Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 2: Process Phenomena

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 2: Process Phenomena

1st Edition - November 22, 2013

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Seshadri Seetharaman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080969855
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969848

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Description

Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products. Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled Process Fundamentals, encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; Processing Phenomena, encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and Industrial Processes, encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design. The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality. The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert Cahn and Peter Haasen’s famous reference family, Physical Metallurgy (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono (publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy are fields within their own right, and this work will be of interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area.

Key Features

  • Synthesizes the most pertinent contemporary developments within process metallurgy so scientists have authoritative information at their fingertips
  • Replaces existing articles and monographs with a single complete solution, saving time for busy scientists
  • Helps metallurgists to predict changes and consequences and create or modify whatever process is deployed

Readership

For teaching and research faculty, upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and post-doctoral research associates in metallurgy and materials science and technology and related areas of study (physics, chemistry and biomedical science) as well as researchers and staff members of government and industrial research laboratories. Particularly useful for more experienced research workers who require an overview of fields comparatively new to them, or with which they wish to renew contact after a gap of some years.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface

    Editor in Chief

    Co-Editors-in-Chief

    Contributors to Volume 2

    Acknowledgement

    The Review Committee

    Chapter 1. Interfacial Phenomena in High Temperature Metallurgy

    Chapter 1.1. Surfaces and Interfaces

    Abstract

    1.1.1 Definition of Surfaces and Interfaces

    1.1.2 Gibbs Adsorption Isotherm

    1.1.3 Langmuir’s Isotherm

    References

    Chapter 1.2. Surface Tension and Contact Angle

    Abstract

    1.2.1 Surface Tension

    1.2.2 Contact Angle

    1.2.3 Wetting

    References

    Chapter 1.3. Experiments

    Abstract

    1.3.1 Sessile Drop

    1.3.2 Maximum Bubble Pressure

    1.3.3 Pendent Drop

    1.3.4 Drop Weight

    1.3.5 Detachment Method

    1.3.6 Liquid Surface Contour Method

    1.3.7 Capillary Rise Method

    1.3.8 Levitating Drop

    Appendix A Software for Evaluation of Surface Tension from Sessile Drop

    References

    Chapter 1.4. Surface Tension Models

    Abstract

    1.4.1 Modeling of Surface Tension of Liquid Pure Metals and Molten Salts

    1.4.2 Modeling of Surface Tension of Liquid Alloys

    1.4.3 Modeling of Surface Tension of Molten Ionic Materials Including Molten Slag

    1.4.4 Evaluation of Interfacial Tension Between Liquid Steel and Molten Slag

    1.4.5 Application of Constrained Gibbs Energy Minimization Approach to Evaluate Surface Tension of Liquid Alloys

    References

    Chapter 1.5. Interfacial Free Energy and Wettability

    Abstract

    1.5.1 Wettability

    1.5.2 Interfacial Free Energy Between Solid and Liquid Phases in Metals and Alloys

    1.5.3 Interfacial Tension Between Liquid Steel and Molten Slag

    References

    Chapter 1.6. Some Aspects of Electrochemistry of Interfaces

    Abstract

    1.6.1 Basics of Electrochemistry of Interfaces

    1.6.2 Electrocapillary Phenomena

    References

    Chapter 1.7. Interfacial Convection and Its Effect on Material Processing

    Abstract

    1.7.1 Some Basics of the Interfacial Convection

    1.7.2 Effect of Interfacial Flow in Liquid–Liquid Reactions

    1.7.3 Effect of Interfacial Flow in Liquid–Gas Reactions

    1.7.4 Effect of Interfacial Flow in Liquid–Solid Reactions

