Treatise on Geochemistry

Treatise on Geochemistry

2nd Edition - October 19, 2013

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  • Editors-in-Chief: Karl Turekian, Heinrich Holland
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080983004
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080959757

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Description

This extensively updated new edition of the widely acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry has increased its coverage beyond the wide range of geochemical subject areas in the first edition, with five new volumes which include: the history of the atmosphere, geochemistry of mineral deposits, archaeology and anthropology, organic geochemistry and analytical geochemistry. In addition, the original Volume 1 on "Meteorites, Comets, and Planets" was expanded into two separate volumes dealing with meteorites and planets, respectively. These additions increased the number of volumes in the Treatise from 9 to 15 with the index/appendices volume remaining as the last volume (Volume 16). Each of the original volumes was scrutinized by the appropriate volume editors, with respect to necessary revisions as well as additions and deletions. As a result, 27% were republished without major changes, 66% were revised and 126 new chapters were added.

Key Features

  • In a many-faceted field such as Geochemistry, explaining and understanding how one sub-field relates to another is key. Instructors will find the complete overviews with extensive cross-referencing useful additions to their course packs and students will benefit from the contextual organization of the subject matter
  • Six new volumes added and 66% updated from 1st edition. The Editors of this work have taken every measure to include the many suggestions received from readers and ensure comprehensiveness of coverage and added value in this 2nd edition
  • The esteemed Board of Volume Editors and Editors-in-Chief worked cohesively to ensure a uniform and consistent approach to the content, which is an amazing accomplishment for a 15-volume work (16 volumes including index volume)!

Readership

A must have for researchers, teachers and (graduate) students of Geochemistry, in particular, and the Geosciences in general. It is also highly recommended for professionals working in contamination clean-up, resource managers, and environmental regulators, among others

Table of Contents

  • In Memoriam

    Heinrich Dieter Holland (1927–2012)

    Karl Karekin Turekian (1927–2013)

    References

    Executive Editors’ Foreword to the Second Edition

    Permission Acknowledgments

    Volume 1: Meteorites and Cosmochemical Processes

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    References

    1.1. Classification of Meteorites and Their Genetic Relationships

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.1.1 Introduction

    1.1.2 Classification of Chondritic Meteorites

    1.1.3 Classification of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs)

    1.1.4 Classification of Nonchondritic Meteorites

    1.1.5 Genetic Relations Among Meteorite Groups

    References

    1.2. Chondrites and Their Components

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.2.1 Introduction

    1.2.2 Classification and Parent Bodies of Chondrites

    1.2.3 Bulk Composition of Chondrites

    1.2.4 Metamorphism, Alteration, and Impact Processing

    1.2.5 Chondritic Components

    1.2.6 Formation and Accretion of Chondritic Components

    1.2.7 Heating Mechanisms in the Early Solar System

    References

    1.3. Calcium–Aluminum-Rich Inclusions in Chondritic Meteorites

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.3.1 Introduction

    1.3.2 Changes in this Revision

    1.3.3 Some Essential Terminology: Structural Elements of a CAI

    1.3.4 Mineralogy and Mineral Chemistry

    1.3.5 Diversity and Major Element Bulk Chemistry

    1.3.6 Type C CAIs, Compound Objects, and the Chondrule–CAI Connection

    1.3.7 Fun CAIs and Hibonite Grains

    1.3.8 Distribution Among Chondrite Types

    1.3.9 Ages

    1.3.10 Trace Elements

    1.3.11 Oxygen Isotopes

    1.3.12 Short-Lived Radionuclides in CAIs

    1.3.13 CAIS, Chondrules, Condensation, and Melt Distillation

    1.3.14 Wark–Lovering Rim Sequences: One Terminal Event or Many?

    1.3.15 Conclusions and Reflections: Technology, the Big Picture, and the Convergence of Cosmochemistry and Astronomy

    References

    1.4. Presolar Grains

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.4.1 Introduction

    1.4.2 Historical Background

    1.4.3 Types of Presolar Grains

    1.4.4 Analysis Techniques

    1.4.5 Astrophysical Implications of the Study of Presolar Grains

    1.4.6 Silicon Carbide

    1.4.7 Silicon Nitride

    1.4.8 Graphite

    1.4.9 Oxygen-Rich Grains

    1.4.10 Diamond

    1.4.11 Conclusion and Future Prospects

    References

    1.5. Structural and Isotopic Analysis of Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Abstract

    1.5.1 Introduction

    1.5.2 Organic Material in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    1.5.3 Extractable Organic Matter

    1.5.4 Macromolecular Material

    1.5.5 In Situ Examination of Meteoritic Organic Matter

    1.5.6 Environments of Formation

    References

    1.6. Achondrites

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    1.6.1 Introduction

    1.6.2 Primitive Achondrites

    1.6.3 Differentiated Achondrites

    1.6.4 Uncategorized Achondrites

    1.6.5 Summary

    References

    1.7. Iron and Stony-Iron Meteorites

    Abstract

    1.7.1 Introduction

    1.7.2 Classification and Chemical Composition of Iron Meteorites

    1.7.3 Accretion and Differences in Bulk Chemistry Between Groups of Iron Meteorites

    1.7.4 Heating and Differentiation

    1.7.5 Fractional Crystallization of Metal Cores

    1.7.6 Cooling Rates and Sizes of Parent Bodies

    1.7.7 Pallasites

    1.7.8 Parent Bodies of Iron and Stony-Iron Meteorites

    1.7.9 Future Research Directions

    References

    1.8. Early Solar Nebula Grains – Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.8.1 Introduction

    1.8.2 Particle Size, Morphology, Porosity, and Density

    1.8.3 Mineralogy

    1.8.4 Optical Properties

    1.8.5 Compositions

    1.8.6 Conclusions

    References

    1.9. Nebular Versus Parent Body Processing

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.9.1 Introduction

    1.9.2 Nebular or Asteroidal Processing: Some Criteria

    1.9.3 Aqueous Alteration

    1.9.4 Oxidation and Metasomatism

    1.9.5 Future Work

    References

    1.10. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.10.1 Introduction

    1.10.2 Theoretical Framework

    1.10.3 Laboratory Experiments

    1.10.4 Applications

    1.10.5 Outlook

    References

    1.11. Short-Lived Radionuclides and Early Solar System Chronology

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.11.1 Introduction

    1.11.2 Dating with Ancient Radioactivity

    1.11.3 ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Timescales

    1.11.4 The Record of Short-Lived Radionuclides in Early Solar System Materials

    1.11.5 Origins of the Short-Lived Nuclides

    1.11.6 Short-Lived Nuclides as Chronometers

    1.11.7 Conclusions

    References

    1.12. Solar System Time Scales from Long-Lived Radioisotopes in Meteorites and Planetary Materials

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.12.1 Introduction

    1.12.2 Chondrites and Their Components

    1.12.3 Differentiated Meteorites

    1.12.4 Planetary Materials

    1.12.5 Conclusions

    References

    1.13. Cosmic-Ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    1.13.1 Introduction

    1.13.2 Calculation of Exposure Ages

    1.13.3 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    1.13.4 H Chondrites

    1.13.5 L Chondrites

    1.13.6 LL Chondrites

    1.13.7 E Chondrites

    1.13.8 R Chondrites

    1.13.9 Lodranites and Acapulcoites

    1.13.10 Lunar Meteorites

    1.13.11 Howardite–Eucrite–Diogenite (HED) Meteorites

    1.13.12 Angrites

    1.13.13 Ureilites

    1.13.14 Aubrites (Enstatite Achondrites)

    1.13.15 Brachinites

    1.13.16 Martian Meteorites

    1.13.17 Mesosiderites

    1.13.18 Pallasites

    1.13.19 Irons

    1.13.20 The Smallest Particles: Micrometeorites, Interplanetary Dust Particles, and Interstellar Grains

    1.13.21 Conclusions

    References

    Volume 2: Planets, Asteriods, Comets and The Solar System

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    References

    2.1. Origin of the Elements

    Abstract

    2.1.1 Introduction

    2.1.2 Abundances and Nucleosynthesis

    2.1.3 IMS: Evolution and Nucleosynthesis

    2.1.4 Massive Star Evolution and Nucleosynthesis

    2.1.5 Type Ia Supernovae: Progenitors and Nucleosynthesis

    2.1.6 Nucleosynthesis and Galactic Chemical Evolution

    References

    2.2. Solar System Abundances of the Elements

    Abstract

    2.2.1 Abundances of the Elements in the Solar Nebula

    2.2.2 The Abundances of the Elements in the ISM

    2.2.3 Summary

    References

    2.3. The Solar Nebula

    Abstract

    2.3.1 Introduction

    2.3.2 Formation of the Solar Nebula

    2.3.3 Solar Nebula Structure and Evolution

    2.3.4 Solar Nebula Removal

    2.3.5 Summary

    References

    2.4. Planet Formation

    Abstract

    2.4.1 Introduction

    2.4.2 The Protoplanetary Nebula and the First Solids

    2.4.3 Planetesimals and the First Solids

    2.4.4 Terrestrial Planet Formation

    2.4.5 The Asteroid Belt

    2.4.6 Giant-Planet Formation

    References

    2.5. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    2.5.1 Introduction: The Use of Geochemistry in Impact Studies

    2.5.2 Background on Impact Craters and Processes

    2.5.3 Methods

    2.5.4 Examples

    2.5.5 Summary

    References

    2.6. Mercury

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    2.6.1 Introduction: The Importance of Mercury

    2.6.2 Pre-MESSENGER View of the Chemical Composition of Mercury

    2.6.3 Pre-MESSENGER Models for the Origin of Mercury

    2.6.4 Results from the MESSENGER Mission

    2.6.5 Evaluating Models for the Origin of Mercury

    2.6.6 The Future for the Exploration of Mercury

    References

    2.7. Venus

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    2.7.1 Brief History of Observations

    2.7.2 Overview of Important Orbital Properties

    2.7.3 Atmosphere

    2.7.4 Surface and Interior

    2.7.5 Summary of Key Questions

    References

    2.8. The Origin and Earliest History of the Earth

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    2.8.1 Introduction

    2.8.2 Observational Evidence and Theoretical Constraints Pertaining to the Nebular Environment from Which Earth Originated

    2.8.3 The Dynamics of Accretion of the Earth

    2.8.4 Chemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Nature of the Components That Accreted to Form the Earth

    2.8.5 Core Formation

    2.8.6 Lead and Tungsten Isotopes and the Timing, Rates, and Mechanisms of Accretion and Core Formation

    2.8.7 Earth's Earliest Atmospheres and Hydrospheres

    2.8.8 The Formation of the Moon

    2.8.9 Mass Loss and Compositional Changes During Accretion

    2.8.10 The Late Veneer

    2.8.11 Early Mantle and Crust

    References

    2.9. The Moon

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    2.9.1 Introduction: The Lunar Context

    2.9.2 The Lunar Geochemical Database

    2.9.3 Mare Volcanism

    2.9.4 The Highland Crust: Impact Bombardment and Early Differentiation

    2.9.5 Water in the Moon

    2.9.6 The Bulk Composition and Origin of the Moon

    References

    2.10. Mars

    Abstract

    2.10.1 Geochemical Exploration of Mars

    2.10.2 Sources of Geochemical Data

    2.10.3 Geochemistry of Planetary Differentiation

    2.10.4 Geochemistry of Magmatic Processes

    2.10.5 Geochemistry of Sedimentary and Alteration Processes

    2.10.6 Organic Matter, Volatile Reservoirs, and Geochemical Cycles

    2.10.7 Geochemical Changes with Time and Comparison with Earth

    2.10.8 Major Unresolved Problems

    References

    2.11. Giant Planets

    Abstract

    2.11.1 The Giant Planets in Relation to the Solar System

    2.11.2 Essential Determinants of the Physical Properties of the Giant Planets

    2.11.3 Origin and Evolution of the Giant Planets

    2.11.4 Extrasolar Giant Planets

    2.11.5 Major Unsolved Problems and Future Progress

    References

    2.12. Major Satellites of the Giant Planets

    Abstract

    2.12.1 Introduction

    2.12.2 Cosmochemical Context

    2.12.3 Bulk Composition

    2.12.4 Surface Composition

    2.12.5 The Jupiter System

    2.12.6 The Saturn System

    2.12.7 The Uranus System

    2.12.8 The Neptune System – Triton

    2.12.9 Major Issues and Future Directions

    References

    2.13. Comets

    Abstract

    2.13.1 Introduction

    2.13.2 Comet and Asteroid Comparisons

    2.13.3 Comet Activity

    2.13.4 Comet Types – Orbital Distinction

    2.13.5 Physical Evolution of Comets

    2.13.6 Major Component Composition

    2.13.7 Diversity Among Comets

    2.13.8 Conclusions

    References

    2.14. Asteroids

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    2.14.1 Introduction

    2.14.2 Background

    2.14.3 Remote Observations

    2.14.4 Taxonomy

    2.14.5 Spacecraft Missions

    2.14.6 Interesting Groups of Asteroids

    2.14.7 Taxonomic Distribution of Taxonomic Types

    2.14.8 Conclusions and Future Work

    References

    Volume 3: The Mantle and Core

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    1 Introduction

    2 Working Down from the Top

    3 Crust–Mantle Exchange Is not a One Way Street

    4 Is the Present the Key to the Past

    5 Chemical Differentiation Before Earth Formation

    6 Concluding Points

    3.1. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

    Abstract

    3.1.1 Introduction and Historical Remarks

    3.1.2 The Composition of Earth's Mantle as Derived from the Composition of the Sun

    3.1.3 The Cosmochemical Classification of Elements and the Chemical Composition of Chondritic Meteorites

    3.1.4 The Composition of the PM Based on the Analysis of the Upper Mantle Rocks

    3.1.5 Comparison of the PM Composition with Meteorites

    3.1.6 The Isotopic Composition of Earth

    3.1.7 Summary

    References

    3.2. Geophysical Constraints on Mantle Composition

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.2.1 Introduction

    3.2.2 Upper Mantle Bulk Composition

    3.2.3 Upper Mantle Heterogeneity

    3.2.4 Lower Mantle Bulk Composition

    3.2.5 Lower Mantle Heterogeneity

    3.2.6 Future Prospects

    References

    3.3. Sampling Mantle Heterogeneity through Oceanic Basalts: Isotopes and Trace Elements

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.3.1 Introduction

    3.3.2 Local and Regional Equilibrium Revisited

    3.3.3 Crust–Mantle Differentiation

    3.3.4 Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts: Samples of the Depleted Mantle

    3.3.5 Ocean Island, Plateau, and Seamount Basalts

    3.3.6 The Lead Paradox

    3.3.7 Geochemical Mantle Models

    References

    3.4. Orogenic, Ophiolitic, and Abyssal Peridotites

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.4.1 Introduction

    3.4.2 Types, Distribution, and Provenance

    3.4.3 Major- and Trace-Element Geochemistry of Peridotites

    3.4.4 Major- and Trace-Element Geochemistry of Pyroxenites

    3.4.5 Nd–Sr Isotope Geochemistry

    References

    3.5. Mantle Samples Included in Volcanic Rocks: Xenoliths and Diamonds

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.5.1 Mantle Xenoliths: the Nature of the Sample

    3.5.2 Peridotite Xenoliths

    3.5.3 Eclogite Xenoliths

    3.5.4 Diamonds

    References

    3.6. The Formation and Evolution of Cratonic Mantle Lithosphere – Evidence from Mantle Xenoliths

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.6.1 Introduction

    3.6.2 Modification of CLM

    3.6.3 Primary Compositions of Cratonic Peridotites and Their Melting Environment

    3.6.4 Constraining the Timing of Lithosphere Formation

    3.6.5 Models for the Formation of Cratonic Roots

    References

    3.7. Noble Gases as Mantle Tracers

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.7.1 Introduction

    3.7.2 Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers

    3.7.3 Mantle Noble Gas Characteristics

    3.7.4 Noble Gases as Mantle Tracers

    3.7.5 Concluding Remarks

    References

    3.8. Noble Gases as Tracers of Mantle Processes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.8.1 Introduction

    3.8.2 Advances in Understanding Noble Gas Behavior

    3.8.3 Mantle Noble Gas Characteristics

    3.8.4 Noble Gases and the Tracing of Mantle Processes

    3.8.5 Concluding Remarks

    References

    3.9. Volatiles in Earth's Mantle

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    Acknowledgments

    3.9.1 Introduction

    3.9.2 Evidence from Mantle-Derived Magmas

    3.9.3 C–O–H: Evidence from Mantle-Derived Samples

    3.9.4 Sulfur

    3.9.5 Halogens

    3.9.6 Nitrogen

    3.9.7 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    3.10. Melt Extraction and Compositional Variability in Mantle Lithosphere

