Traumatic Brain Injury, Part II - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444635211, 9780444635341

Traumatic Brain Injury, Part II, Volume 128

1st Edition

Editors: Jordan Grafman Andres Salazar
eBook ISBN: 9780444635341
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444635211
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 12th February 2015
Page Count: 388
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Table of Contents

  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • SECTION 6: Clinical sequelae and long-term outcome
    • Chapter 29: Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Methodology of prognostic studies
      • Outcome measures for prognostic studies in patients with traumatic brain injury
      • Building blocks for prognostic analysis
      • Prognostic models
      • Conclusion and future directions
    • Chapter 30: Movement disorders secondary to craniocerebral trauma
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Movement disorders in craniocerebral trauma
      • Post-traumatic tremor
      • Post-traumatic dystonia
      • Other hyperkinetic movement disorders
      • Post-traumatic parkinsonism and parkinson's disease
    • Chapter 31: Language impairments in traumatic brain injury: a window into complex cognitive performance
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Language in traumatic brain injury
      • Construct of gist reasoning: a complex language function
      • Neurobiological support of gist reasoning
      • Theoretical support of gist reasoning
      • Measurement of gist reasoning
      • Gist reasoning and traumatic brain injury
      • Higher-order/complex language rehabilitation
      • Gist reasoning and cognition
      • Future directions
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 32: Connecting clinical and experimental investigations of awareness in traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Impaired awareness of deficit after brain injury
      • The online experience of awareness
      • Brain injury and error awareness in routine action
      • Refining measurement of online awareness
      • Neural signals and disruption to the emergence of awareness
      • Objects of insight in online experiences
      • Retrospective confidence and online awareness
      • Prospective judgments and online awareness
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 33: Post-traumatic epilepsy: clinical clues to pathogenesis and paths to prevention
      • Abstract
      • Background
      • Military penetrating head injury and clues to post-traumatic epilepsy pathogenesis
      • Post-traumatic epilepsy after penetrating head injury and clinical outcome
      • Pathogenesis
      • Towards strategies for prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 34: Autonomic dysfunction syndromes after acute brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The central autonomic network
      • Autonomic dysfunction and ischemic stroke syndromes
      • Subarachnoid hemorrhage-related hyperadrenergic crises
      • Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 35: Sleep in traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Normal sleep
      • Sleep disorders and their evaluation
      • Assessment of sleep disorders
      • Treatment of insomnia
    • Chapter 36: Post-traumatic headaches
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology of chronic pain conditions after traumatic brain injury
      • Pathophysiology of post-traumatic headaches
      • Clinical features of post-traumatic headaches
      • Treatment of post-traumatic headaches
      • Prognosis of post-traumatic headaches
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 37: Traumatic brain injury and cognition
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Spectrum of traumatic brain injury severity
      • Spectrum of physical mechanisms causing traumatic brain injury
      • Spectrum of chronicity in relation to cognitive functions
      • Cognitive sequelae of traumatic brain injury
      • Pediatric traumatic brain injury
      • Ninds common data elements
      • Neuroimaging after traumatic brain injury
      • Rehabilitation of cognitive functioning after traumatic brain injury
      • Genetics as predictor of cognitive outcomes
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 38: Mood disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Diagnosis of mood disorders
      • Differential diagnosis of mood disorders due to traumatic brain injury
      • Frequency of mood disorders
      • Risk factors for mood disorders due to traumatic brain injury
      • Pathophysiologic aspects of mood disorders due to traumatic brain injury
      • Effect of mood disorders on the outcome of traumatic brain injury patients
      • Treatment of mood disorders
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 39: Post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition of terms
      • Diagnostic challenges: symptom overlap
      • Evidence for the dual diagnosis
      • Link between traumatic brain injury severity and post-traumatic stress disorder
      • Trajectory of post-traumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury
      • Models of post-traumatic stress disorder
      • Neuropathology of traumatic brain injury
      • Overlap in neurobiological substrates
      • Future directions and implications for treatment
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 40: Long-term functional outcomes of traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Selecting outcome measures
      • Defining the injury
      • Methodology
      • Long-term work outcomes following traumatic brain injury
      • Prognosis for work following traumatic brain injury
      • Summary
      • Disclaimer
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 41: Sequelae in children: developmental consequences
      • Abstract
      • Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents
      • Understanding the developmental context of childhood traumatic brain injury
      • Neurologic impacts of traumatic brain injury in children: imaging findings
      • Sequelae after traumatic brain injury in children
      • Predictors of outcome
      • Rehabilitation and intervention
      • Summary
      • Future directions
  • SECTION 7: Brain plasticity and long-term risks
    • Chapter 42: Cellular and molecular neuronal plasticity
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury and neuroplasticity
      • Neuroplasticity after traumatic brain injury is dependent on tissue health
      • Environmental influences on post-traumatic brain injury neuroplasticity
      • Experience-dependent plasticity is influenced by postinjury time
      • Neuroplasticity after traumatic brain injury in the developing brain
      • Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 43: Traumatic brain injury and reserve
      • Abstract
      • General concepts of reserve
      • Measures of reserve
      • Epidemiologic evidence for cognitive reserve
      • Imaging studies of cognitive reserve
      • Traumatic brain injury and reserve
      • "Recovery" and traumatic brain injury severity
      • Injury severity and overall lesion burden
      • Size–function rule and neural connectivity
      • Brain atrophy
      • Premorbid intellectual and academic ability and cognitive outcome from traumatic brain injury
      • Premorbid neurologic and neuropsychiatric burden and cognitive outcome from traumatic brain injury
      • Age
      • Traumatic brain injury and dementia
      • Summary
    • Chapter 44: Traumatic brain injury and late-life dementia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiologic evidence of association between traumatic brain injury and dementia
      • Traumatic brain injury and apoe ε4
      • Traumatic brain injury and age of onset of dementia
      • Sports-related traumatic brain injury and cognitive problems
      • Penetrating head injuries and cognitive decline
      • Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and repetitive brain injury
      • Limitations of the studies linking traumatic brain injury to late-life dementia
      • Biological evidence connecting head injury and alzheimer's disease
      • Summary
    • Chapter 45: Genetic factors in traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Genetic response to neurotrauma
      • Genetic influence on extent of injury
      • Alleles impacting on repair and recovery
      • Neurobehavioral function and cognitive capacity/reserve
      • Implications for treatment
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
  • SECTION 8: Conducting clinical trials in traumatic brain injury
    • Chapter 46: Ethical and regulatory considerations in the design of traumatic brain injury clinical studies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Research conducted in emergency settings
      • Maintaining equipoise in traumatic brain injury clinical trials
      • Traumatic brain injury research on vulnerable populations
      • Ethical considerations for data sharing
      • Conclusions
      • Author disclosure statement
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 47: Design of acute neuroprotection studies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Targets for intervention
      • Methodological shortcomings of trials to date and the failure to translate
      • Designing better clinical trials
      • Lessons from impact
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 48: Design of brain injury rehabilitation treatment research
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The trajectory of functional improvement after traumatic brain injury
      • The trajectory of treatment research
      • Dimensions relevant to rehabilitation treatment study designs
      • Issues in study design
      • Research on existing treatments
      • Research funding and training
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 49: The ebb and flow of traumatic brain injury research
      • Abstract
      • Recent trends in traumatic brain injury research
      • Research stability
      • Timeline for intervention
      • Primary and secondary neuroprotection
      • Medical neuroprotection strategies and pitfalls in clinical traumatic brain injury research
      • Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation
      • Long-term effects of a traumatic brain injury
      • Neuroplasticity
      • Genetic predisposition and epigenetics
      • Concluding remarks
  • Index


