and related areas of study (physics, chemistry and biomedical science) as well as researchers and staff members of government and industrial research laboratories. Particularly useful for more experienced research workers who require an overview of fields comparatively new to them, or with which they wish to renew contact after a gap of some years.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication


    Editor in Chief


    Contributors to Volume 2


    The Review Committee

    Chapter 1. Interfacial Phenomena in High Temperature Metallurgy

    Chapter 1.1. Surfaces and Interfaces


    1.1.1 Definition of Surfaces and Interfaces

    1.1.2 Gibbs Adsorption Isotherm

    1.1.3 Langmuir’s Isotherm


    Chapter 1.2. Surface Tension and Contact Angle


    1.2.1 Surface Tension

    1.2.2 Contact Angle

    1.2.3 Wetting


    Chapter 1.3. Experiments


    1.3.1 Sessile Drop

    1.3.2 Maximum Bubble Pressure

    1.3.3 Pendent Drop

    1.3.4 Drop Weight

    1.3.5 Detachment Method

    1.3.6 Liquid Surface Contour Method

    1.3.7 Capillary Rise Method

    1.3.8 Levitating Drop

    Appendix A Software for Evaluation of Surface Tension from Sessile Drop


    Chapter 1.4. Surface Tension Models


    1.4.1 Modeling of Surface Tension of Liquid Pure Metals and Molten Salts

    1.4.2 Modeling of Surface Tension of Liquid Alloys

    1.4.3 Modeling of Surface Tension of Molten Ionic Materials Including Molten Slag

    1.4.4 Evaluation of Interfacial Tension Between Liquid Steel and Molten Slag

    1.4.5 Application of Constrained Gibbs Energy Minimization Approach to Evaluate Surface Tension of Liquid Alloys


    Chapter 1.5. Interfacial Free Energy and Wettability


    1.5.1 Wettability

    1.5.2 Interfacial Free Energy Between Solid and Liquid Phases in Metals and Alloys

    1.5.3 Interfacial Tension Between Liquid Steel and Molten Slag


    Chapter 1.6. Some Aspects of Electrochemistry of Interfaces


    1.6.1 Basics of Electrochemistry of Interfaces

    1.6.2 Electrocapillary Phenomena


    Chapter 1.7. Interfacial Convection and Its Effect on Material Processing


    1.7.1 Some Basics of the Interfacial Convection

    1.7.2 Effect of Interfacial Flow in Liquid–Liquid Reactions

    1.7.3 Effect of Interfacial Flow in Liquid–Gas Reactions

    1.7.4 Effect of Interfacial Flow in Liquid–Solid Reactions

    1.7.5 Effect of Interfacial Flow in Solidification Processes and Crystal Growth


    Chapter 1.8. Stability of Interface Between Liquid Steel and Molten Slag



    Chapter 1.9. Applications of Interfacial Phenomena in Process Metallurgy


    1.9.1 Marangoni Flow During the Welding Process

    1.9.2 Engulfing of Small Droplets of Molten Slag into Liquid Steel

    1.9.3 Erosion or Dissolution of Refractories

    1.9.4 Separation of Metallic Droplets from Slags

    1.9.5 Engulfing Nonmetallic Inclusions and Gas Bubbles into Solidified Interface

    1.9.6 Gas Bubble Formation in Liquid Steel

    1.9.7 Nucleation During Solidification

    1.9.8 Slag Foaming


    Chapter 2. Metallurgical Process Phenomena

    Chapter 2.1. The Importance of Metallurgical Process Phenomena


    Chapter 2.2. Kinetics of Gas–Liquid and Liquid–Liquid Reactions


    2.2.1 Introduction

    2.2.2 Rate-Controlling Process

    2.2.3 The Difference Between Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    2.2.4 Gas-Phase Mass Transfer

    2.2.5 Free Vaporization

    2.2.6 Liquid-Phase Mass Transfer

    2.2.7 Heat Transfer Control

    2.2.8 Chemical Kinetics

    2.2.9 Mixed Control

    2.2.10 Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 2.3. Bubbles in Process Metallurgy


    2.3.1 Introduction

    2.3.2 Bubble Formation

    2.3.3 Bubble Shapes

    2.3.4 Plume Shape

    2.3.5 Mixing Time

    2.3.6 Bubble Rupture

    2.3.7 Bubbling–Jetting Transition

    2.3.8 Modeling


    Chapter 2.4. Foams and Foaming


    2.4.1 Foaming in Metallurgical Processes

    2.4.2 Foaming Index

    2.4.3 Slag Foaming in Industrial Processes


    Chapter 2.5. Applications


    2.5.1 Rate Phenomena in Direct Ironmaking

    2.5.2 Ladle Desulfurization Kinetics

    2.5.3 Rate Phenomena in Vacuum Degassing

    2.5.4 Rate Phenomena in AOD Stainless Steel Production

    2.5.5 Inclusion Flotation in Argon-Stirred Steel


    Chapter 3. Some Applications of Fundamental Principles to Metallurgical Operations


    3.0 Introductory Comments: Some Perspectives on the Process of Innovation


    Chapter 3.1. Some Metallurgical Considerations Pertaining to the Development of Steel Quality



    3.1.1 Introduction

    3.1.2 Generation of Steel Quality

    3.1.3 Preservation of Steel Quality

    3.1.4 Evaluation of Steel Quality

    3.1.5 Summary


    Chapter 3.2. Refractory Corrosion During Steelmaking Operations


    3.2.1 Introduction

    3.2.2 Theoretical Considerations

    3.2.3 Corrosion Testing of Refractories

    3.2.4 Corrosion of Oxide–Carbon Refractories

    3.2.5 Summary


    Chapter 3.3. Application of Slag Engineering Fundamentals to Continuous Steelmaking