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.10.1 Introduction

    3.10.2 Phase Equilibrium and Melt Extraction

    3.10.3 The Mantle Sample

    3.10.4 The Role of Melt Extraction

    3.10.5 Perspective on Mantle Thermal Evolution

    3.10.6 Summary

    References

    3.11. Trace Element Partitioning: The Influences of Ionic Radius, Cation Charge, Pressure, and Temperature

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.11.1 Introduction

    3.11.2 Ionic Radius and Lattice-Strain Theory

    3.11.3 Determination of ES and ro

    3.11.4 Simulations of Trace Element Substitution into Garnet

    3.11.5 Deviations from Simple Bulk Modulus Systematics

    3.11.6 Temperature and Pressure Dependencies of DO and Partitioning

    3.11.7 Garnet–Melt Partitioning of REE

    3.11.8 Dependence of Do on Ionic Charge

    3.11.9 Henry's Law and Substitution Mechanisms

    3.11.10 Mineral–Melt Partition Coefficients

    References

    3.12. Partition Coefficients at High Pressure and Temperature

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.12.1 Planetary Differentiation

    3.12.2 Experimental Approaches

    3.12.3 Metal/Silicate Equilibria

    3.12.4 Mineral/Melt Equilibria

    3.12.5 Models

    3.12.6 Summary and Future

    References

    3.13. The Subduction-Zone Filter and the Impact of Recycled Materials on the Evolution of the Mantle

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.13.1 Introduction

    3.13.2 Thermal Structure and Mineralogy of the Subducting Plate and Overriding Mantle

    3.13.3 The Arc Volcanic Record of Slab Modification of the Mantle Wedge

    3.13.4 The Fate of Immobile Elements Through Subduction

    3.13.5 Subduction Fluxes and Mantle Composition

    3.13.6 Summary

    References

    3.14. Convective Mixing in the Earth's Mantle

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    Acknowledgments

    3.14.1 Introduction

    3.14.2 Geochemical and Geophysical Observations of Mantle Heterogeneity

    3.14.3 Characterization of Mixing

    3.14.4 Outlook

    Appendix

    References

    3.15. Experimental Constraints on Core Composition

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.15.1 Introduction

    3.15.2 Methods

    3.15.3 Major Elements in the Core

    3.15.4 Light Elements in the Core

    3.15.5 Minor and Trace Elements in the Core

    3.15.6 Conclusions and Outlook

    References

    Glossary

    3.16. Compositional Model for the Earth's Core

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    3.16.1 Introduction

    3.16.2 First-Order Geophysics

    3.16.3 Constraining the Composition of the Earth's Core

    3.16.4 A Compositional Model for the Core

    3.16.5 Radioactive Elements in the Core

    3.16.6 Timing of Core Formation

    3.16.7 Nature of Core Formation

    3.16.8 The Inner Core, its Crystallization, and Core–Mantle Exchange

    3.16.9 Summary

    References

    Volume 4: The Crust

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    1 What’s New in The Second Edition

    2 The Continental Crust

    3 The Oceanic Crust

    4 Crust-Mantle Exchange

    5 Crustal Evolution

    6 Concluding Thoughts

    Acknowledgements

    References

    4.1. Composition of the Continental Crust

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.1.1 Introduction

    4.1.2 The Upper Continental Crust

    4.1.3 The Deep Crust

    4.1.4 Bulk Crust Composition

    4.1.5 Implications of the Crust Composition

    4.1.6 Earth's Crust in a Planetary Perspective

    4.1.7 Summary

    References

    4.2. Constraints on Crustal Heat Production from Heat Flow Data

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.2.1 Introduction

    4.2.2 Estimates of Bulk Crustal Heat Production

    4.2.3 Heat Flow and Crustal Heat Production

    4.2.4 Heat Production of the Continental Crust through Time

    4.2.5 Controls on Crustal Heat Production

    4.2.6 Heat Production and Heat Loss in the Earth

    4.2.7 Conclusion

    Appendix A Power Spectra

    Appendix B Mantle Heat Flux, Moho Temperature, and Lithosphere Thickness

    References

    4.3. Continental Basaltic Rocks

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.3.1 Introduction

    4.3.2 General Principles

    4.3.3 Continental Extrusive Igneous Rocks

    4.3.4 Intrusive Equivalents of Continental Basaltic Rocks

    4.3.5 Concluding Remarks

    References

    4.4. Volcanic Degassing: Process and Impact

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    Acknowledgments

    4.4.1 Introduction

    4.4.2 Sources of Volatiles in Volcanic Emissions

    4.4.3 Magma Degassing

    4.4.4 Volcanic Emissions: Manifestations and Measurements

    4.4.5 Isotope Fractionation in Volcanic and Geothermal Fluids

    4.4.6 Fluxes of Volcanic Volatiles to the Atmosphere

    4.4.7 Impacts of Volcanic Volatile Emissions

    4.4.8 Concluding Remarks

    References

    4.5. Timescales of Magma Transfer and Storage in the Crust

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.5.1 Introduction

    4.5.2 Geophysical and Time-Series Estimates for Residence Times and Volumes of Magmas

    4.5.3 General Constraints on the Duration of Magma Transfer from U-Series Disequilibria

    4.5.4 Timescales of Magma Differentiation

    4.5.5 Timescales of Crystallization

    4.5.6 Discussion and Summary

    References

    4.6. Fluid Flow in the Deep Crust

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.6.1 Introduction

    4.6.2 Evidence for Deep-Crustal Fluids

    4.6.3 Devolatilization

    4.6.4 Porous Media and Fracture Flow

    4.6.5 Overview of Fluid Chemistry

    4.6.6 Chemical Transport and Reaction

    4.6.7 Geochemical Fronts

    4.6.8 Flow and Reaction Along Gradients in Temperature and Pressure

    4.6.9 Examples of Mass and Heat Transfer

    4.6.10 Concluding Remarks

    References

    4.7. Geochemical Zoning in Metamorphic Minerals

    Abstract

    Symbols

    Acknowledgment

    4.7.1 Introduction

    4.7.2 Major Elements

    4.7.3 Stable Isotopes

    4.7.4 Trace Elements

    4.7.5 Radiogenic Isotopes (Age Variability)

    4.7.6 Case Study: Fall Mountain, New Hampshire

    4.7.7 Discussion and Conclusions

    References

    4.8. Thermochronology in Orogenic Systems

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    Acknowledgments

    4.8.1 Introduction

    4.8.2 Basic Concepts of Geochronology

    4.8.3 Analytical Methods

    4.8.4 The Interpretation of Dates as Ages

    4.8.5 Open-System Behavior: The Role of Diffusion

    4.8.6 Closure Temperature Theory

    4.8.7 Inverse Modeling of Thermal Histories from Individual Samples

    4.8.8 Resetting Temperature Theory

    4.8.9 Applications

    4.8.10 Directions for Future Research

    References

    4.9. Subduction of Continental Crust to Mantle Depth: Geochemistry of Ultrahigh-Pressure Rocks

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.9.1 Introduction

    4.9.2 Indicators of UHP Metamorphism

    4.9.3 Overview of UHP Terrains

    4.9.4 General Features of UHP Terrains

    4.9.5 Composition of UHP Crust

    4.9.6 Composition of UHP Fluids

    4.9.7 Geochronology of UHP Rocks

    4.9.8 Outlook

    References

    4.10. U–Th–Pb Geochronology

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.10.1 Introduction

    4.10.2 Decay of U and Th to Pb

    4.10.3 Causes of Discordance in the U–Th–Pb System

    4.10.4 Measurement Techniques

    4.10.5 Precision and Accuracy of U–Th–Pb Geochronology

    4.10.6 Applications: The Present and Future of U–Th–Pb Geochronology

    References

    4.11. Growth and Differentiation of the Continental Crust from Isotope Studies of Accessory Minerals

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.11.1 A Question of Scale

    4.11.2 Information Contained in Accessory Minerals

    4.11.3 Technical Aspects

    4.11.4 Areas of Progress

    4.11.5 The Future and New Frontiers

    References

    4.12. Physics and Chemistry of Deep Continental Crust Recycling

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.12.1 Introduction

    4.12.2 Physics of Lower Crustal Recycling

    4.12.3 The Aftermath of Foundering

    4.12.4 Case Studies

    4.12.5 The Composition and Mass Fluxes of Lower Crustal Foundering

    4.12.6 Fate of Recycled Mafic Lower Crust

    4.12.7 Some Useful Petrologic Approaches in Studying Lower Crustal Recycling

    4.12.8 Summary and Outlook

    References

    4.13. Composition of the Oceanic Crust

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.13.1 Introduction

    4.13.2 Architecture of the Oceanic Crust

    4.13.3 Creation of Oceanic Crust at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    4.13.4 The Composition of MORB

    4.13.5 Future Directions

    References

    4.14. The Lower Oceanic Crust

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.14.1 Background

    4.14.2 Observations

    4.14.3 Generating the Lower Oceanic Crust

    References

    4.15. Melt Migration in Oceanic Crustal Production: A U-Series Perspective

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.15.1 Introduction

    4.15.2 U-Series Preliminaries

    4.15.3 Observations

    4.15.4 U-Series Melting Models

    4.15.5 Summary of Model Behavior

    4.15.6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    4.16. Chemical Fluxes from Hydrothermal Alteration of the Oceanic Crust

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    4.16.1 Introduction

    4.16.2 Determining the Composition of the Unaltered Oceanic Crust Protolith

    4.16.3 Determining the Composition of Altered Oceanic Crust

    4.16.4 Determining Geochemical Fluxes in an Open System

    4.16.5 Chemical Changes in Altered Crust Composition due to Hydrothermal Processes

    4.16.6 Discussion

    4.16.7 Conclusions

    References

    4.17. The Chemical Composition of Subducting Sediments

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.17.1 Introduction

    4.17.2 Approach

    4.17.3 Geochemical Systematics in Seafloor Sediments

    4.17.4 Global Subducting Sediments

    4.17.5 Implications for Recycling at Subduction Zones

    4.17.6 Future Prospects

    References

    4.18. Oceanic Plateaus

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.18.1 Introduction

    4.18.2 Formation and Structure of Oceanic Plateaus

    4.18.3 Preservation of Oceanic Plateaus

    4.18.4 Cretaceous Oceanic Plateaus

    4.18.5 Oceanic Plateau Identification in the Geological Record

    4.18.6 Plateaus Accreted around the Pacific Margins

    4.18.7 Precambrian Oceanic Plateaus

    4.18.8 Environmental Impact of Oceanic Plateau Formation

    4.18.9 Concluding Statements

    References

    4.19. Devolatilization During Subduction

    Abstract

    4.19.1 Introduction

    4.19.2 Setting the Scene

    4.19.3 Devolatilization Regimes in MORB

    4.19.4 How Much H2O Subducts into the Transition Zone?

    4.19.5 Devolatilization in Sediments

    4.19.6 Serpentinized Peridotite

    4.19.7 Implications for Trace Elements and an Integrated View of the Oceanic Lithosphere

    4.19.8 Dents in a Simplified Subduction Model

    4.19.9 Concluding Remarks

    References

    4.20. Chemical and Isotopic Cycling in Subduction Zones

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.20.1 Introduction

    4.20.2 The Seafloor, as It Enters the Trenches

    4.20.3 Thermal Evolution, Devolatilization History, and H2O and CO2 Cycling in Subduction Zones

    4.20.4 Initial Processing of Sediments and Pore Waters in Trench and Shallow Forearc Settings (<15 km)

    4.20.5 Chemical Changes in Forearc to Subarc High-P/T Metamorphic Suites (15–100 km)

    4.20.6 The Deep Forearc and Subarc Slab–Mantle Interface

    4.20.7 Slab–Arc Connections

    4.20.8 Beyond Arcs

    4.20.9 Outlook

    References

    4.21. One View of the Geochemistry of Subduction-Related Magmatic Arcs, with an Emphasis on Primitive Andesite and Lower Crust

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    4.21.1 Introduction

    4.21.2 Arc Lava Compilation

    4.21.3 Characteristics of Arc magmas

    4.21.4 Arc Lower Crust

    4.21.5 Implications for Continental Genesis

    4.21.6 Conclusions

    References

    Volume 5: The Atmosphere

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    5.1. Ozone, Hydroxyl Radical, and Oxidative Capacity

    Abstract

    5.1.1 Introduction

    5.1.2 Evolution of Oxidizing Capability

    5.1.3 Fundamental Reactions

    5.1.4 Meteorological Influences

    5.1.5 Human Influences

    5.1.6 Measuring Oxidation Rates

    5.1.7 Atmospheric Models and Observations

    5.1.8 Conclusions

    References

    5.2. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.2.1 Introduction

    5.2.2 Main Reaction Mechanisms

    5.2.3 Tropospheric Ozone Depletion at Polar Sunrise

    5.2.4 Marine Boundary Layer

    5.2.5 Salt Lakes

    5.2.6 Volcanoes

    5.2.7 Free Troposphere

    5.2.8 Additional Sources of Reactive Halogens

    5.2.9 Summary

    References

    5.3. Global Methane Biogeochemistry

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.3.1 Introduction

    5.3.2 Global Methane Budget

    5.3.3 Terrestrial Studies

    5.3.4 Marine Studies

    5.3.5 Ice Cores

    5.3.6 Future Work

    References

    5.4. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    Subscripts

    Acknowledgments

    5.4.1 Introduction

    5.4.2 Aerosol Properties

    5.4.3 Measurement of Aerosol Properties

    5.4.4 Spatial and Temporal Variation of Tropospheric Aerosols

    5.4.5 Aerosol Processes

    5.4.6 Representation of Aerosol Processes in Chemical Transport and Transformation Models

    5.4.7 Aerosol Influences on Climate and Climate Change

    5.4.8 Final Thoughts

    References

    5.5. Biomass Burning: The Cycling of Gases and Particulates from the Biosphere to the Atmosphere

    Abstract

    5.5.1 Introduction: Biomass Burning, Geochemical Cycling, and Global Change

    5.5.2 Global Impacts of Biomass Burning

    5.5.3 Enhanced Biogenic Soil Emissions of Nitrogen and Carbon Gases: A Postfire Effect

    5.5.4 The Geographical Distribution of Biomass Burning

    5.5.5 Biomass Burning in the Boreal Forests

    5.5.6 Estimates of Global Burning and Global Gaseous and Particulate Emissions

    5.5.7 Calculation of Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Fires

    5.5.8 Biomass Burning and Atmospheric Nitrogen and Oxygen

    5.5.9 Atmospheric Chemistry Resulting from Gaseous Emissions from the Fires

    5.5.10 A Case Study of Biomass Burning: The 1997 Wildfires in Southeast Asia

    5.5.11 Results of Calculations: Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from the Fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia, August to December 1997