    1.7.5 Effect of Interfacial Flow in Solidification Processes and Crystal Growth

    References

    Chapter 1.8. Stability of Interface Between Liquid Steel and Molten Slag

    Abstract

    References

    Chapter 1.9. Applications of Interfacial Phenomena in Process Metallurgy

    Abstract

    1.9.1 Marangoni Flow During the Welding Process

    1.9.2 Engulfing of Small Droplets of Molten Slag into Liquid Steel

    1.9.3 Erosion or Dissolution of Refractories

    1.9.4 Separation of Metallic Droplets from Slags

    1.9.5 Engulfing Nonmetallic Inclusions and Gas Bubbles into Solidified Interface

    1.9.6 Gas Bubble Formation in Liquid Steel

    1.9.7 Nucleation During Solidification

    1.9.8 Slag Foaming

    References

    Chapter 2. Metallurgical Process Phenomena

    Chapter 2.1. The Importance of Metallurgical Process Phenomena

    Abstract

    Chapter 2.2. Kinetics of Gas–Liquid and Liquid–Liquid Reactions

    Abstract

    2.2.1 Introduction

    2.2.2 Rate-Controlling Process

    2.2.3 The Difference Between Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    2.2.4 Gas-Phase Mass Transfer

    2.2.5 Free Vaporization

    2.2.6 Liquid-Phase Mass Transfer

    2.2.7 Heat Transfer Control

    2.2.8 Chemical Kinetics

    2.2.9 Mixed Control

    2.2.10 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 2.3. Bubbles in Process Metallurgy

    Abstract

    2.3.1 Introduction

    2.3.2 Bubble Formation

    2.3.3 Bubble Shapes

    2.3.4 Plume Shape

    2.3.5 Mixing Time

    2.3.6 Bubble Rupture

    2.3.7 Bubbling–Jetting Transition

    2.3.8 Modeling

    References

    Chapter 2.4. Foams and Foaming

    Abstract

    2.4.1 Foaming in Metallurgical Processes

    2.4.2 Foaming Index

    2.4.3 Slag Foaming in Industrial Processes

    References

    Chapter 2.5. Applications

    Abstract

    2.5.1 Rate Phenomena in Direct Ironmaking

    2.5.2 Ladle Desulfurization Kinetics

    2.5.3 Rate Phenomena in Vacuum Degassing

    2.5.4 Rate Phenomena in AOD Stainless Steel Production

    2.5.5 Inclusion Flotation in Argon-Stirred Steel

    References

    Chapter 3. Some Applications of Fundamental Principles to Metallurgical Operations

    Abstract

    3.0 Introductory Comments: Some Perspectives on the Process of Innovation

    References

    Chapter 3.1. Some Metallurgical Considerations Pertaining to the Development of Steel Quality

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.1.1 Introduction

    3.1.2 Generation of Steel Quality

    3.1.3 Preservation of Steel Quality

    3.1.4 Evaluation of Steel Quality

    3.1.5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 3.2. Refractory Corrosion During Steelmaking Operations

    Abstract

    3.2.1 Introduction

    3.2.2 Theoretical Considerations

    3.2.3 Corrosion Testing of Refractories

    3.2.4 Corrosion of Oxide–Carbon Refractories

    3.2.5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 3.3. Application of Slag Engineering Fundamentals to Continuous Steelmaking

    Abstract

    3.3.1 Introduction

    3.3.2 Continuous Steelmaking: An Overview

    3.3.3 Continuous Steelmaking Based on the Use of DRI

    3.3.4 Fundamental Considerations

    3.3.5 Slag Design Steps

    3.3.6 Process Analysis

    References

    Chapter 3.4. Kinetics of Assimilation of Additions in Liquid Metals

    Abstract

    List of Nomenclature

    Greek symbols

    Subscripts

    Superscripts

    3.4.1 Introduction

    3.4.2 Fundamentals of Assimilation

    3.4.3 Routes of Assimilation

    3.4.4 Exothermic Phenomena During Assimilation

    3.4.5 Recovery

    3.4.6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Metallurgical Process Technology

    Chapter 4.1. Process Kinetics, Fluid Flow, and Heat and Mass Transfer, in Process Metallurgy

    Abstract

    4.1.1 Theory of Fluid Flows

    4.1.2 The Continuity and Momentum Equations

    4.1.3 Newtonian Liquids

    4.1.4 Electromagnetically Driven Flows

    4.1.5 Physical Modeling

    4.1.6 Physical and Computational Models

    4.1.7 Computational Fluid Dynamics

    References

    Chapter 4.2. Turbulence Modeling and Implementation

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    4.2.1 Introduction

    4.2.2 Turbulence Models

    4.2.3 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4.3. Computational Fluid Mechanics

