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Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 1: Process Fundamentals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080969862, 9780080969879

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 1: Process Fundamentals

1st Edition

Editor in Chief: Seshadri Seetharaman
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969862
eBook ISBN: 9780080969879
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 26th November 2013
Page Count: 980
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Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products.

Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled Process Fundamentals, encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; Processing Phenomena, encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and Industrial Processes, encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design.

The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality.

The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert Cahn and Peter Haasen’s famous reference family, Physical Metallurgy (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono (publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy are fields within their own right, and this work will be of interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area.

Key Features

  • Synthesizes the most pertinent contemporary developments within process metallurgy so scientists have authoritative information at their fingertips
  • Replaces existing articles and monographs with a single complete solution, saving time for busy scientists
  • Helps metallurgists to predict changes and consequences and create or modify whatever process is deployed


For teaching and research faculty, upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and post-doctoral research associates in metallurgy and materials science and technology and related areas of study (physics, chemistry and biomedical science) as well as researchers and staff members of government and industrial research laboratories. Particularly useful for more experienced research workers who require an overview of fields comparatively new to them, or with which they wish to renew contact after a gap of some years.

Table of Contents



Editor in Chief


Contributors to volume 1


The Review Committee

Chapter 1. Process Metallurgy—An Argosy Through Time


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Alchemy and the Discovery of Metals

1.3 Development of Extraction Processes


Chapter 1.1. Introduction to Metallurgical Processing

1.1.1 Recent Development Trends

1.1.2 Process Options

1.1.3 Classification of Metallurgical Reactors

1.1.4 Summary of General Characteristics of Metallurgical Reactors

1.1.5 Reactor and Process Design Methodologies

1.1.6 Summary


Chapter 2. Structure and Properties of Matter


2.1 State and Equilibrium

2.2 State of Matter

2.3 Solid

2.4 Liquid

2.5 Gas

2.6 Glass = Amorphous Solid

2.7 Plasma

2.8 Phase Transition

2.9 Glass Transition

2.10 Description of Structural Features of Liquid

2.11 Structural Features of Metallic and Oxide Melts


Chapter 2.1. Structure and Properties of Molten Metals


2.1.1 Structure

2.1.2 Properties

2.1.3 Structure-Property Relations and Interproperty Relations

2.1.4 Summary


Chapter 2.2. The Structure and Properties of Silicate Slags

Symbols, Units, and Abbreviations


2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2 Structure of Slags and Glasses

2.2.3 Effect of Structure on Properties

2.2.4 Properties of Slags Based on Silicate Network

2.2.5 Summary and Conclusions

Appendix Thermodynamic Properties of Slags

Nomenclature of Appendix

A.1 Pertinent Properties

A.2 Bonding, Electronegativity, and Ideal Ionic Solution

A.3 Nonideal Solutions Structural Models for Limited Degree of Polymerization

A.4 Nonideal Solutions Structural Models for Higher Degree of Polymerization


Chapter 2.3. Atomistic Simulations of Properties and Phenomena at High Temperatures


2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Atomistic Computer Simulation Techniques

2.3.3 Special Techniques and Advanced Algorithms

2.3.4 Determination of Physical Properties

2.3.5 Atomistic Interaction Potentials

2.3.6 Properties and Phenomena at High Temperatures: Computer Simulations and Other Results

2.3.7 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 3. Thermodynamic Aspects of Process Metallurgy: Introduction to Thermodynamics of Metallurgical Processes