    5.5.12 The Impact of the Southeastern Asia Fires on the Composition and Chemistry of the Atmosphere

    References

    5.6. Mass-Independent Isotopic Composition of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Materials

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.6.1 General Introduction

    5.6.2 Applications of Mass-Independent Isotopic Effects

    5.6.3 Isotopic Anomalies in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres and Environments

    5.6.4 Atmospheric Observations of Mass-Independent Isotopic Compositions

    5.6.5 Atmospheric Aerosol Sulfate: Present Earth's Atmosphere

    5.6.6 Mass-Independent Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Paleosulfates

    5.6.7 Atmospheric Mass-Independent Molecular Oxygen

    5.6.8 The Atmospheric Aerosol Nitrate and the Nitrogen Cycle

    5.6.9 Mass-Independent Oxygen Isotopic Compositions in Solids to Reflect Atmospheric Change: Earth and Mars

    5.6.10 Sulfur in the Earth's Earliest Atmosphere: The Rise of Oxygen

    5.6.11 Sulfur Isotopic Fractionation Processes in other Solar System Objects

    5.6.12 Concluding Comments

    References

    5.7. The Stable Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.7.1 Introduction

    5.7.2 Methodology and Terminology

    5.7.3 δ13C in Atmospheric CO2

    5.7.4 δ18O in CO2

    5.7.5 Clumped Isotopes

    5.7.6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    5.8. Water Stable Isotopes: Atmospheric Composition and Applications in Polar Ice Core Studies

    Abstract

    Symbols

    Acknowledgments

    5.8.1 Introduction

    5.8.2 Present-Day Observations

    5.8.3 Physics of Water Isotopes

    5.8.4 Modeling the Water Isotope Atmospheric Cycle

    5.8.5 Ice Core Isotopic Records

    5.8.6 The Conventional Approach for Interpreting Water Isotopes in Ice Cores

    5.8.7 Alternative Estimates of Temperature Changes in Greenland and Antarctica

    5.8.8 What Do People Learn from GCMs?

    5.8.9 Influence of the Oceanic Source of Polar Precipitation

    5.8.10 Conclusion

    References

    5.9. Radiocarbon

    Abstract

    5.9.1 Introduction

    5.9.2 Production and Distribution of 14C

    5.9.3 Measurements of Radiocarbon

    5.9.4 Timescale Calibration

    5.9.5 Radiocarbon and Solar Irradiance

    5.9.6 The ‘Bomb’ 14C Transient

    5.9.7 Future Applications

    References

    5.10. Natural Radionuclides in the Atmosphere

    Abstract

    5.10.1 Introduction

    5.10.2 Radon and Its Daughters

    5.10.3 Cosmogenic Nuclides

    5.10.4 Coupled Lead-210 and Beryllium-7

    References

    5.11. Carbonaceous Particles: Source-Based Characterization of Their Formation, Composition, and Structures

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.11.1 Introduction

    5.11.2 Carbonaceous Particles from Fossil Fuel Combustion

    5.11.3 Biofuel and Biomass Burning Carbonaceous Particles

    5.11.4 Carbonaceous Particles from Biogenic Vapor Fluxes

    5.11.5 Carbonaceous Particles from Mechanically Lofted Biological Components

    5.11.6 Impacts of Carbonaceous Particle on the Earth System

    Appendix A Measurement Techniques for Carbonaceous Particles

    References

    Glossary

    5.12. Ocean-Derived Aerosol and Its Climate Impacts

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.12.1 Introduction

    5.12.2 Ocean-Derived Aerosol Production Mechanisms

    5.12.3 Radiative Effects of Ocean-Derived Aerosol

    5.12.4 Sources and Composition of Ocean-Derived CCN

    5.12.5 The MBL CCN Budget

    5.12.6 The CLAW Hypothesis

    5.12.7 Concluding Comments

    References

    5.13. Aerosol Hygroscopicity: Particle Water Content and Its Role in Atmospheric Processes

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    Symbols

    Acknowledgments

    5.13.1 Introduction

    5.13.2 Methods for the Measurement of Aerosol Water Contents

    5.13.3 Parameterizations of Aerosol Hygroscopicity

    5.13.4 Laboratory Measurements for Selected Aerosol Types

    5.13.5 Observations of Aerosol Water Content and Atmospheric Implications

    References

    5.14. The Stable Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric O2

    Abstract

    5.14.1 Introduction

    5.14.2 Methodology and Terminology

    5.14.3 18O/16O Ratios in Atmospheric O2

    5.14.4 Oxygen-17 and Oxygen-18 in Atmospheric O2

    References

    5.15. Studies of Recent Changes in Atmospheric O2 Content

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.15.1 Introduction

    5.15.2 Overview of the Large-Scale Variability

    5.15.3 Measurement Methods

    5.15.4 O2-Based Global Carbon Budgets

    5.15.5 Seasonal Cycles in APO

    5.15.6 Interannual Variability in APO

    5.15.7 Interhemispheric Gradient in O2/N2 and APO

    5.15.8 Diurnal and Other Shorter-Term Variability

    5.15.9 Future Outlook

    References

    5.16. Fluorine-Containing Greenhouse Gases

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.16.1 Introduction

    5.16.2 Global Observations

    5.16.3 Global Cycles

    5.16.4 Environmental Impacts, Current Trends and Emission Policies

    5.16.5 Verification of Future National Emission Reports Using Observations

    5.16.6 Conclusions

    References

    Volume 6: The Atmosphere - History

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    6.1. Geochemical and Planetary Dynamical Views on the Origin of Earth's Atmosphere and Oceans

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.1.1 Introduction

    6.1.2 Making Terrestrial Planets

    6.1.3 Inventories and Isotopic Compositions of Volatiles in Terrestrial Planets, Meteorites, and Comets

    6.1.4 Modeling the Origin of Noble Gases in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    6.1.5 Nature and Timing of Noble Gas Degassing and Escape

    6.1.6 The Origin of Major Volatile Elements in Earth

    6.1.7 The Late Heavy Bombardment

    6.1.8 Conclusion: A Not So Rare Earth?

    References

    6.2. Degassing History of Earth

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    6.2.1 Introduction

    6.2.2 Partitioning and Solubility of Volatile Components

    6.2.3 Volatile Data

    6.2.4 Modeling Degassing, Recycling, and Atmosphere Evolution

    6.2.5 Discussion

    6.2.6 Conclusions and Outlook

    References

    6.3. Chemistry of Earth's Earliest Atmosphere

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.3.1 Introduction and Overview

    6.3.2 Secondary Origin of Earth's Atmosphere

    6.3.3 Source(s) of Volatiles Accreted by the Earth

    6.3.4 Heating During Accretion of the Earth

    6.3.5 Earth's Silicate Vapor Atmosphere

    6.3.6 Steam Atmosphere

    6.3.7 Impact Degassing of the Late Veneer

    6.3.8 Outgassing on the Early Earth

    6.3.9 Summary of Key Questions

    References

    6.4. Geologic and Geochemical Constraints on Earth's Early Atmosphere

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.4.1 Introduction

    6.4.2 The Hadean Atmosphere

    6.4.3 The Archean Atmosphere

    6.4.4 The Great Oxidation Event (GOE)

    6.4.5 Synthesis

    Note added in proof

    References

    6.5. Paleobiological Clues to Early Atmospheric Evolution

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.5.1 Introduction

    6.5.2 Methanogenesis and the Early Atmosphere

    6.5.3 Cyanobacteria and Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    6.5.4 Eukaryotes and Aerobiosis

    6.5.5 Algal Evolution and Sulfur Gases

    6.5.6 Conclusions

    References

    6.6. Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate

    Abstract

    6.6.1 Introduction

    6.6.2 Atmospheric Composition and Redox Balance

    6.6.3 Constraints on Climate During the Archean

    References

    6.7. The Great Oxidation Event Transition

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.7.1 Introduction

    6.7.2 Controls on O2 Levels

    6.7.3 Atmospheric Chemistry Through the Great Oxidation Event (GOE)

    6.7.4 Explaining the Rise of O2

    6.7.5 Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Associated with the Rise of O2

    6.7.6 Conclusions

    References

    6.8. Proterozoic Atmospheric Oxygen

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.8.1 Introduction

    6.8.2 Controls on Atmospheric Oxygen

    6.8.3 Physical Environment

    6.8.4 Isotopic Evidence for Organic Carbon and Pyrite Sulfur Burial

    6.8.5 Evidence for the History of Oxygenation

    6.8.6 History of Atmospheric Oxygen through the Proterozoic Eon

    6.8.7 Oxygen Control

    6.8.8 Perspectives and Conclusions

    References

    6.9. Neoproterozoic Atmospheres and Glaciation

    Abstract

    6.9.1 Introduction

    6.9.2 The Initiation of a Snowball Earth

    6.9.3 What Was the Face of Earth during the Snowball Earth?

    6.9.4 Melting the Snowball Earth

    6.9.5 Aftermath of the Snowball Earth

    6.9.6 Discussion and Conclusions

    References

    6.10. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.10.1 Introduction

    6.10.2 Phylogenetic Context and Molecular Dating

    6.10.3 The Fossil Record of Early Metazoans

    6.10.4 Redox History of Ediacaran Oceans

    6.10.5 Oceanic Oxygenation and Early Animal Evolution

    6.10.6 Conclusion and Prospect

    References

    Glossary

    6.11. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 During the Phanerozoic: Tools, Patterns, and Impacts

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.11.1 Introduction

    6.11.2 Models for Atmospheric CO2 and O2 Estimation

    6.11.3 Proxies for Atmospheric Reconstruction

    6.11.4 Impacts of CO2 and O2 on Climate and Life

    References

    6.12. The Geochemistry of Mass Extinction

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.12.1 Introduction

    6.12.2 Isotopic Records of the Major Mass Extinctions

    6.12.3 Interpreting the Geochemical Records of Mass Extinction

    6.12.4 Summary with Extensions

    References

    Glossary

    6.13. Greenhouse Climates

    Abstract

    6.13.1 Introduction

    6.13.2 Temperatures: An Evolving Perspective

    6.13.3 The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum and Other Eocene Hyperthermals

    6.13.4 The Case For and Against Glaciations During Greenhouse Climates

    6.13.5 Greenhouse Climates and Organic Carbon Burial

    6.13.6 Climate Modeling and the Challenges of Greenhouse Temperature Distributions

    6.13.7 Estimates of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Relationship to Greenhouse Climates

    6.13.8 Summary

    References

    6.14. Atmospheric Composition and Biogeochemical Cycles over the Last Million Years

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.14.1 Introduction

    6.14.2 Archiving of the Atmospheric Composition in Glacier Ice

    6.14.3 Archiving of Biological Productivities (Marine and Terrestrial) and Dust Deposition in Sediments

    6.14.4 The Records

    6.14.5 Scenarios of Climate/Biogeochemical Interactions

    6.14.6 Conclusion

    References

    6.15. Relating Weathering Fronts for Acid Neutralization and Oxidation to pCO2 and pO2

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.15.1 Introduction

    6.15.2 A Chemical Definition of Regolith

    6.15.3 Erosion and Weathering

    6.15.4 Observations of pCO2 and pO2 Versus Depth

    6.15.5 Weathering Advance Rates Without Erosion

    6.15.6 CO2 and O2 Consumption Rates

    6.15.7 Modeling Reaction Front Depths

    6.15.8 The Acid-Generation Front

    6.15.9 Conclusions

    Appendix

    References

    6.16. The History of Planetary Degassing as Recorded by Noble Gases

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    6.16.1 Introduction

    6.16.2 Present-Earth Noble Gas Characteristics

    6.16.3 Bulk Degassing of Radiogenic Isotopes

    6.16.4 Degassing of the Mantle

    6.16.5 Degassing of the Crust

    6.16.6 Major Volatile Cycles

    6.16.7 Degassing of Other Terrestrial Planets

    6.16.8 Conclusions

    References

    6.17. The Origin of Noble Gases and Major Volatiles in the Terrestrial Planets

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    6.17.1 Introduction

    6.17.2 Characteristics of Terrestrial-Planet Volatiles

    6.17.3 Acquisition of Noble Gases and Volatiles

    6.17.4 Early Losses of Noble Gases to Space

    6.17.5 The Origin of Terrestrial Noble Gases

    6.17.6 The Origin of Noble Gases on Venus

    6.17.7 The Origin of Noble Gases on Mars

    6.17.8 Conclusions

    References

    Volume 7: Surface And Groundwater, Weathering and Soils

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    7.1. Soil Formation

    Abstract

    7.1.1 Introduction

    7.1.2 What Is Soil?

    7.1.3 Geographical Access to Soil Data

    7.1.4 Conceptual Partitioning of the Earth Surface

    7.1.5 The Human Dimension of Soil Formation

    7.1.6 Soil Geochemistry in Deserts

    7.1.7 Soil Formation on Mars

    7.1.8 Concluding Remarks

    References

    7.2. Modeling Low-Temperature Geochemical Processes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    7.2.1 Introduction

    7.2.2 Modeling Concepts and Definitions

    7.2.3 Solving the Chemical Equilibrium Problem

    7.2.4 Historical Background to Geochemical Modeling

    7.2.5 The Problem of Activity Coefficients

    7.2.6 Geochemical Databases

    7.2.7 Geochemical Codes

    7.2.8 Water–Rock Interactions

    7.2.9 Final Comments

    References

    7.3. Reaction Kinetics of Primary Rock-Forming Minerals under Ambient Conditions

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    7.3.1 Introduction

    7.3.2 Experimental Techniques for Dissolution Measurements

    7.3.3 Mechanisms of Dissolution

    7.3.4 Surface Area

    7.3.5 Rate Constants as a Function of Mineral Composition

    7.3.6 Temperature Dependence

    7.3.7 Chemistry of Dissolving Solutions

    7.3.8 Chemical Affinity

    7.3.9 Duration of Dissolution

    7.3.10 Conclusion

    References

    7.4. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    7.4.1 Introduction

    7.4.2 Defining Natural Weathering Rates

    7.4.3 Mass Changes Related to Chemical Weathering

    7.4.4 Normalization of Weathering to Regolith Surface Area

    7.4.5 Tabulations of Weathering Rates of Some Common Silicate Minerals

    7.4.6 Time as a Factor in Natural Weathering

    7.4.7 Factors Influencing Natural Weathering Rates

    7.4.8 Summary

    References

    7.5. Geochemical Weathering in Glacial and Proglacial Environments

    Abstract

    7.5.1 Introduction

    7.5.2 Basic Glaciology and Glacier Hydrology

    7.5.3 Composition of Glacial Runoff

    7.5.4 Geochemical Weathering Reactions in Glaciated Terrain

    7.5.5 Geochemical Weathering Reactions in the Proglacial Zone

    7.5.6 Composition of Subglacial Waters Beneath Antarctica

    7.5.7 Concluding Remarks

    References

    7.6. Chemical Weathering Rates, CO2 Consumption, and Control Parameters Deduced from the Chemical Composition of Rivers

    Abstract

    7.6.1 Introduction

    7.6.2 Definition of Chemical Weathering

    7.6.3 Calculation of CWRs from Field Data

    7.6.4 Parameters Controlling CWRs

    7.6.5 Control Parameters Deduced from the Chemical Composition of Rivers

    References

    7.7. Trace Elements in River Waters

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    7.7.1 Introduction

    7.7.2 Natural Abundances of Trace Elements in River Water

    7.7.3 Sources of Trace Elements in Aquatic Systems

    7.7.4 Aqueous Speciation

    7.7.5 The “Colloidal World”

    7.7.6 Interaction of Trace Elements with Solid Phases

    7.7.7 Conclusion

    References

    7.8. Dissolved Organic Matter in Freshwaters

    Abstract

    7.8.1 Introduction

    7.8.2 Inventories and Fluxes

    7.8.3 Chemical and Biological Interactions

    7.8.4 Chemical Properties

    7.8.5 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    7.9. Environmental Isotope Applications in Hydrologic Studies

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    7.9.1 Introduction

    7.9.2 Water Sources, Ages, and Cycling

    7.9.3 Solute Isotope Hydrology and Biogeochemistry

    7.9.4 Use of a Multi-Isotope Approach

    7.9.5 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    7.10. Metal Stable Isotopes in Weathering and Hydrology