    3.3.1 Introduction

    3.3.2 Continuous Steelmaking: An Overview

    3.3.3 Continuous Steelmaking Based on the Use of DRI

    3.3.4 Fundamental Considerations

    3.3.5 Slag Design Steps

    3.3.6 Process Analysis


    Chapter 3.4. Kinetics of Assimilation of Additions in Liquid Metals


    List of Nomenclature

    Greek symbols



    3.4.1 Introduction

    3.4.2 Fundamentals of Assimilation

    3.4.3 Routes of Assimilation

    3.4.4 Exothermic Phenomena During Assimilation

    3.4.5 Recovery

    3.4.6 Conclusions


    Chapter 4. Metallurgical Process Technology

    Chapter 4.1. Process Kinetics, Fluid Flow, and Heat and Mass Transfer, in Process Metallurgy


    4.1.1 Theory of Fluid Flows

    4.1.2 The Continuity and Momentum Equations

    4.1.3 Newtonian Liquids

    4.1.4 Electromagnetically Driven Flows

    4.1.5 Physical Modeling

    4.1.6 Physical and Computational Models

    4.1.7 Computational Fluid Dynamics


    Chapter 4.2. Turbulence Modeling and Implementation



    4.2.1 Introduction

    4.2.2 Turbulence Models

    4.2.3 Conclusions


    Chapter 4.3. Computational Fluid Mechanics



    4.3.1 Introduction

    4.3.2 Applications of CFD in Process Metallurgy

    4.3.3 Conclusions


    Chapter 4.4. Solidification


    4.4.1 Application of Textured Copper Substrates for Enhancing Heat Fluxes

    4.4.2 Solidification in Conventional Fixed-Mold Machines


    Chapter 4.5. Computational and Physical Modeling of Solidification in CCC and TSC


    4.5.1 Proposed New Mechanism for the Formation of OMs

    4.5.2 Conclusions


    Chapter 4.6. Single Phase, Two Phase, and Multiphase Flows, and Methods to Model these Flows



    4.6.1 Introduction

    4.6.2 Multiphase Flow Regimes

    4.6.3 Example: Modeling of Inert Gas Shrouding in a Tundish (Three-Phase Flow Involving Gas Bubbles, Liquid Steel, and Slag)


    Chapter 4.7. The Design of a New Casting Process: From Fundamentals to Practice


    4.7.1 Continuous Casting Machines for the Steel Industry

    4.7.2 Fluid Flows, Solidification, and Heat Transfer in Moving Mold Machines

    4.7.3 Theoretical Heat Fluxes, Based on Perfect and Imperfect, Thermal Contact

    4.7.4 Solidification and Strip Microstructures in NNSC

    4.7.5 Horizontal Single-Belt Casting Processes

    4.7.6 Fluid Flows: Design of Metal Delivery Systems

    4.7.7 The Potential of the HSBC Caster: From Fundamentals to Practice

    4.7.8 Conclusions


    Chapter 4.8. Conclusion


    Chapter 5. Computational Thermodynamics, Models, Software and Applications

    Chapter 5.1. Thermodynamics


    5.1.1 Calphad Method

    5.1.2 Dilute Metallic Solution

    5.1.3 Model for Oxide Solid Solutions

    5.1.4 The Reciprocal Ionic Liquid Model

    5.1.5 Quasichemical Models

    5.1.6 The Cell Model

    5.1.7 The Central Atoms Model and Generalized Central Atom Model

    5.1.8 The Modified Quasichemical Model

    5.1.9 Modified Quasichemical Model for Matte

    5.1.10 Thermodynamic Packages and Databases


    Chapter 5.2. Slag Viscosity Model


    5.2.1 FactSage Structural Viscosity Model for Multicomponent Slag

    5.2.2 Viscosity of Slags

    5.2.3 Appendices


    Chapter 5.3. Applications


    List of Symbols


    5.3.1 Applications to Steelmaking ProcessES

    5.3.2 Application of Advanced Modeling in Nonferrous Metallurgy


    Chapter 5.4. Process Modeling


    List of Symbols for Section 5.4.3

    5.4.1 Production of Metallurgical Grade Silicon in an Electric Arc Furnace

    5.4.2 Modeling TiO2 Production by Explicit Use of Reaction Kinetics

    5.4.3 Non-equilibrium Modeling for the LD-Converter

    5.4.4 Simulation of the RH–OB and BOF Processes Using the Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone Model

    5.4.5 Rotary Cement Kiln Model

    5.4.6 Kinetic Simulation of Ladle Refining and Smelting Using Software



Product details

  • No. of pages: 888
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: November 22, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080969855
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969848

About the Editor in Chief

Seshadri Seetharaman

Seshadri Seetharaman is Professor Emeritus at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Professor Seetharaman has more than 320 publications in peer-reviewed journals, 130 conference presentations and 10 patents. He is the editor for the books, "Fundamentals of Metallurgy" and "Treatise on Process Metallurgy". He received the President’s award for teaching merits in 1994. He was nominated as the best teacher in Materials Science eight times and was chosen as the best teacher of the Royal Inst. of Technol. In 2004. He has been visiting professor at Kyushu Inst. Technol., Kyoto university, Japan and TU-Bergakademie, Freiberg, Germany. He was awarded the Brimacomb prize for the year 2010 Hon. Doctor at Aalto University, Finland in 2011 and Hon. Professor at the Ukrainian Metallurgical Academy, 2011. Prof. Seetharaman is an Hon. Member of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2011, He has been honoured as the Distinguished Alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India in the year 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

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