Chapter 3.1. First, Second, and Third Laws of Thermochemistry


3.1.1 Thermodynamic Data Compilations

3.1.2 Ideal Gas

3.1.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics

3.1.4 Enthalpy and Heat Capacity

3.1.5 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Entropy

3.1.6 Gibbs Energy

3.1.7 Combined Statement of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

3.1.8 Changes in Gibbs Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy Due to Reaction

3.1.9 Gibbs Energy Function



Chapter 3.2. Phase Rule


3.2.1 Intensive and Extensive Properties

3.2.2 Degree of Freedom

3.2.3 Phase

3.2.4 System

3.2.5 Condensed Phase-Vapor Equilibrium

3.2.6 Arbitrary Choice of System

3.2.7 Clapeyron Equation—Liquid Vapor Equilibrium

3.2.8 Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure

3.2.9 Solid–Liquid Equilibrium

3.2.10 Triple Point

3.2.11 Arbitrary Choice of System—Ionic Species

3.2.12 Critical Temperature and Pressure

3.2.13 Freedom Degree and Thermochemical Data—1

3.2.14 Freedom Degree and Thermochemical Data—2

3.2.15 Single-Phase Composition and Bulk Composition

3.2.16 Composition of Industrial Slag


Chapter 3.3. Ellingham Diagram


3.3.1 Standard Gibbs Energy Change of Formation of Compounds

3.3.2 Equilibrium Oxygen Partial Pressure

3.3.3 Equilibrium CO/CO2 Ratio and the Boudouard Reaction

3.3.4 Influence of Activity of Condensed Phases on Gibbs Energy Change


Chapter 3.4. Solution Thermochemistry


3.4.1 Partial Molar Quantities

3.4.2 Integral Molar Quantities

3.4.3 Relationship Between Partial Molar Quantities and Integral Molar Quantities

3.4.4 Relative Partial Molar Quantities and Integral Molar Quantities

3.4.5 Raoult’s Law and Ideal Solutions

3.4.6 Excess Thermodynamic Quantities

3.4.7 Integration of the Gibbs–Duhem Equation

3.4.8 Regular Solutions

3.4.9 Darken’s Quadratic Formalism


Chapter 3.5. Thermodynamic Basis for Phase Diagrams


3.5.1 Gibbs Energy of Binary Solutions

3.5.2 Binary Isomorphous System

3.5.3 Binary Eutectic System

3.5.4 Binary Monotectic and Peritectic Systems

3.5.5 Binary System Including an Intermediate Compound

3.5.6 Consistency of Phase Diagram and Thermochemical Data of the Binary System CaO–SiO2

3.5.7 Ternary Phase Diagram


Chapter 3.6. Dilute Solutions


3.6.1 Henry’s Law and Sieverts’ Law

3.6.2 Henrian Activities and the Conversion of Standard States

3.6.3 Description of Activities of Minor Solute Elements in Metallic Solution (Wagner’s Equation)

3.6.4 Examples for the Calculation of Henrian Activities

3.6.5 Data Compilations for Dilute Liquid Alloys


Chapter 3.7. Thermodynamics of Slags


3.7.1 Phase Diagrams and Activities

3.7.2 Basicity and Refining Ability of Slags

3.7.3 Structure and Thermochemical Models for Slags

3.7.4 Oxidation–Reduction Equilibrium in Slags


Chapter 3.8. Examples of Steelmaking Thermochemistry


3.8.1 Fundamental Considerations Pertaining to Removal of Impurities from Molten Steel

3.8.2 Effect of Solute Elements on Silicon Deoxidation of Ferrous Alloys

3.8.3 Thermodynamics of Calcium Treatment of Al-Killed Steel

3.8.4 Equilibrium Between Solid Oxides and Highly Alloyed Steels

3.8.5 Thermodynamics of Calcium Treatment of Molten Iron

3.8.6 Chemical Potential Control by Gas Equilibria


Chapter 3.9. Thermodynamics of Aqueous Phases


3.9.1 Chemical Potentials and Electrochemical Potentials

3.9.2 Activity and Activity Coefficients

3.9.3 Mean Activity Coefficients

3.9.4 The Debye–Hückel Law

3.9.5 Chemical Equilibrium and Gibbs Energy of Formation of Ions

3.9.6 Chemical Equilibrium in Aqueous Solutions

3.9.7 Potential–pH Diagrams (Pourbaix Diagrams)


Chapter 3.10. Thermodynamic Basis of Electrolysis and Electrochemistry


3.10.1 Zinc Electrowinning

3.10.2 Copper Electrowinning

3.10.3 Copper Electrorefining

3.10.4 Electrochemistry in Leaching


Chapter 4.1. Rate Phenomena in Process Metallurgy


4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 Momentum Transfer

4.1.3 Flow Description

4.1.4 Overall Energy Balance

4.1.5 The Concept of Viscosity

4.1.6 Steady-State Fully Developed Laminar Flow Through a Straight Pipe

4.1.7 Buckingham Π Theorem and Its Application to Transport Phenomena

4.1.8 Reynolds Number

4.1.9 Friction Factor for Flow Through Pipes

4.1.10 Flow Through Packed Beds

4.1.11 Fluidized Beds

4.1.12 Flow Around Particles

4.1.13 Compressible Flow

4.1.14 Momentum Balance at Differential Scale

4.1.15 Models of Turbulence

4.1.16 Introduction to Heat Transfer

4.1.17 Conservation Equation as Applied to Thermal Systems

4.1.18 Conduction

4.1.19 Convection

4.1.20 Radiation

4.1.21 Mass Transfer


Chapter 4.2. Reaction Kinetics


4.2.1 Reaction Kinetics and Reaction Systems

4.2.2 Reaction Rates and Rate-Limiting Processes

4.2.3 Structure of the Chapter


Chapter 4.3. Chemical Reaction Kinetics

4.3.1 Chemical Kinetics

4.3.2 Electrochemical Reactions

4.3.3 Reversible Processes


Chapter 4.4. Chemical Reactions at Moving Surfaces: Shape Change, No Phase Change

4.4.1 Reaction Rates on Fluid/Condensed Phases Interfaces

4.4.2 Chemical Reactions on Moving Solid Surfaces

4.4.3 Reactions with Accumulation at the Interface

4.4.4 Summary


Chapter 4.5. Phase Formation Reactions

4.5.1 Classes of Phase Formation Reactions

4.5.2 Elementary Reaction Processes

4.5.3 Mechanisms of Growth

4.5.4 Summary


Chapter 4.6. Chemical Kinetics + Phase Changes + Shape Changes

4.6.1 Introduction

4.6.2 Metal Growth Morphologies

4.6.3 Morphology Maps

4.6.4 Summary


Chapter 4.7. Factors Influencing Reaction Area

4.7.1 Introduction

4.7.2 Reactant Characteristics

4.7.3 Reaction Induced Phenomena

4.7.4 Reaction Time/Extent

4.7.5 Summary


Chapter 4.8. Reaction System Performance

4.8.1 Driving Forces for Reaction

4.8.2 Reaction Engineering and Process Models

4.8.3 Summary




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© Elsevier 2014
26th November 2013
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editor in Chief

Seshadri Seetharaman

Seshadri Seetharaman is Professor Emeritus at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Professor Seetharaman has more than 320 publications in peer-reviewed journals, 130 conference presentations and 10 patents. He is the editor for the books, "Fundamentals of Metallurgy" and "Treatise on Process Metallurgy". He received the President’s award for teaching merits in 1994. He was nominated as the best teacher in Materials Science eight times and was chosen as the best teacher of the Royal Inst. of Technol. In 2004. He has been visiting professor at Kyushu Inst. Technol., Kyoto university, Japan and TU-Bergakademie, Freiberg, Germany. He was awarded the Brimacomb prize for the year 2010 Hon. Doctor at Aalto University, Finland in 2011 and Hon. Professor at the Ukrainian Metallurgical Academy, 2011. Prof. Seetharaman is an Hon. Member of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2011, He has been honoured as the Distinguished Alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India in the year 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

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