    Abstract

    7.10.1 Introduction

    7.10.2 Essential Background Information

    7.10.3 Li, Mg, Ca, and Fe Stable Isotope Signals in the Environment

    7.10.4 Frontier Metal Stable Isotope Systems

    7.10.5 Directions Forward

    References

    7.11. Groundwater Dating and Residence-Time Measurements

    Abstract

    7.11.1 Introduction

    7.11.2 Nature of Groundwater Flow Systems

    7.11.3 Solute Transport in Subsurface Water

    7.11.4 Summary of Groundwater Age Tracers

    7.11.5 Lessons from Applying Geochemical Age Tracers to Subsurface Flow and Transport

    7.11.6 Tracers at the Regional Scale

    7.11.7 Tracers at the Aquifer Scale

    7.11.8 Tracers at the Local Scale

    7.11.9 Tracers in Vadose Zones

    7.11.10 Conclusions

    References

    7.12. Cosmogenic Nuclides in Weathering and Erosion

    Abstract

    7.12.1 Introduction

    7.12.2 Cosmogenic Nuclide Systematics at Earth's Surface

    7.12.3 Using Cosmogenic Nuclides to Determine Rates of Surface Lowering and Denudation

    7.12.4 Chemical Erosion Inferred from Cosmogenic Nuclides

    7.12.5 Summary

    References

    Glossary

    7.13. Geochemistry of Saline Lakes

    Abstract

    7.13.1 Introduction

    7.13.2 Origin and Occurrence

    7.13.3 Environmental Context

    7.13.4 Compositional Controls

    7.13.5 Evaporative Brine Evolution

    7.13.6 Examples of Saline Lake Systems

    7.13.7 Economic Minerals in Saline Lakes

    7.13.8 Summary

    References

    7.14. Deep Fluids in Sedimentary Basins

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    7.14.1 Introduction

    7.14.2 Field and Laboratory Methods

    7.14.3 Chemical Composition of Subsurface Waters

    7.14.4 Isotopic Composition of Water

    7.14.5 Isotopic Composition of Solutes

    7.14.6 Basinal Brines as Ore-Forming Fluids

    7.14.7 Dissolved Gases

    7.14.8 The Influence of Geologic Membranes

    7.14.9 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    7.15. Deep Fluids in the Continents

    Abstract

    7.15.1 Introduction

    7.15.2 Field Sampling Methods

    7.15.3 Chemistry and Isotopic Composition of Groundwaters from Crystalline Environments

    7.15.4 Gases from Crystalline Environments

    7.15.5 The Origin and Evolution of Fluids in Crystalline Environments

    7.15.6 Examples from Research Sites Found in Crystalline Environments

    7.15.7 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Volume 8: The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    References

    8.1. Physico-Chemical Controls on Seawater

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.1.1 Composition of Seawater

    8.1.2 Thermodynamic Properties of Seawater

    8.1.3 Thermodynamic Equilibria in Seawater

    8.1.4 Kinetic Processes in Seawater

    8.1.5 Modeling the Ionic Interactions in Natural Waters

    8.1.6 Effect of Ocean Acidification

    References

    8.2. Controls of Trace Metals in Seawater

    Abstract

    8.2.1 Introduction

    8.2.2 External Inputs of Trace Metals to the Oceans

    8.2.3 Removal Processes

    8.2.4 Internal Recycling

    8.2.5 Complexation with Organic Ligands

    8.2.6 Future Directions

    References

    Relevant Websites

    8.3. Air–Sea Exchange of Marine Trace Gases

    Abstract

    8.3.1 Introduction

    8.3.2 Gas Exchange Processes and Parameterizations

    8.3.3 The Cycling of Trace Gases Across the Air–Sea Interface

    8.3.4 Effects of Climate Change on Marine Trace Gases

    References

    8.4. The Biological Pump

    Abstract

    List of Symbols

    8.4.1 Introduction

    8.4.2 Description of the Biological Pump

    8.4.3 Impact of the Biological Pump on Biogeochemical Cycling of Macronutrients

    8.4.4 Quantifying the Biological Pump

    8.4.5 The Efficiency of the Biological Pump

    8.4.6 The Biological Pump in the Immediate Future

    References

    8.5. Marine Bioinorganic Chemistry: The Role of Trace Metals in the Oceanic Cycles of Major Nutrients

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.5.1 Introduction: The Scope of Marine Bioinorganic Chemistry

    8.5.2 Trace Metals in Marine Microorganisms

    8.5.3 The Biochemical Functions of Trace Elements in the Uptake and Transformations of Nutrients

    8.5.4 Effects of Trace Metals on Marine Biogeochemical Cycles

    8.5.5 Epilogue

    References

    8.6. Organic Matter in the Contemporary Ocean

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.6.1 Introduction

    8.6.2 Reservoirs and Fluxes

    8.6.3 The Nature and Fate of TOC Delivered to the Oceans

    8.6.4 Origin, Cycling, Composition, and Fate of DOC in the Ocean

    8.6.5 Emerging Perspectives on OM Preservation

    8.6.6 Microbial OM Production and Processing: New Insights

    8.6.7 Summary and Future Research Directions

    References

    8.7. Hydrothermal Processes

    Abstract

    Remembrance

    8.7.1 Introduction

    8.7.2 Vent-Fluid Geochemistry

    8.7.3 The Net Impact of Hydrothermal Activity

    8.7.4 Near-Vent Deposits

    8.7.5 Hydrothermal Plume Processes

    8.7.6 Hydrothermal Sediments

    8.7.7 Conclusion

    References

    8.8. Tracers of Ocean Mixing

    Abstract

    8.8.1 Introduction

    8.8.2 Theoretical Framework 1: Advection–Diffusion Equations

    8.8.3 The Nature of Oceanic Mixing

    8.8.4 Theoretical Framework 2: Tracer Ages

    8.8.5 Theoretical Framework 3: Diagnostic Methods

    8.8.6 Steady-State Tracers

    8.8.7 Transient Tracers

    8.8.8 Tracer Age Dating

    8.8.9 Tracer Release Experiments

    8.8.10 Concluding Remarks

    References

    8.9. Chemical Tracers of Particle Transport

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    8.9.1 Particle Transport and Ocean Biogeochemistry

    8.9.2 Tracers of Particle Transport

    8.9.3 Transfer from Solution to Particles (Scavenging)

    8.9.4 Colloidal Intermediaries

    8.9.5 Export of Particles from Surface Ocean Waters

    8.9.6 Particle Dynamics and Regeneration of Labile Particles

    8.9.7 Lateral Redistribution of Sediments

    8.9.8 Summary

    References

    8.10. Biological Fluxes in the Ocean and Atmospheric pCO2

    Abstract

    8.10.1 Introduction

    8.10.2 How Atmospheric CO2 is Affected by the Biological Pump

    8.10.3 Visions of the Biological Pump in the Ocean

    8.10.4 How the Biological Pump Could Change

    8.10.5 Conclusion

    References

    8.11. Sedimentary Diagenesis, Depositional Environments, and Benthic Fluxes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.11.1 Introduction

    8.11.2 Diagenetic Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

    8.11.3 Diagenetic Transport Processes

    8.11.4 Diagenetic Transport–Reaction Models

    8.11.5 Patterns in Boundary Conditions and Reaction Balances

    8.11.6 Corg Burial and Preservation: Reactants and Diagenetic Regime

    8.11.7 Carbonate Mineral Dissolution–Alteration–Preservation

    8.11.8 Biogenic Silica and Reverse Weathering

    8.11.9 Future Directions

    References

    8.12. Geochronometry of Marine Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.12.1 Introduction

    8.12.2 Principles

    8.12.3 Radioactive Systems Used in Marine Geochronometry

    8.12.4 Coastal Deposits

    8.12.5 Deep-Sea Sediments

    8.12.6 Ferromanganese Deposits

    8.12.7 Corals

    8.12.8 Methods Not Depending on Radioactive Decay

    References

    8.13. Geochemical Evidence for Quaternary Sea-Level Changes

    Abstract

    8.13.1 Introduction

    8.13.2 Methods of Sea-Level Reconstruction

    8.13.3 History and Current State of Direct Sea-Level Reconstruction

    8.13.4 History and Current State of Sea-Level Determinations from Oxygen Isotope Measurements

    8.13.5 Causes of Sea-Level Change and Future Work

    References

    8.14. Elemental and Isotopic Proxies of Past Ocean Temperatures

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.14.1 Introduction

    8.14.2 A Brief History of Early Research on Geochemical Proxies of Temperature

    8.14.3 Oxygen Isotopes as a Paleotemperature Proxy in Foraminifera

    8.14.4 Oxygen Isotopes as a Climate Proxy in Reef Corals

    8.14.5 Oxygen Isotopes as a Climate Proxy in other Marine Biogenic Phases

    8.14.6 Clumped Oxygen Isotopes

    8.14.7 Magnesium as a Paleotemperature Proxy in Foraminifera

    8.14.8 Magnesium as a Paleotemperature Proxy in Ostracoda

    8.14.9 Strontium as a Climate Proxy in Corals

    8.14.10 Magnesium and Uranium in Corals as Paleotemperature Proxies

    8.14.11 Calcium Isotopes as a Paleotemperature Proxy

    8.14.12 Conclusions

    References

    8.15. Alkenone Paleotemperature Determinations

    Abstract

    8.15.1 Introduction

    8.15.2 Systematics and Detection

    8.15.3 Occurrence of Alkenones in Marine Waters and Sediments

    8.15.4 Function

    8.15.5 Ecological Controls on Alkenone Production and Downward Flux

    8.15.6 Calibration of Uk′37 Index to Temperature

    8.15.7 Synthesis of Calibration

    8.15.8 Paleotemperature Studies Using the Alkenone Method

    8.15.9 Conclusions

    References

    8.16. Tracers of Past Ocean Circulation

    Abstract

    8.16.1 Introduction

    8.16.2 Nutrient Water Mass Tracers

    8.16.3 Conservative Water Mass Tracers

    8.16.4 Neodymium Isotope Ratios

    8.16.5 Circulation Rate Tracers

    8.16.6 Nongeochemical Tracers of Past Ocean Circulation

    8.16.7 Ocean Circulation during the LGM

    8.16.8 Conclusions

    References

    8.17. Long-lived Isotopic Tracers in Oceanography, Paleoceanography, and Ice-sheet Dynamics

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.17.1 Introduction

    8.17.2 Long-lived Isotopic Tracers and Their Applications

    8.17.3 Systematics of Long-lived Isotope Systems in the Earth

    8.17.4 Neodymuim Isotopes in the Oceans

    8.17.5 Applications to Paleoclimate

    8.17.6 Long-lived Radiogenic Tracers and Ice-sheet Dynamics

    8.17.7 Final Thoughts

    References

    8.18. The Biological Pump in the Past

    Abstract

    8.18.1 Introduction

    8.18.2 Concepts

    8.18.3 Tools

    8.18.4 Observations

    References

    8.19. The Oceanic CaCO3 Cycle

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    8.19.1 Introduction

    8.19.2 The Contemporary Marine CaCO3 Cycle

    8.19.3 Oceanic Distribution and Present-Day Changes in the Seawater CO2–Carbonic Acid System Due to Human Activities

    8.19.4 Implications of Anthropogenic Ocean Acidification to the Marine CaCO3 Cycle

    8.19.5 A Brief Commentary on Past Alterations to the Marine CaCO3 Cycle and Analogies to the Present Perturbation

    8.19.6 Back to the Future: Summary of Past and Present Clues on the Future CaCO3 Cycle

    References

    8.20. Records of Cenozoic Ocean Chemistry

    Abstract

    8.20.1 Introduction

    8.20.2 Cenozoic Deep-Sea Stable Isotope Record

    8.20.3 The Marine Strontium and Osmium Isotope Records

    8.20.4 Mg/Ca Records from Benthic Foraminifera

    8.20.5 Boron Isotopes, Paleo-pH, and Atmospheric CO2

    8.20.6 Closing Synthesis: Does Orogenesis Lead to Cooling?

    References

    8.21. The Geologic History of Seawater

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    8.21.1 Introduction

    8.21.2 The Hadean (4.5–4.0 Ga)

    8.21.3 The Archean (4.0–2.5 Ga)

    8.21.4 The Proterozoic (2.5–0.542 Ga)

    8.21.5 The Phanerozoic (0.542 Ga–Present)

    8.21.6 Summary

    References

    Volume 9: Sediments, Diagenesis and Sedimentary Rocks

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    References

    9.1. Chemical Composition and Mineralogy of Marine Sediments

    Abstract

    9.1.1 Introduction

    9.1.2 Pelagic Sediments

    9.1.3 Ferromanganese Nodules and Crusts

    9.1.4 Metalliferous Ridge and Basal Sediments

    9.1.5 Marine Phosphorites

    9.1.6 Conclusions

    References

    9.2. The Recycling of Biogenic Material at the Sea Floor

    Abstract

    9.2.1 Introduction

    9.2.2 Pore Water Sampling and Profiling

    9.2.3 Organic Matter Decomposition in Sediments

    9.2.4 Particle Mixing in Surface Sediments: Bioturbation

    9.2.5 CaCO3 Dissolution in Sediments

    9.2.6 Silica Cycling in Sediments

    9.2.7 Conclusions

    References

    9.3. Formation and Diagenesis of Carbonate Sediments

    Abstract

    9.3.1 Introduction

    9.3.2 Physical Geochemistry of Carbonate Minerals

    9.3.3 Surface Reactions: Review of Theory

    9.3.4 New Directions, New Insights

    9.3.5 Sources and Diagenesis of Deep-Sea Carbonates

    9.3.6 Sources and Diagenesis of Shoal-Water Carbonate-Rich Sediments

    References

    9.4. The Diagenesis of Biogenic Silica: Chemical Transformations Occurring in the Water Column, Seabed, and Crust

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    Acknowledgments

    9.4.1 Introduction

    9.4.2 The Precipitation of Biogenic Silica

    9.4.3 The Physical Properties of Biogenic Silica

    9.4.4 Changes in Biogenic Silica Chemistry Occurring in the Water Column

    9.4.5 Diagenesis of Biogenic Silica in the Upper Meter of the Seabed

    9.4.6 Silica Diagenesis on Timescales of Millions of Years

    References

    9.5. Formation and Geochemistry of Precambrian Cherts

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    9.5.1 Introduction

    9.5.2 Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic Environments of Chert Formation

    9.5.3 Chert of Late Archean and Paleoproterozoic Iron Formation

    9.5.4 Archean Chert and Cherty Iron Formation

    9.5.5 Stable Isotopes and Rare Earth Elements in Precambrian Chert and Cherty Iron Formation

    9.5.6 Conclusions

    References

    9.6. Geochemistry of Fine-Grained, Organic Carbon-Rich Facies

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    9.6.1 Introduction

    9.6.2 Conceptual Model: Processes

    9.6.3 Conceptual Model: Proxies

    9.6.4 Geochemical Case Studies of Fine-Grained, Organic Carbon-Rich Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

    9.6.5 Discussion: A Unified View of the Geochemistry of Fine-Grained Organic Carbon-Rich Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