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    4.3.1 Introduction

    4.3.2 Applications of CFD in Process Metallurgy

    4.3.3 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4.4. Solidification

    Abstract

    4.4.1 Application of Textured Copper Substrates for Enhancing Heat Fluxes

    4.4.2 Solidification in Conventional Fixed-Mold Machines

    References

    Chapter 4.5. Computational and Physical Modeling of Solidification in CCC and TSC

    Abstract

    4.5.1 Proposed New Mechanism for the Formation of OMs

    4.5.2 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4.6. Single Phase, Two Phase, and Multiphase Flows, and Methods to Model these Flows

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    4.6.1 Introduction

    4.6.2 Multiphase Flow Regimes

    4.6.3 Example: Modeling of Inert Gas Shrouding in a Tundish (Three-Phase Flow Involving Gas Bubbles, Liquid Steel, and Slag)

    References

    Chapter 4.7. The Design of a New Casting Process: From Fundamentals to Practice

    Abstract

    4.7.1 Continuous Casting Machines for the Steel Industry

    4.7.2 Fluid Flows, Solidification, and Heat Transfer in Moving Mold Machines

    4.7.3 Theoretical Heat Fluxes, Based on Perfect and Imperfect, Thermal Contact

    4.7.4 Solidification and Strip Microstructures in NNSC

    4.7.5 Horizontal Single-Belt Casting Processes

    4.7.6 Fluid Flows: Design of Metal Delivery Systems

    4.7.7 The Potential of the HSBC Caster: From Fundamentals to Practice

    4.7.8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4.8. Conclusion

    Abstract

    Chapter 5. Computational Thermodynamics, Models, Software and Applications

    Chapter 5.1. Thermodynamics

    Abstract

    5.1.1 Calphad Method

    5.1.2 Dilute Metallic Solution

    5.1.3 Model for Oxide Solid Solutions

    5.1.4 The Reciprocal Ionic Liquid Model

    5.1.5 Quasichemical Models

    5.1.6 The Cell Model

    5.1.7 The Central Atoms Model and Generalized Central Atom Model

    5.1.8 The Modified Quasichemical Model

    5.1.9 Modified Quasichemical Model for Matte

    5.1.10 Thermodynamic Packages and Databases

    References

    Chapter 5.2. Slag Viscosity Model

    Abstract

    5.2.1 FactSage Structural Viscosity Model for Multicomponent Slag

    5.2.2 Viscosity of Slags

    5.2.3 Appendices

    References

    Chapter 5.3. Applications

    Abstract

    List of Symbols

    Acknowledgments

    5.3.1 Applications to Steelmaking ProcessES

    5.3.2 Application of Advanced Modeling in Nonferrous Metallurgy

    References

    Chapter 5.4. Process Modeling

    Abstract

    List of Symbols for Section 5.4.3

    5.4.1 Production of Metallurgical Grade Silicon in an Electric Arc Furnace

    5.4.2 Modeling TiO2 Production by Explicit Use of Reaction Kinetics

    5.4.3 Non-equilibrium Modeling for the LD-Converter

    5.4.4 Simulation of the RH–OB and BOF Processes Using the Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone Model

    5.4.5 Rotary Cement Kiln Model

    5.4.6 Kinetic Simulation of Ladle Refining and Smelting Using Software

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 888
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: November 22, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080969855
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969848

About the Editor in Chief

Seshadri Seetharaman

Seshadri Seetharaman is Professor Emeritus at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Professor Seetharaman has more than 320 publications in peer-reviewed journals, 130 conference presentations and 10 patents. He is the editor for the books, "Fundamentals of Metallurgy" and "Treatise on Process Metallurgy". He received the President’s award for teaching merits in 1994. He was nominated as the best teacher in Materials Science eight times and was chosen as the best teacher of the Royal Inst. of Technol. In 2004. He has been visiting professor at Kyushu Inst. Technol., Kyoto university, Japan and TU-Bergakademie, Freiberg, Germany. He was awarded the Brimacomb prize for the year 2010 Hon. Doctor at Aalto University, Finland in 2011 and Hon. Professor at the Ukrainian Metallurgical Academy, 2011. Prof. Seetharaman is an Hon. Member of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2011, He has been honoured as the Distinguished Alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India in the year 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

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