    References

    9.7. Late Diagenesis and Mass Transfer in Sandstone–Shale Sequences

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    9.7.1 Introduction

    9.7.2 The Realm of ‘Late Diagenesis’

    9.7.3 Elemental Mobility at the Grain Scale

    9.7.4 Volumetrically Significant Processes of Late Diagenesis

    9.7.5 Whole-Rock Elemental Data and Larger-Scale Elemental Mobility

    9.7.6 Fluid Flow

    9.7.7 Reverse Weathering and Concluding Comments

    References

    9.8. Coal Formation and Geochemistry

    Abstract

    9.8.1 Introduction

    9.8.2 Coal Formation

    9.8.3 Coal Rank

    9.8.4 Structure of Coal

    9.8.5 Hydrocarbons from Coal

    9.8.6 Inorganic Geochemistry of Coal

    9.8.7 Geochemistry of Coal Utilization

    9.8.8 Economic Potential of Metals from Coal

    9.8.9 Inorganics in Coal as Indicators of Depositional Environments

    9.8.10 Environmental Impacts

    9.8.11 Conclusions

    References

    9.9. Formation and Geochemistry of Oil and Gas

    Abstract

    9.9.1 Introduction

    9.9.2 The Early Steps in Oil and Gas Formation: Where Does It All Begin?

    9.9.3 Insoluble Organic Material – Kerogen

    9.9.4 Soluble Organic Material

    9.9.5 Geochemistry and Sequence Stratigraphy

    9.9.6 Fluid Inclusions

    9.9.7 Reservoir Geochemistry

    9.9.8 Basin Modeling

    9.9.9 Natural Gas

    9.9.10 Surface Prospecting

    9.9.11 Summary

    References

    9.10. The Sedimentary Sulfur System: Biogeochemistry and Evolution through Geologic Time

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    9.10.1 Introduction

    9.10.2 Sulfur in Sediments

    9.10.3 Pyrite Formation in Sediments

    9.10.4 Other Forms of Sulfur in Sediments

    9.10.5 Reactive Iron

    9.10.6 Microbial Ecology

    9.10.7 Evolution of the Sulfur Biome

    9.10.8 Euxinic Systems

    9.10.9 The Geochemistry of Sulfidic Sedimentary Rocks

    9.10.10 Geochemical Evolution of Sulfur-Based Sediments

    References

    9.11. Manganiferous Sediments, Rocks, and Ores

    Abstract

    9.11.1 Chemical Fundamentals

    9.11.2 Distribution of Manganese in Rocks and Natural Waters

    9.11.3 Common Manganese Minerals

    9.11.4 Composition of Manganese Accumulations

    9.11.5 Behavior of Manganese in Igneous Settings, Especially Mid-Ocean Ridge Vents

    9.11.6 Behavior of Manganese in Sedimentation

    9.11.7 Two Models of Sedimentary Manganese Mineralization

    9.11.8 Behavior in Soils and Weathering

    9.11.9 Manganese through Geologic Time

    9.11.10 Conclusions

    References

    9.12. Green Clay Minerals

    Abstract

    9.12.1 What Are We Looking At?

    9.12.2 Description of Green Clay Minerals

    9.12.3 Nonchlorite, Nonmicaceous Green Clay Minerals

    9.12.4 Geochemical Origin of Green Clays

    9.12.5 General Reflections

    References

    9.13. Chronometry of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

    Abstract

    9.13.1 Introduction

    9.13.2 Chronometry Based on the Fossil Record – First Steps

    9.13.3 Refinements in Chronometry Using Fossils

    9.13.4 Oil Recovery in California Using Fossil-Based Chronometry

    9.13.5 Principles of Chorology: The Science of the Distribution of Organisms

    9.13.6 Constraints on Chronometry Imposed by Chorology

    9.13.7 Radiochronometry

    9.13.8 Magnetic Field Polarity and Chronometry

    9.13.9 Orbital Chronometry

    9.13.10 Terminologies

    9.13.11 Summary

    References

    9.14. The Geochemistry of Mass Extinction

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    9.14.1 Introduction

    9.14.2 Isotope Records of the Major Mass Extinctions

    9.14.3 Interpreting the Geochemical Records of Mass Extinction

    9.14.4 Summary with Extensions

    References

    9.15. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    9.15.1 Introduction

    9.15.2 The Earth System

    9.15.3 Generation and Recycling of the Oceanic and Continental Crust

    9.15.4 Global Tectonic Realms and Their Recycling Rates

    9.15.5 Present-Day Sedimentary Shell

    9.15.6 Tectonic Settings and Their Sedimentary Packages

    9.15.7 Petrology, Mineralogy, and Major Element Composition of Clastic Sediments

    9.15.8 Trace Element and Isotopic Composition of Clastic Sediments

    9.15.9 Secular Evolution of Clastic Sediments

    9.15.10 Sedimentary Recycling

    9.15.11 Ocean/Atmosphere System

    9.15.12 Major Trends in the Evolution of Sediments during Geologic History

    References

    9.16. Stable Isotopes in the Sedimentary Record

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    9.16.1 Introduction

    9.16.2 Isotopic Concentration Units and Fractionation

    9.16.3 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes in the Water Cycle

    9.16.4 Hydrogen and Oxygen Fractionation in Clays, Water, and Carbonates

    9.16.5 Calcium Isotopes in Seawater and Carbonates

    9.16.6 Carbon Isotopes in Carbonates and Organic Matter

    9.16.7 Nitrogen Isotopes in Sedimentary Environment

    9.16.8 Sulfur Isotopes in Sedimentary Sulfate and Sulfide

    9.16.9 Boron Isotopes at the Earth's Surface

    9.16.10 40Ar in the Clay Fraction of Sediments

    References

    9.17. Geochemistry of Evaporites and Evolution of Seawater

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    9.17.1 Introduction

    9.17.2 Definition of Evaporites

    9.17.3 Brines and Evaporites

    9.17.4 Environment of Evaporite Deposition

    9.17.5 Seawater as a Salt Source for Evaporites

    9.17.6 Evaporite and Saline Minerals

    9.17.7 Model of Marginal Marine Evaporite Basin

    9.17.8 Mode of Evaporite Deposition

    9.17.9 Primary and Secondary Evaporites

    9.17.10 Evaporation of Seawater – Experimental Approach

    9.17.11 Crystallization Sequence before K–Mg Salt Precipitation

    9.17.12 Crystallization Sequence of K–Mg Salts

    9.17.13 Isotopic Effects in Evaporating Seawater Brines and Evaporite Salts

    9.17.14 Usiglio Sequence – A Summary

    9.17.15 Principles and Record of Chemical Evolution of Evaporating Seawater

    9.17.16 Evaporation of Seawater – Remarks on Theoretical Approaches

    9.17.17 Sulfate Deficiency in Ancient K–Mg Evaporites

    9.17.18 Ancient Ocean Chemistry Interpreted from Evaporites

    9.17.19 Recognition of Ancient Marine Evaporites

    9.17.20 Fluid Inclusions Reveal the Composition of Ancient Brines

    9.17.21 Ancient Ocean Chemistry from Halite Fluid Inclusions – Summary and Comments

    9.17.22 Salinity of Ancient Oceans

    9.17.23 Evaporite Deposition through Time

    9.17.24 Significance of Evaporites in the Earth History

    9.17.25 Summary

    References

    9.18. Iron Formations: Their Origins and Implications for Ancient Seawater Chemistry

    Abstract

    9.18.1 Introduction

    9.18.2 Definition of IF

    9.18.3 Mineralogy of IF

    9.18.4 Depositional Setting and Sequence-Stratigraphic Framework

    9.18.5 IF: A Proxy for Ancient Seawater Composition

    9.18.6 Perspective from the Modern Iron Cycle

    9.18.7 Secular Trends for Exhalites, IFs, and VMS Deposits

    9.18.8 Controls on IF Deposition

    9.18.9 Euxinic Conditions Induced by Shift in Dissolved Fe/S Ratio of Seawater due to Iron Oxidation

    9.18.10 Research Perspectives and Future Directions

    Appendix 1 Precambrian Banded Iron Formations, Granular Iron Formations, and Rapitan-Type Iron Formationsa

    Appendix 2 Exhalites Associated with Precambrian Deep-Water (Cu-Rich) Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Depositsa

    References

    9.19. Bedded Barite Deposits: Environments of Deposition, Styles of Mineralization, and Tectonic Settings

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    9.19.1 Introduction

    9.19.2 Comparisons

    9.19.3 The Nevada Barites: A Test Case

    9.19.4 Summary

    References

    Volume 10: Biogeochemistry

    Dedication

    Volume Editors’ Introduction

    References

    10.1. The Early History of Life

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    10.1.1 Introduction

    10.1.2 The Chaotian and Hadean (~ 4.56–4.0 Ga Ago)

    10.1.3 The Archean (~ 4–2.5 Ga Ago)

    10.1.4 The Functioning of the Earth System in the Archean

    10.1.5 Life: Early Setting and Impact on the Environment

    10.1.6 The Early Biomes

    10.1.7 The Evolution of Photosynthesis

    10.1.8 Mud-Stirrers: Origin and Impact of the Eucarya

    10.1.9 The breath of Life: The Impact of Life on the Ocean/Atmosphere System

    10.1.10 Feedback from the Biosphere to the Physical State of the Planet

    References

    10.2. Evolution of Metabolism

    Abstract

    10.2.1 Introduction

    10.2.2 The Domains of Life

    10.2.3 Life and Rocks

    10.2.4 Mechanisms for Energy Conservation

    10.2.5 Extant Patterns of Metabolism

    10.2.6 Reconstructing the Evolution of Metabolism

    10.2.7 Overview

    References

    10.3. Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers for Early Life

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    10.3.1 Introduction

    10.3.2 Biomarkers as Molecular Fossils

    10.3.3 Thermal Stability and Maturity of Biomarkers

    10.3.4 Experimental Approaches to Biomarker and Kerogen Analysis

    10.3.5 Discussion of Biomarkers by Hydrocarbon Class

    10.3.6 Reconstruction of Ancient Biospheres: Biomarkers for the Three Domains of Life

    10.3.7 Biomarkers as Environmental Indicators

    10.3.8 Age Diagnostic Biomarkers

    10.3.9 Biomarkers in Precambrian Rocks

    10.3.10 Outlook

    References

    10.4. Biomineralization

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    10.4.1 Introduction

    10.4.2 Biominerals

    10.4.3 Examples of Biomineralization

    10.4.4 Summary: Why Biomineralize?

    References

    10.5. Biogeochemistry of Primary Production in the Sea

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    10.5.1 Introduction

    10.5.2 Chemoautotrophy

    10.5.3 Photoautotrophy

    10.5.4 Primary Productivity by Photoautotrophs

    10.5.5 Export, New, and ‘True New’ Production

    10.5.6 Nutrient Fluxes

    10.5.7 Nitrification

    10.5.8 Limiting Macronutrients

    10.5.9 The Evolution of the Nitrogen Cycle

    10.5.10 Functional Groups

    10.5.11 High-Nutrient, Low-Chlorophyll Regions: Iron Limitation

    10.5.12 Glacial–Interglacial Changes in the Biological CO2 Pump

    10.5.13 Iron Stimulation of Nutrient Utilization

    10.5.14 Linking Iron to N2 Fixation

    10.5.15 Other Trace-Element Controls on NPP

    10.5.16 Concluding Remarks

    References

    10.6. Biogeochemical Interactions Governing Terrestrial Net Primary Production

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    10.6.1 Introduction

    10.6.2 General Constraints on NPP

    10.6.3 Limitations to Leaf-Level Carbon Gain

    10.6.4 Stand-Level Carbon Gain

    10.6.5 Respiration

    10.6.6 Allocation of NPP

    10.6.7 Tissue Turnover

    10.6.8 Global Patterns of Biomass and NPP

    10.6.9 Nutrient Use

    10.6.10 Balancing Nutrient Limitation

    10.6.11 Community-Level Adjustments

    10.6.12 Species Effects on Interactive Controls

    10.6.13 Species Interactions and Ecosystem Processes

    10.6.14 Summary

    References

    Glossary

    10.7. Biogeochemistry of Decomposition and Detrital Processing

    Abstract

    10.7.1 Introduction

    10.7.2 Composition of Decomposer Resources

    10.7.3 The Decomposer Organisms

    10.7.4 Methods for Studying Decomposition

    10.7.5 Detrital Processing

    10.7.6 Humification

    10.7.7 Control of Decomposition and Stabilization

    10.7.8 Modeling Approaches

    10.7.9 Conclusions

    References

    10.8. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    10.8.1 Overview of Life in the Absence of O2

    10.8.2 Autotrophic Metabolism

    10.8.3 Decomposition and Fermentation

    10.8.4 Methane

    10.8.5 Nitrogen

    10.8.6 Iron and Manganese

    10.8.7 Sulfur

    10.8.8 Coupled Anaerobic Element Cycles

    References

    10.9. The Geologic History of the Carbon Cycle

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    10.9.1 Introduction

    10.9.2 Modes of Carbon-Cycle Change

    10.9.3 The Quaternary Record of Carbon-Cycle Change

    10.9.4 The Phanerozoic Record of Carbon-Cycle Change

    10.9.5 The Precambrian Record of Carbon-Cycle Change

    10.9.6 Conclusions

    References

    10.10. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Abstract

    10.10.1 Introduction

    10.10.2 Major Reservoirs and Natural Fluxes of Carbon

    10.10.3 Changes in the Stocks and Fluxes of Carbon as a Result of Human Activities

    10.10.4 Mechanisms Thought to be Responsible for Current Terrestrial Carbon Sink

    10.10.5 The Future

    10.10.6 Conclusion

    References

    10.11. The Global Oxygen Cycle

    Abstract

    10.11.1 Introduction

    10.11.2 Distribution of O2 among Earth Surface Reservoirs

    10.11.3 Mechanisms of O2 Production

    10.11.4 Mechanisms of O2 Consumption

    10.11.5 Global O2 Budgets

    10.11.6 Atmospheric O2 Throughout Earth History

    10.11.7 Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    10.12. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    10.12.1 Introduction

    10.12.2 Biogeochemical Reactions

    10.12.3 N Reservoirs and Their Exchanges

    10.12.4 Nr Creation

    10.12.5 Global Terrestrial N Budgets

    10.12.6 Global Marine N Budget

    10.12.7 Regional N Budgets

    10.12.8 Consequences

    10.12.9 Future

    10.12.10 Societal Responses

    10.12.11 Summary

    References

    10.13. The Global Phosphorus Cycle

    Abstract

    10.13.1 Introduction

    10.13.2 The Global Phosphorus Cycle: Overview

    10.13.3 Phosphorus Biogeochemistry and Cycling: Current Research

    10.13.4 Summary

    References

    10.14. The Global Sulfur Cycle

    Abstract

    10.14.1 Elementary Issues

    10.14.2 Abundance of Sulfur and Early History

    10.14.3 Occurrence of Sulfur

    10.14.4 Chemistry of Volcanogenic Sulfur

    10.14.5 Biochemistry of Sulfur

    10.14.6 Sulfur in Seawater

    10.14.7 Surface and Groundwaters

    10.14.8 Marine Sediments

    10.14.9 Soils and Vegetation

    10.14.10 Troposphere

    10.14.11 Anthropogenic Impacts on the Sulfur Cycle

    10.14.12 Sulfur in Upper Atmospheres

    10.14.13 Planets and Moons

    10.14.14 Conclusions

    References

    10.15. Plankton Respiration, Net Community Production and the Organic Carbon Cycle in the Oceanic Water Column

    Abstract

    10.15.1 Introduction

    10.15.2 Biogeochemical Background

    10.15.3 Biochemical Background

    10.15.4 Measurement of Respiration Rates

    10.15.5 First Order Overall Global Organic Budget of the Oceans

    10.15.6 Distribution of Respiration within the Oceans

    10.15.7 Distribution of Respiration within the Community

    10.15.8 Summary

    References

    10.16. Respiration in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    Symbols

    10.16.1 Introduction

    10.16.2 Cellular Respiration

    10.16.3 Whole-Plant Respiration

    10.16.4 Animal Respiration

    10.16.5 Respiration of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    10.16.6 Global Terrestrial Ecosystem Respiration

    References

    Glossary

    Volume 11: Environmental Geochemistry

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    References

    11.1. Groundwater and Air Contamination: Risk, Toxicity, Exposure Assessment, Policy, and Regulation

    Abstract

    11.1.1 Introduction

    11.1.2 Principles, Definitions, and Perspectives of Hazardous Waste Risk Assessments

    11.1.3 Regulatory and Policy Basis for Risk Assessment

    11.1.4 The Risk Assessment Process

    11.1.5 Hazard Identification

    11.1.6 Exposure Assessment

    11.1.7 Toxicity Assessment

    11.1.8 Risk Characterization

    11.1.9 Sources of Uncertainties in Risk Assessment

    11.1.10 Risk Management and Risk Communication

    References

    11.2. Arsenic and Selenium

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    11.2.1 Introduction

    11.2.2 Sampling

    11.2.3 Analytical Methods

    11.2.4 Abundance and Forms of Arsenic in the Natural Environment

    11.2.5 Pathways and Behavior of Arsenic in the Natural Environment

    11.2.6 Abundance and Forms of Selenium in the Natural Environment

    11.2.7 Pathways and Behavior of Selenium in the Natural Environment

    11.2.8 Concluding Remarks

    References

    11.3. Heavy Metals in the Environment – Historical Trends

    Abstract

    11.3.1 Introduction

    11.3.2 Occurrence, Speciation, and Phase Associations

    11.3.3 Atmospheric Emissions of Metals and Geochemical Cycles

    11.3.4 Historical Metal Trends Reconstructed from Sediment Cores

    References

    11.4. Geochemistry of Mercury in the Environment

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    11.4.1 Introduction

    11.4.2 Fundamental Geochemistry

    11.4.3 Sources of Mercury to the Environment

    11.4.4 Atmospheric Cycling and Chemistry of Mercury

    11.4.5 Aquatic Biogeochemistry of Mercury

    11.4.6 Removal of Mercury from the Surficial Cycle

    11.4.7 Models of the Global Cycle

    11.4.8 Developments in Studying Mercury in the Environment on a Variety of Scales

    11.4.9 Summary

    References

    11.5. The Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage

    Abstract

    11.5.1 Introduction

    11.5.2 Mineralogy of Ore Deposits

    11.5.3 Sulfide Oxidation and the Generation of Oxidation Products

    11.5.4 Acid-Neutralization Mechanisms at Mine Sites

    11.5.5 Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Secondary Minerals

    11.5.6 AMD in Mines and Mine Wastes

    11.5.7 Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Oxidation Products

    11.5.8 Methods of Prediction

    11.5.9 Approaches for Remediation and Prevention

    11.5.10 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    11.6. Radioactivity, Geochemistry, and Health

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    Acknowledgments

    11.6.1 Introduction

    11.6.2 Radioactive Processes and Sources

    11.6.3 Radionuclide Geochemistry: Principles and Methods

    11.6.4 Environmental Radioactivity and Health Effects Relevant to Drinking Water, the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, and Nuclear Weapons

    11.6.5 Summary

    Appendix A Radioactivity and Human Health

    Appendix B Health Effects of Uranium

    References

    11.7. The Environmental and Medical Geochemistry of Potentially Hazardous Materials Produced by Disasters

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    11.7.1 Introduction

    11.7.2 Potentially Hazardous Materials Produced by Disasters

    11.7.3 Medical Geochemistry – A Review and Update

    11.7.4 Sampling, Analytical, and Remote Sensing Methods Applied to Disaster Materials

    11.7.5 Volcanic Eruptions and Volcanic Degassing

    11.7.6 Landslides, Debris Flows, and Lahars

    11.7.7 Hurricanes, Extreme Storms, and Floods – Katrina as an Example

    11.7.8 Wildfires at the Wildland–Urban Interface

    11.7.9 Mud and Waters from the Lusi Mud Eruption, East Java, Indonesia

    11.7.10 Failures of Mill Tailings or Mineral-Processing Waste Impoundments

    11.7.11 Failures of Coal Slurry or Coal Fly Ash Impoundments

    11.7.12 Building Collapse – The World Trade Center as an Example

    11.7.13 Disaster Preparedness

    11.7.14 Summary

    References

    11.8. Eutrophication of Freshwater Systems

    Abstract

    11.8.1 Introduction

    11.8.2 Nutrient Cycles in Aquatic Ecosystems

    11.8.3 Aquatic Ecosystem Structure

    11.8.4 Eutrophication

    11.8.5 Two Case Studies in Eutrophication

    11.8.6 Future Opportunities

    11.8.7 Conclusions

    Glossary

    References

    11.9. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    11.9.1 Introduction

    11.9.2 River Salinization

    11.9.3 Lake Salinization

    11.9.4 Groundwater Salinization

    11.9.5 Salinization of Dryland Environment

    11.9.6 Anthropogenic Salinization

    11.9.7 Salinity and the Occurrence of Health-Related Contaminants

    11.9.8 Elucidating the Sources of Salinity

    11.9.9 Remediation and the Chemical Composition of Desalination

    References

    Glossary

    11.10. Acid Rain – Acidification and Recovery

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    11.10.1 Introduction

    11.10.2 What Is Acidification?

    11.10.3 Long-Term Acidification

    11.10.4 Short-Term and Episodic Acidification

    11.10.5 Drivers of Short-Term and Episodic Acidification

    11.10.6 Effects of Acidification

    11.10.7 Effects of a Changing Physical Climate on Acidification

    11.10.8 Acidification Trajectories through Recent Time

    11.10.9 Longitudinal Acidification

    11.10.10 Some Areas with Recently or Potentially Acidified Soft Waters

    11.10.11 Experimental Acidification and Deacidification of Low‐ANC Systems

    11.10.12 Remediation of Acidity

    11.10.13 Chemical Modeling of Acidification of Soft Water Systems

    11.10.14 Chemical Recovery from Anthropogenic Acidification

    References

    11.11. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    Symbols

    Acknowledgments

    11.11.1 Introduction

    11.11.2 General Description of Photochemical Smog

    11.11.3 Photochemistry of Ozone and Particulates

    11.11.4 Meteorological Aspects of Photochemical Smog

    11.11.5 New Directions: Evaluation Based on Ambient Measurements

    References

    11.12. Volatile Hydrocarbons and Fuel Oxygenates

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    11.12.1 Introduction

    11.12.2 The Petroleum Industry

    11.12.3 Environmental Transport Processes

    11.12.4 Transformation Processes

    11.12.5 Environmental Restoration

    11.12.6 Challenges

    References

    11.13. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    11.13.1 Introduction

    11.13.2 Scope of Review

    11.13.3 Sources

    11.13.4 Pathways

    11.13.5 Fate

    11.13.6 Carbon Isotope Geochemistry

    11.13.7 Synthesis

    References

    11.14. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    11.14.1 Introduction

    11.14.2 Global Transport and Distribution of Halogenated Organic Compounds

    11.14.3 Sources and Environmental Fluxes

    11.14.4 Chemical Controls on Reactivity

    11.14.5 Microbial Biogeochemistry and Bioavailability

    11.14.6 Environmental Reactivity

    11.14.7 Implications for Environmental Cycling of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    11.14.8 Knowledge Gaps and Fertile Areas for Future Research

    References

    11.15. The Geochemistry of Pesticides

    Abstract

    Nomenclature

    Acknowledgments

    11.15.1 Introduction

    11.15.2 Partitioning among Environmental Matrices

    11.15.3 Transformations

    11.15.4 The Future

    References

    11.16. The Biogeochemistry of Contaminant Groundwater Plumes Arising from Waste Disposal Facilities

    Abstract

    11.16.1 Introduction

    11.16.2 Source and Leachate Composition

    11.16.3 Spreading of Pollutants in Groundwater

    11.16.4 Biogeochemistry of Landfill Leachate Plumes

    11.16.5 Overview of Processes Controlling Fate of Landfill Leachate Compounds

    11.16.6 Norman Landfill (United States)

    11.16.7 Grindsted Landfill Site (DK)

    11.16.8 Monitored Natural Attenuation

    11.16.9 Future Challenges

    References

    Volume 12: Organic Geochemistry

    Dedication

    Volume Editors’ Introduction

    Introduction

    12.1. Organic Geochemistry of Meteorites

    Abstract

    12.1.1 Meteorites and Their Carbon

    12.1.2 Classification of Carbonaceous Chondrites

    12.1.3 Stable Isotopes and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    12.1.4 The Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    12.1.5 Carboxylic Acids

    12.1.6 Amino Acids

    12.1.7 Amines and Amides

    12.1.8 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    12.1.9 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    12.1.10 Nucleic Acid Bases and Other Nitrogen Heterocycles

    12.1.11 Alcohols, Polyhydroxylated Compounds, and Carbonyls

    12.1.12 Sulfonic and Phosphonic Acids

    12.1.13 Organohalogens

    12.1.14 Macromolecular Material

    12.1.15 Microvesicles and Nanoglobules

    12.1.16 Organic–Inorganic Relationships

    12.1.17 Source Environments

    References

    12.2. Organic Geochemical Signatures of Early Life on Earth

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.2.1 Introduction

    12.2.2 Eoarchean (4.0–3.6 Ga) Biological Remnants?

    12.2.3 The Post-3.5 Ga Sedimentary Record of Stable Carbon Isotopes

    12.2.4 The Record of Organic Carbon Burial

    12.2.5 The Composition of Buried Organic Matter

    12.2.6 Visible Structures with Organic Affinities

    12.2.7 Summary and Prospects

    References

    Glossary

    12.3. The Analysis and Application of Biomarkers

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.3.1 Introduction

    12.3.2 Biomarkers and Environments

    12.3.3 Age-Diagnostic Biomarkers

    12.3.4 Biomarkers of Fungi

    12.3.5 Biomarkers and Extinction Events

    12.3.6 Analytical Approaches

    12.3.7 Summary

    References

    12.4. Hydrogen Isotope Signatures in the Lipids of Phytoplankton

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.4.1 Introduction

    12.4.2 The Effect of δDwater on δDlipid

    12.4.3 The Effect of Biosynthesis on δDlipid

    12.4.4 The Effect of Species on δDlipid

    12.4.5 The Effect of Salinity on δDlipid

    12.4.6 The Effect of Temperature on δDlipid

    12.4.7 The Effect of Growth Rate on δDlipid

    12.4.8 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    12.5. 13C/12C Signatures in Plants and Algae

    Abstract

    12.5.1 Introduction

    12.5.2 The Term ‘Isotopic Fractionation’

    12.5.3 Isotopic Fractionation in Plants and Algae

    References

    12.6. Dissolved Organic Matter in Aquatic Systems

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.6.1 Introduction

    12.6.2 Inventory and Fluxes

    12.6.3 Bulk Chemical Properties

    12.6.4 The Composition of DOM on an Individual Molecular Level

    12.6.5 Reasons Behind the Stability of DOM in the Deep Ocean

    12.6.6 Perspectives

    References

    Glossary

    12.7. Dynamics, Chemistry, and Preservation of Organic Matter in Soils

    Abstract

    12.7.1 Soil Organic Matter and Soil Functions

    12.7.2 Input and Quantity of SOM

    12.7.3 Composition and Transformation of Organic Matter in Soils

    12.7.4 Turnover of SOM

    12.7.5 Origin and Turnover of Specific Components in Soils

    12.7.6 Soil-Specific Interactions of OM with the Mineral Phase

    12.7.7 Peculiarities

    References

    12.8. Weathering of Organic Carbon

    Abstract

    12.8.1 Introduction

    12.8.2 Reservoirs and Fluxes in the Geochemical Carbon Cycle

    12.8.3 Weathering of Kerogen

    12.8.4 Biodegradation of Sedimentary OM

    12.8.5 Surficial Transport and Transformations of Fossil OM

    12.8.6 Model Estimates of Global Organic Carbon Weathering

    12.8.7 Synthesis and Conclusions: Carbon Weathering in the Global Carbon Cycle

    References

    12.9. Organic Carbon Cycling and the Lithosphere

    Abstract

    12.9.1 Introduction

    12.9.2 Carbon Content of the Continental Crust

    12.9.3 Isotopic Constraints on Crustal Carbon

    12.9.4 Cycling of Crustal Carbon

    12.9.5 Inconsistencies in Crustal-Sedimentary Carbon Budgets

    12.9.6 Carbon Cycling Under Reduced Atmospheric Oxygen Levels

    12.9.7 Conclusions

    References

    12.10. Organic Nitrogen: Sources, Fates, and Chemistry

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.10.1 Introduction

    12.10.2 Nitrogen Assimilation and Isotopic Effects

    12.10.3 Cellular Nitrogenous Compounds and Isotope Effects

    12.10.4 Organic Nitrogen in Sediments and Its Application to Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions

    12.10.5 Related Topics

    12.10.6 Conclusions

    References

    12.11. Lipidomics for Geochemistry

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.11.1 Introduction

    12.11.2 Lipid Biosynthetic Pathways

    12.11.3 Case Studies and Approaches to Lipidomics

    12.11.4 Conclusions

    References

    12.12. Mineral Matrices and Organic Matter

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.12.1 Introduction

    12.12.2 Evidence for Organic Matter Association with Minerals

    12.12.3 Impact on Organic Matter

    12.12.4 Future Directions

    12.12.5 Conclusion

    References

    Glossary

    12.13. Biomarker-Based Inferences of Past Climate: The Alkenone pCO2 Proxy

    Abstract

    12.13.1 Introduction

    12.13.2 The Alkenone CO2 Proxy

    12.13.3 CO2 Reconstructions, Uncertainties, and Complications

    12.13.4 Active Transport and the Case Against the Diffusive Model of Carbon Uptake

    12.13.5 Summary

    References

    12.14. Biomarker-Based Inferences of Past Climate: The TEX86 Paleotemperature Proxy

    Abstract

    12.14.1 Introduction

    12.14.2 History and Systematics

    12.14.3 Detection and Analysis of GDGTs

    12.14.4 Ecology of the Thaumarchaeota and Implications for TEX86

    12.14.5 Preservation of GDGT Lipids in Sediments

    12.14.6 Calibration of TEX86 to Temperature

    12.14.7 Conclusion

    References

    12.15. Biomarkers for Terrestrial Plants and Climate

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    12.15.1 Higher Plants Biomarkers

    12.15.2 Soil and Lake Microbial Lipids and Proxies for Terrestrial Paleoclimate

    12.15.3 Carbon Isotope Signatures of Vegetation and Climate

    12.15.4 Lipid-Leaf Fractionation Factors

    12.15.5 Transport and Preservation in Soils, Lakes, and Marine Sediments

    12.15.6 Terrestrial Biomarkers and Isotopes: Research Outlook

    References

    Volume 13: Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    13.1. Fluids and Ore Formation in the Earth's Crust

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.1.1 Ore Deposits and Crustal Geochemistry

    13.1.2 Magmatic Ore Formation

    13.1.3 Ore-Forming Hydrothermal Processes

    13.1.4 Hydrothermal Ore Formation in Sedimentary Basins

    13.1.5 Hydrothermal Ore Systems in the Oceanic Realm

    13.1.6 Magmatic–Hydrothermal Ore Systems

    13.1.7 Ore Formation at the Earth's Surface

    13.1.8 Back to the Future: Global Mineral Resources

    References

    Glossary

    13.2. The Chemistry of Metal Transport and Deposition by Ore-Forming Hydrothermal Fluids

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.2.1 Introduction

    13.2.2 Hydrothermal Ore Solution Chemistry – The Main Dissolved Components

    13.2.3 Mineral Solubility in Water and Salt Solutions at High Temperature and Pressure

    13.2.4 Ore Metal Transport and Deposition

    13.2.5 Epilogue

    References

    13.3. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.3.1 Introduction

    13.3.2 Fundamental Aspects of Stable Isotope Geochemistry

    13.3.3 Stable Isotope Systematics

    13.3.4 Analytical Methods

    13.3.5 Ore Deposit Types

    13.3.6 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    13.4. Dating and Tracing the History of Ore Formation

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.4.1 A Holistic Approach to Ore Geology

    13.4.2 The Fourth Dimension – Time

    13.4.3 Radiometric Clocks

    13.4.4 Radiometric Clocks for Ore Geology

    13.4.5 Rhenium–Osmium – A Clock for Sulfides

    13.4.6 Re–Os in Nonsulfides

    13.4.7 A Clock for Metal Release and Migration from Hydrocarbon Maturation

    13.4.8 Future of Dating for Ore Geology and Mineral Exploration

    References

    13.5. Fluid Inclusions in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.5.1 Introduction

    13.5.2 Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits

    13.5.3 Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) Deposits

    13.5.4 Epithermal Gold and Silver Deposits

    13.5.5 Porphyry Cu Deposits

    13.5.6 Porphyry Mo Deposits

    13.5.7 Porphyry Sn–W Deposits

    13.5.8 Skarn Deposits

    13.5.9 Carlin-Type Au Deposits

    13.5.10 Orogenic Gold Deposits

    13.5.11 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    13.6. Melt Inclusions

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.6.1 Introduction

    13.6.2 Formation of Melt Inclusions

    13.6.3 Postentrapment Changes in Melt Inclusions

    13.6.4 Analytical Techniques

    13.6.5 Information Obtainable from Melt Inclusions

    13.6.6 Melt Inclusions in Mineralized Systems

    13.6.7 Synthesis and Conclusions

    References

    13.7. Metamorphosed Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.7.1 Introduction

    13.7.2 Characteristics of Metamorphosed Hydrothermal Ore Systems

    13.7.3 Geochemical Techniques Used to Study Metamorphosed Ore Deposits

    13.7.4 From Case Examples to Conceptual Models and Exploration Tools

    13.7.5 Conclusions

    References

    13.8. Geochemistry of Magmatic Ore Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.8.1 Introduction

    13.8.2 Trace Element Behavior

    13.8.3 Fertility of Primary Magmas

    13.8.4 Incompatible Element Deposits

    13.8.5 Compatible Lithophile Element Deposits

    13.8.6 Magmatic Chalcophile Element Deposits

    13.8.7 Conclusions

    References

    13.9. Sediment-Hosted Zinc–Lead Mineralization: Processes and Perspectives

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.9.1 Introduction

    13.9.2 Sedimentary ‘Exhalative’ Mineralization

    13.9.3 Mississippi Valley-Type Mineralization

    13.9.4 Irish-Type Zn–Pb Mineralization: A Transitional Ore Type?

    13.9.5 Discussion

    References

    Glossary

    13.10. Low-Temperature Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.10.1 Introduction

    13.10.2 Geochemistry in the Genesis of SSC Mineralization

    13.10.3 Closely Related Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits

    13.10.4 Distantly Related Sediment-Hosted Deposit Types

    13.10.5 Concluding Remarks

    References

    13.11. Deep-Ocean Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.11.1 Introduction

    13.11.2 New Considerations

    13.11.3 Paleoceanographic Records from Fe–Mn Crusts and Nodules

    13.11.4 Exploration, Technology, and Resource Considerations

    13.11.5 Future Directions

    References

    13.12. Geochemistry of a Marine Phosphate Deposit: A Signpost to Phosphogenesis

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.12.1 Introduction

    13.12.2 Statement of the Problem

    13.12.3 The MPM: Local Setting

    13.12.4 Lithogenous Sediment Fraction

    13.12.5 Seawater-Derived Trace Elements

    13.12.6 Rare Earth Elements

    13.12.7 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    13.13. Sedimentary Hosted Iron Ores

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.13.1 Introduction

    13.13.2 Definition and Classification of Iron-Formation

    13.13.3 Enriched BIF-Hosted Iron Ores

    13.13.4 Ooidal Ironstones

    13.13.5 Summary

    References

    13.14. Geochemistry of Porphyry Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.14.1 Introduction

    13.14.2 Geology, Alteration, and Mineralization

    13.14.3 Tectonic Setting

    13.14.4 Igneous Petrogenesis

    13.14.5 Geochronology

    13.14.6 Lead Isotopes

    13.14.7 Fluid Inclusions

    13.14.8 Conventional Stable Isotopes

    13.14.9 Nontraditional Stable Isotopes

    13.14.10 Ore-Forming Processes

    13.14.11 Exploration Model

    References

    13.15. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Gold Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.15.1 Introduction

    13.15.2 Epithermal Deposits

    13.15.3 Carlin-Type Gold Deposits

    13.15.4 Orogenic Gold Deposits

    13.15.5 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    13.16. Silver Vein Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.16.1 Introduction

    13.16.2 Silver–Lead–Zinc Veins

    13.16.3 Five-Element (Ag–Ni–Co–As–Bi) Veins

    13.16.4 Epithermal Ag–Au and Ag–Base Metal Veins

    13.16.5 Silver-Bearing Veins Related to Tin Mineralization

    13.16.6 Silver-Bearing Veins Related to Skarn Mineralization

    13.16.7 Discussion

    References

    Glossary

    13.17. Geochemistry of Placer Gold – A Case Study of the Witwatersrand Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.17.1 Introduction

    13.17.2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Gold

    13.17.3 Gold Abundances

    13.17.4 Gold Compounds and Minerals

    13.17.5 Aqueous Geochemistry of Gold at 25 °C

    13.17.6 Gold in Surficial Environments

    13.17.7 Witwatersrand Gold – A Case Study

    13.17.8 Conclusions

    References

    13.18. Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.18.1 Introduction

    13.18.2 Distribution, Abundance, and Classification

    13.18.3 Composition

    13.18.4 General Genetic Model

    13.18.5 Chemical Evolution of the Hydrothermal Fluids

    13.18.6 Metal Zoning and Trace Element Geochemistry

    13.18.7 Nonsulfide Gangue Minerals

    13.18.8 Alteration Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    13.18.9 Chemical Sediments

    13.18.10 Sulfur Isotopes

    13.18.11 Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon Isotopes

    13.18.12 Strontium and Lead Isotopes

    13.18.13 Conclusions

    References

    13.19. Uranium Ore Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.19.1 Introduction

    13.19.2 The Need for Uranium

    13.19.3 Geochemistry of Uranium

    13.19.4 Uranium Deposits Through Time

    13.19.5 Deposit Types

    13.19.6 Synopsis

    References

    13.20. Iron Oxide(–Cu–Au–REE–P–Ag–U–Co) Systems

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.20.1 Introduction

    13.20.2 Geologic Context for IOCG Systems

    13.20.3 Synopsis of Deposit Features

    13.20.4 Hydrothermal Alteration and System-scale Zoning

    13.20.5 Petrologic and Geochemical Characteristics

    13.20.6 Summary of the IOCG Clan, Likely Origins, and the terrestrial Hydrothermal Environment

    References

    13.21. Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Element, Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.21.1 Introduction

    13.21.2 Geochemistry of Rare Elements

    13.21.3 Deposit Characteristics

    13.21.4 Genesis of HFSE Deposits

    13.21.5 Commonalities of Rare-Element Mineralization

    References

    Relevant Websites

    13.22. Geochemistry of Evaporite Ores in an Earth-Scale Climatic and Tectonic Framework

    Abstract

    13.22.1 Introduction

    13.22.2 Extractable Economic Salts (Excluding Halite and CaSO4 Salts)

    13.22.3 Sodium Carbonate (Soda-Ash: Trona)

    13.22.4 Sodium Sulfate (Salt-Cake)

    13.22.5 Borate and Lithium Occurrences

    13.22.6 Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Nonmarine Salts

    13.22.7 Potash Salts

    References

    13.23. Gem Deposits

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.23.1 Introduction

    13.23.2 Diamond

    13.23.3 Ruby and Sapphire

    13.23.4 Emerald

    13.23.5 Non-Emerald Gem Beryl

    13.23.6 Chrysoberyl

    13.23.7 Tanzanite

    13.23.8 Tsavorite

    13.23.9 Topaz

    13.23.10 Jade

    References

    13.24. Exploration Geochemistry

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    13.24.1 Introduction

    13.24.2 The Primary Environment

    13.24.3 The Secondary Environment

    13.24.4 Regional Geochemical Mapping

    13.24.5 Analysis

    13.24.6 Geochemical Data Interpretation

    References

    Volume 14: Archaeology and Anthropology

    Dedication

    Volume Editor's Introduction

    References

    14.1. K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Isotopic Dating Techniques as Applied to Young Volcanic Rocks, Particularly Those Associated with Hominin Localities

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    14.1.1 Introduction

    14.1.2 Basis of the K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Dating Techniques

    14.1.3 Suitable Materials for Dating

    14.1.4 Size Limitations

    14.1.5 The Omo-Turkana Basin Sequence

    14.1.6 Results from Afar, Ethiopia

    14.1.7 Conclusions

    References

    14.2. Luminescence Dating Methods

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    14.2.1 Luminescence Dating

    14.2.2 Applications

    14.2.3 Summary

    References

    14.3. Radiocarbon: Calibration to Absolute Time Scale

    Abstract

    14.3.1 Introduction

    14.3.2 Variable Atmospheric 14C Content

    14.3.3 Radiocarbon Calibration Curve

    14.3.4 Calibration and Calibration Programs

    14.3.5 Calibration in Archaeological Studies

    References

    Glossary

    14.4. Radiocarbon: Archaeological Applications

    Abstract

    14.4.1 Introduction

    14.4.2 Late Paleolithic

    14.4.3 Neolithic

    14.4.4 Development of Metal Use

    14.4.5 Bronze Age

    14.4.6 Iron Age

    14.4.7 Egyptian Chronologies

    14.4.8 New World Archaeology

    14.4.9 Australia

    14.4.10 Polynesia

    14.4.11 Chemistry

    14.4.12 Bone Dating

    14.4.13 Radiocarbon Dating of Art Works and Historical Objects

    14.4.14 Understanding Radiocarbon Dates

    14.4.15 Bayesian Modeling

    References

    14.5. The Molecular Clock

    Abstract

    14.5.1 Introduction

    14.5.2 Historical Overview

    14.5.3 A Numerical Example: The Chimp–Human Common Ancestor

    14.5.4 Difficulties with the Molecular Clock

    14.5.5 Coping with an Imperfect Clock

    14.5.6 Using Multiple Genes

    14.5.7 Conclusions

    References

    14.6. Correlation: Volcanic Ash, Obsidian

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    14.6.1 Introduction

    14.6.2 Some Relatively Common Types of Natural Glass and Their Compositions

    14.6.3 Field Occurrence

    14.6.4 Sample Preparation

    14.6.5 Analytical Techniques

    14.6.6 Handling Analyses

    14.6.7 Recalculation of Analyses

    14.6.8 Sets of Analyses

    14.6.9 The Problem of Alkali Content

    14.6.10 Comparison of Analyses

    14.6.11 Examples of Uses of Volcanic Glass in Archaeological Studies

    References

    14.7. Cosmogenic Nuclide Burial Dating in Archaeology and Paleoanthropology

    Abstract

    14.7.1 Introduction

    14.7.2 Cosmogenic Nuclides

    14.7.3 Burial Dating

    14.7.4 Applications to Archaeology and Paleoanthropology

    14.7.5 Summary

    References

    Glossary

    14.8. Marine Sediment Records of African Climate Change: Progress and Puzzles

    Abstract

    14.8.1 Introduction

    14.8.2 Marine Sediments as Recorders of Terrestrial Climate Change

    14.8.3 Marine Sediment Records of African Paleoclimate: Progress and Puzzles

    14.8.4 Summary and Future Directions

    References

    14.9. History of Water in the Middle East and North Africa

    Abstract

    14.9.1 Introduction

    14.9.2 Paleoclimate of the Middle East and Northeast Africa

    14.9.3 Conclusions

    References

    14.10. The Carbon, Oxygen, and Clumped Isotopic Composition of Soil Carbonate in Archeology

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    14.10.1 Introduction

    14.10.2 Paleosol Carbonate Recognition

    14.10.3 Limitations for Archeologists

    14.10.4 Seasonality of Formation and Isotopic Equilibrium

    14.10.5 Carbon Isotopes in Soil Carbonate

    14.10.6 Clumped Isotopes in Soil Carbonate

    14.10.7 Oxygen in Soil Carbonate

    14.10.8 Integrity of the Isotopic Record from Soil Carbonate

    14.10.9 Environmental Reconstruction on Short Timescales and Future Directions

    References

    14.11. Microanalytical Isotope Chemistry: Applications for Archaeology

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    14.11.1 History of Micromilling Technology

    14.11.2 Applications of Micromilling Devices toward the Enhancement of Sampling Strategies and Derivation of High-Resolution Records

    14.11.3 Future Advances and Directions

    14.11.4 Conclusions

    14.11.5 Partial List of Applications of Micromilling in Archaeology

    References

    Glossary

    14.12. Stable Isotope Evidence for Hominin Environments in Africa

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    14.12.1 Introduction

    14.12.2 Carbon Isotopes in Plants

    14.12.3 Ecology of Mixed C3 and C4 Ecosystems

    14.12.4 Paleotemperature

    14.12.5 Diet History of Mammals

    14.12.6 Summary and Future Directions

    References

    Glossary

    14.13. Geochemistry of Ancient Metallurgy: Examples from Africa and Elsewhere

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    14.13.1 Introduction

    14.13.2 Chemistry of Ancient Metallurgy

    14.13.3 Geochemistry Methods in Archaeometallurgy: Some Common Examples

    14.13.4 Geochemistry Applications in Ancient Metallurgy

    14.13.5 Conclusion

    References

    14.14. Elemental and Isotopic Analysis of Ancient Ceramics and Glass

    Abstract

    14.14.1 Introduction

    14.14.2 Considerations on Archeological Ceramic Studies

    14.14.3 Considerations on Archeological Glass Analysis

    References

    14.15. Synchrotron Methods: Color in Paints and Minerals

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    14.15.1 Introduction

    14.15.2 Studies of Ancient Pigments, Paints, and Minerals

    14.15.3 History of Their Study and Current Trends

    14.15.4 Overview of Synchrotron-Based Method Used for the Study of Pigments, Paints, and Minerals

    14.15.5 Case Studies

    14.15.6 Conclusion and Trends

    References

    Glossary

    14.16. Geochemical Methods of Establishing Provenance and Authenticity of Mediterranean Marbles

    Abstract

    14.16.1 Foreword

    14.16.2 Types of Fakes

    14.16.3 Determining Marble Provenance

    14.16.4 Testing Authenticity

    14.16.5 Summary

    References

    14.17. Biblical Events and Environments – Authentification of Controversial Archaeological Artifacts

    Abstract

    14.17.1 Introduction

    14.17.2 The James Ossuary

    14.17.3 Jehoash Inscription

    14.17.4 The Ivory Pomegranate

    14.17.5 Iron Age Ostraca

    14.17.6 Dust

    14.17.7 Conclusions

    References

    14.18. Trace Evidence: Glass, Paint, Soil, and Bone

    Abstract

    14.18.1 Introduction

    14.18.2 Elemental Analysis Techniques

    14.18.3 Man-Made Matrices

    14.18.4 Natural Matrices

    14.18.5 Interpretation

    14.18.6 Conclusion

    References

    Glossary

    14.19. Stable Isotopes in Forensics Applications

    Abstract

    14.19.1 Stable Isotope Geochemistry as a Science-Based Forensic Application

    14.19.2 Nonspatial Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

    14.19.3 Spatial Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

    14.19.4 Plant-Related Forensic Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

    14.19.5 Human-Related Forensic Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

    14.19.6 Animal-Related (Nonhuman) Forensic Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis

    14.19.7 Archaeological and Gem Origin Investigations Utilizing Stable Isotope Analysis

    14.19.8 Isotope Geochemists as Contributors to the Forensic Sciences

    References

    14.20. Reconstructing Aquatic Resource Exploitation in Human Prehistory Using Lipid Biomarkers and Stable Isotopes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    14.20.1 Introduction

    14.20.2 Reconstructing Diet and Economy from Organic Residues Preserved in Archeological Pottery

    14.20.3 The Lipid Composition of Aquatic Fats and Oils

    14.20.4 Early Attempts to Detect Aquatic Lipids in the Archeological Record

    14.20.5 New Aquatic Resource Biomarkers

    14.20.6 Stable Isotope Proxies

    14.20.7 Experimental Approaches and Protocols

    14.20.8 Detecting Evidence for Marine Product Processing in Prehistory Using Biomarker and Stable Isotope Proxies

    14.20.9 Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    14.21. Investigating Ancient Diets Using Stable Isotopes in Bioapatites

    Abstract

    14.21.1 Introduction

    14.21.2 A Few Basics

    14.21.3 Development of the Field

    14.21.4 Practical Issues

    14.21.5 Applications

    14.21.6 Conclusions

    References

    14.22. Human Physiology in Relation to Isotopic Studies of Ancient and Modern Humans

    Abstract

    14.22.1 Introduction

    14.22.2 Molecular Constituents of Human Tissues

    14.22.3 Tissues Preserved Postmortem

    14.22.4 Homeostasis, Mineral Stability

    14.22.5 Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

    References

    14.23. Hair as a Geochemical Recorder: Ancient to Modern

    Abstract

    14.23.1 Introduction

    14.23.2 Survival of Hair in Archaeological and Forensic Contexts

    14.23.3 Studies of Isotope Ratios in Animal Hair

    14.23.4 Anthropological Studies on Modern and Historically Collected Hair

    14.23.5 Health and Medical Applications of Hair Analysis

    14.23.6 Archaeological Hair

    14.23.7 Applications to Forensic Investigations

    14.23.8 Geography and Temporal Dynamics in Hair Oxygen Isotope Ratios

    14.23.9 Future Directions

    References

    Volume 15: Analytical Geochemistry/Inorganic INSTR. Analysis

    Dedication

    Volume Editor’s Introduction

    The First Step: Sampling Strategies and Getting Ready for the Lab

    Uncertainties, Reference Materials, and Isotope Dilution

    Digesting and Preparing Samples in the Clean Lab

    Analyzing the Sample: Photons and Atomic Masses

    Analyzing the Planet: New Developments

    15.1. Basic Considerations: Sampling, the Key for a Successful Applied Geochemical Survey for Mineral Exploration and Environmental Purposes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.1.1 Introduction and Background Information

    15.1.2 Design of a Geochemical Sampling Campaign

    15.1.3 Randomization of Samples

    15.1.4 Quality Control – Duplicate Field Samples and Control Samples

    15.1.5 Sampling

    15.1.6 Sampling in the Laboratory

    15.1.7 Conclusions

    References

    15.2. Error Propagation

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.2.1 Introduction

    15.2.2 Accuracy, Precision, and Types of Errors

    15.2.3 Statistical Treatment of Random Errors

    15.2.4 Probability Distributions

    15.2.5 Calibration Curves, Blank Standard Deviation, and Instrumental Analysis

    15.2.6 Error Propagation

    References

    15.3. Reference Materials in Geochemical and Environmental Research

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.3.1 Introduction

    15.3.2 ISO Guidelines and IAG Certification Protocol

    15.3.3 Rock Reference Materials

    15.3.4 Environmental Reference Materials

    15.3.5 Microanalytical Reference Materials

    15.3.6 Isotopic Reference Materials

    15.3.7 GeoReM Database

    15.3.8 Successes and Needs

    References

    Relevant Websites

    15.4. Application of Isotope Dilution in Geochemistry

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    15.4.1 Introduction

    15.4.2 Applications of Isotope Dilution

    15.4.3 Principles of Isotope Dilution

    15.4.4 Applying Isotope Dilution

    15.4.5 Double and Triple Spiking

    15.4.6 Conclusions

    References

    15.5. Sample Digestion Methods

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    15.5.1 Introduction

    15.5.2 General Considerations

    15.5.3 Sample Digestion Methods

    15.5.4 Summary and Overview

    References

    15.6. Developments in Clean Lab Practices

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.6.1 Introduction

    15.6.2 Detection and Quantification Limits

    15.6.3 Design of a Clean Room

    15.6.4 Clean Lab Equipment, Labware, and Reagents

    15.6.5 Examples of Low-Level Blank Studies

    15.6.6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    15.7. Basics of Ion Exchange Chromatography for Selected Geological Applications

    Abstract

    15.7.1 Introduction

    15.7.2 Basic Principles of Ion Chromatography

    15.7.3 Cation Exchange Versus Anion Exchange Chromatography

    15.7.4 Applications of Anion and Cation Exchange Chromatography for Element Enrichment and Purification Prior to High-Precision Isotope Analyses by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS

    15.7.5 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Glossary

    15.8. Separation Methods Based on Liquid–Liquid Extraction, Extraction Chromatography, and Other Miscellaneous Solid Phase Extraction Processes

    Abstract

    15.8.1 Introduction

    15.8.2 Separations by Liquid–Liquid Extraction

    15.8.3 Extraction Chromatography

    15.8.4 Other Element-Specific SPE Materials

    15.8.5 Suggestions for Future Trends

    References

    15.9. Principles of Atomic Spectroscopy

    Abstract

    15.9.1 Introduction and Terminology

    15.9.2 Some History

    15.9.3 Principles of Atomic Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic Radiation

    15.9.4 Origin of Atomic Spectra

    15.9.5 Analytical Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy

    15.9.6 Characteristics of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry Instruments

    References

    15.10. x-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Geochemistry

    Abstract

    15.10.1 Principles

    15.10.2 Instrumentation

    15.10.3 Sample Preparation

    15.10.4 Qualitative Analysis

    15.10.5 Quantitative Analysis

    15.10.6 Further Techniques

    References

    15.11. Raman and Nuclear Resonant Spectroscopy in Geosciences

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.11.1 Introduction

    15.11.2 Raman Spectroscopy

    15.11.3 Synchrotron MS and NRIXS

    15.11.4 Prospective Directions

    References

    15.12. Synchrotron x-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.12.1 Introduction

    15.12.2 High-Energy Synchrotrons

    15.12.3 Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    15.12.4 Synchrotron Beamlines

    15.12.5 XAFS Analysis

    15.12.6 XRM Analysis

    15.12.7 Computed Microtomography

    15.12.8 Surface and Interface Methods

    15.12.9 Other Synchrotron Methods

    15.12.10 Future Directions

    References

    15.13. Transmission Electron Microscope-Based Spectroscopy

    Abstract

    15.13.1 Introduction

    15.13.2 TEM Design Considerations

    15.13.3 Energy-Dispersive x-Ray Spectroscopy and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Instrumentation

    15.13.4 Sample Preparation

    15.13.5 Energy-Dispersive x-Ray Spectroscopy Examples

    15.13.6 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Examples

    References

    Glossary

    15.14. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.14.1 Introduction and Overview

    15.14.2 The LIBS Analysis

    15.14.3 LIBS Fundamentals

    15.14.4 Laboratory, Field-Portable, and Standoff LIBS Analysis

    15.14.5 Example Applications of LIBS for Natural Material Analysis

    15.14.6 Statistical Signal Processing for LIBS

    15.14.7 Conclusions – The Path Forward

    References

    15.15. Nuclear Spectroscopy

    Abstract

    15.15.1 Introduction

    15.15.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity

    15.15.3 The Atomic Nucleus, Isotopes, and Radionuclides

    15.15.4 Radioactive Decay

    15.15.5 Nuclear Reactions

    15.15.6 Irradiation Sources

    15.15.7 Interactions Between Radiation and Matter

    15.15.8 Radiation Detection and Measurement

    15.15.9 Applications for Nuclear Spectroscopy

    References

    15.16. Stable Isotope Techniques for Gas Source Mass Spectrometry

    Abstract

    15.16.1 Introduction

    15.16.2 Mass Spectrometers

    15.16.3 Standardization

    15.16.4 Methods of Analysis

    15.16.5 Laser Absorption Spectrometry

    References

    15.17. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometers

    Abstract

    15.17.1 Introduction

    15.17.2 Sample Preparation

    15.17.3 Sample Introduction and Ion Production

    15.17.4 Sampler/Skimmer Interface

    15.17.5 ICP-MS with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

    15.17.6 Spectral Overlaps in ICP-MS

    15.17.7 Collision/Reaction Cells to Overcome Spectral Overlaps in ICP-Quadrupole MS

    15.17.8 ICP-MS Instrument Designs with a Quadrupole Mass Analyzer

    15.17.9 ICP-Sector Field Mass Spectrometers

    15.17.10 ICP-MS Instruments with Simultaneous Detection of the Mass Spectrum

    15.17.11 Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometers

    References

    Glossary

    15.18. Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.18.1 Introduction

    15.18.2 Why TIMS Survives

    15.18.3 Thermal Ionization

    15.18.4 The Physical TIMS Instrument

    15.18.5 Measuring Isotope Ratios by TIMS

    15.18.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects

    References

    15.19. Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    15.19.1 Introduction

    15.19.2 Characteristics of Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry

    15.19.3 Types of Samples, Noble Gas Extraction and Purification

    15.19.4 Ionization, Mass Separation, and Ion Detection

    15.19.5 Calibration

    15.19.6 Blank and Interference Corrections

    15.19.7 Mass Spectrometer Memory and Ion Pumping

    15.19.8 Outlook

    References

    15.20. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Abstract

    15.20.1 Introduction

    15.20.2 The AMS Instrument

    15.20.3 Ion Source

    15.20.4 Injection Magnet and Bouncer

    15.20.5 Tandem Particle Accelerator and Stripper

    15.20.6 High-Energy Particle Analysis

    15.20.7 Particle Detection

    15.20.8 Development of Smaller Machines

    15.20.9 Conclusion

    References

    15.21. Ion Microscopes and Microprobes

    Abstract

    15.21.1 Overview

    15.21.2 Primary Ion Beams

    15.21.3 Secondary Ions

    15.21.4 Mass Spectrometry

    15.21.5 Instrumentation

    15.21.6 Measurement

    15.21.7 Chemical Analysis

    15.21.8 Stable Isotope Analysis

    15.21.9 Radiogenic Isotopes

    15.21.10 Isotopic Anomalies

    15.21.11 Future Developments and Issues

    References

    15.22. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry, and Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Abstract

    15.22.1 Introduction

    15.22.2 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    15.22.3 Organic TOF-SIMS

    15.22.4 New Developments of TOF-SIMS

    15.22.5 Postionization

    References

    15.23. Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Laser Fluorination GS-MS

    Abstract

    15.23.1 Introduction

    15.23.2 Laser Processing

    15.23.3 Laser Ablation ICP-MS Methodology

    15.23.4 Laser Fluorination Mass Spectrometry

    15.23.5 Conclusions

    References

    15.24. Geoneutrino Detection

    Abstract

    15.24.1 Introduction

    15.24.2 Neutrino Physics

    15.24.3 Neutrino Detector Technologies

    15.24.4 Existing and Planned Geoneutrino Detectors

    15.24.5 Desired Future Developments

    15.24.6 Conclusions

    References

    Volume 16: Indexes

    Index

    Author Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 9144
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2013
  • Published: October 19, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080983004
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080959757

About the Editors in Chief

Karl Turekian

Karl Turekian

KARL KAREKIN TUREKIAN (1927–2013)

Karl Turekian was a man of remarkable scientific breadth, with innumerable important contributions to marine geochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, cosmochemistry, and global geochemical cycles. He was mentor to a long list of students, postdocs, and faculty (at Yale and elsewhere), a leader in geochemistry, a prolific author and editor, and had a profound influence in shaping his department at Yale University.

In 1949 Karl joined a graduate program in the new field of geochemistry at Columbia University under Larry Kulp with students Dick Holland and his fellow Wheaton alums Wally Broecker and Paul Gast. This was a propitious time as Columbia’s Lamont Geological Observatory had only been established a few years beforehand. It was during these years that Karl began to acquire the skills that led to his rapid emergence as a leader in geochemistry.

After a brief postdoc at Columbia, Karl accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Geology at Yale University in 1956, where he set out to create a program in geochemistry from scratch. Karl spent the rest of his life on the Yale faculty and was immersed in geochemistry to the end. He was deeply involved in editing this edition of the massive Treatise on Geochemistry, which has grown to 15 volumes, until only a month before his passing away on 15 March 2013.

Karl turned to the study of deep-sea cores and especially the analysis of trace elements to study the wide variety of geochemical processes that are recorded there. His work with Hans Wedepohl in writing and tabulating the Handbook of Geochemistry (Turekian, 1969) was a major accomplishment and this work was utilized by many generations of geochemists. Teaming up with his graduate students and in association with Paul Gast, he developed a mass spectrometry lab at Yale and began to thoroughly investigate the Rb–Sr isotopic systematics of deep-sea clays, not only as repositories but also as sites for exchange to occur and serve as a control of the geochemistry of ocean water.

Karl was a major player in a revolutionary marine geochemistry campaign known as the Geochemical Ocean Section Study (GEOSECS). GEOSECS was part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration in the 1970s, and it took aim at measuring and understanding the distribution of geochemical tracers for circulation and biogeochemistry in the world’s oceans.. It was also within this same time period that another large-scale ‘geochemical’ sampling program known as Apollo 11 came along. Here Karl utilized his INAA techniques to examine some of the first returned lunar samples for their trace elements. Karl was particularly proud of being the holder of the Silliman Chair and being curator of the Yale meteorite collection. In a continuation of Karl’s foray into cosmochemistry, Andy Davis came to Yale to study with Karl and Sydney Clark.

Equally important to the legacy of what Karl did for science in his research contributions on and across the planet was his influence on scientists. His legendary daily coffee hours were a training ground for many generations of students, postdocs, and visitors, as well as a proving ground for Karl’s own ideas. He had a great love for vigorous scientific debate. Karl loved to question and be questioned. Nothing was sacred and, in the act of questioning as in exploring, new science arises. He was extraordinarily supportive of people, always had time to discuss and listen, and helped everyone from students to his fellow faculty at Yale. Karl was twice department chair and even when not chair, a steadying influence in times of departmental difficulty.

Andrew M. Davis, Lawrence Grossman and Albert S. Colman

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

Mark H. Thiemens

University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

This Obituary was first published in PNAS, Vol. 110, No. 41, 16290–16291, 10th October 2013 © 2013

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States and is reproduced with permission.

Affiliations and Expertise

Yale University, Connecticut, USA

Heinrich Holland

Heinrich Holland

HEINRICH DIETER HOLLAND (1927–2012)

Heinrich Dieter ‘Dick’ Holland, who died on 21 May 2012, was responsible for major advances across several fields of geochemistry. He was born on 27 May 1927 and died just short of his 85th birthday.

Dick was 19 years old when he graduated from Princeton. After a stint of about a year in the US army with subsequent naturalization, he was drawn to Columbia University to start a career in geochemistry.

While Dick was working on his thesis at Columbia, he was recruited in 1950 by Harry Hess, the new chairman of the Princeton geology department, to start a new program in geochemistry at Princeton. Dick ultimately received his PhD in 1952 from Columbia, where he studied the distribution of uranium daughter nuclides in seawater and, to a lesser extent, in sediments, rocks, and minerals as part of an effort to date these materials.

At Princeton, Dick was very interested early on in the interactions of the atmosphere, Earth’s surface, and the oceans and history of the atmosphere. Along the way, he also attacked such problems as the distribution of trace elements between aqueous systems (i.e., the ocean) and calcium carbonate, a common deposit of marine organisms, with the hope of using such partitioning as an index of the temperature of precipitation. In the past few years, this work has seen fruition in the study of strontium in corals as temperature indicators of contemporary oceans and has been extended to the past.

Dick’s interest in deciphering the history of the oceans and the atmosphere over eons of Earth time resulted in several substantive articles and two fundamental books: The Chemistry of the Atmosphere, Rivers and Oceans (1978) and The Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans (1984).

He continued this interest up to his latest days. He wrote a fundamental essay, ‘The geologic history of seawater,’ on the subject in the Treatise on Geochemistry (2003) for which he and I acted as executive editors. We were close to completing the second edition of the treatise before he died. AGU played an important role in both editions of the treatise. The volume editors and the executive editors used get-togethers at AGU Fall Meetings in San Francisco, CA, to gradually bring the treatise to completion.

Dick was also one of the earliest explorers of oceanic ridges, searching for hydrothermal activity associated with the expected spreading centers predicted by the geological and geophysical study of these ridges.

Dick was president of the Geochemical Society from 1970 to 1971. In 1994, he received the V. M. Goldschmidt Medal and Award, the society’s highest recognition. In 1995, he was awarded the Penrose Gold Medal of the Society of Economic Geologists, and in 1998 he was awarded the Leopold von Buch Medal by the German Geological Society. Dick was a member of the US National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He retired from Harvard in 2000 but stayed on there, continuing his research until 2006, when he left for Philadelphia, PA, to be close to some members of his family. There he took up the position of visiting research scientist at the University of Pennsylvania.

On his retirement from Harvard in 2000, a symposium in his honor was held. The participants included many of the people he had influenced during his long career at Princeton and Harvard. Perhaps the greatest recognition for Dick was not the many honors he received from learned societies but the extraordinary achievements of his many students and postdocs for whom he was an enormous influence.

Karl K. Turekian, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA (extracted from Eos, Vol. 93, No. 34, 21 August 2012 © 2012 American Geophysical Union)

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