The Handbook of Clinical Neurology volumes on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) provide the reader with an updated review of emerging approaches to TBI research, clinical management and patient rehabilitation. Chapters in Part II offer coverage of clinical sequelae and long-term outcome, brain plasticity and long-term risks, and clinical trials.  Contemporary investigations on blast injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy are presented, making this state-of-the-art volume a must have for clinicians and researchers concerned with the clinical management, or investigation, of TBI.

Key Features

  • Internationally renowned scientists describe cutting edge research on the neurobiological response to traumatic brain injury, including complications to movement, mood, cognition and more
  • Explores cellular/molecular and genetic factors contributing to plasticity
  • Presents up-to-date expert recommendation for clinical trials and issues related to effective rehabilitation
  • New findings are included on the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury that may impact aging and lead to dementia


Neurologists and neuroscientists


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© Elsevier 2015
eBook ISBN:
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Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Jordan Grafman Editor

Jordan Grafman, PhD, is director of Brain Injury Research at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Before joining RIC, Dr. Grafman was director of the Traumatic Brain Injury Research at Kessler Foundation. His investigation of brain function and behavior contributes to advances in medicine, rehabilitation, and psychology, and informs ethics, law, philosophy, and health policy. His study of the human prefrontal cortex and cognitive neuroplasticity incorporates neuroimaging and genetics, an approach that is expanding our knowledge of the impact of traumatic brain injury, as well as other diseases that impair brain function, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and degenerative diseases. Dr. Grafman aims to translate his research into more effective, targeted rehabilitation to achieve the best outcomes for people with cognitive disabilities. Dr. Grafman’s background includes 30 years of experience in brain injury research. He has studied brain function in dementia, depression, and degenerative neurological diseases, as well as TBI. He has authored more than 300 research publications, co-editor of the journal Cortex, and provides peer review for numerous specialty journals. At the National Institutes of Health, he served as chief of the Cognitive Neuroscience Section at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. While in the US Air Force, he served at Walter Reed Army Medical Center as neuropsychology chief of the Vietnam Head Injury Project, a long-term study of more than 500 soldiers with serious injuries of the head and brain. He is the leading expert on the long-term effects of penetrating brain injuries in military personnel. His expertise includes the scope of challenges faced during recovery, including behavioral changes like aggression, late sequelae such as seizures, and the impact on TBI on family life and employment, and legal implications. He is an elected fellow of the American Psychological Association and the New York Academy of Sciences. Dr. Grafman is the recipient of many prestigious awards including the Department of Defense Meritorious Service Award, the National Institutes of Health Award of Merit, 2010 National Institutes of Health Director’s Award, and the Humboldt Reserach Award. He is a frequent speaker at national and international conferences. His expert opinion is often sought by national media on issues related to brain function and behavior, cognitive rehabilitation, and policy and legal issues related to brain-behavior research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Northwestern University Medical School and Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA

Andres Salazar Editor

Andres M. Salazar, MD, is CEO, Scientific Director and cofounder of Oncovir, Inc., a pharmaceutical company developing the immunomodulator, Hiltonol® (Poly-ICLC). He is a retired US Army Colonel and formerly Professor of Neurology at USUHS. He was Director of the Vietnam Head Injury Study and Founder, Principal Investigator, and first Director of the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program, an ongoing U.S. National Head Injury clinical management and research effort. His research background includes neurotraumatology, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS), AIDS, and Oncology. He has over 200 publications, several patents, and has conducted multiple clinical studies, including in head injury, AIDS, pilot and pivotal clinical trials of beta-interferon (Avonex) in multiple sclerosis, and clinical trials of Hiltonol® in various cancers, MS, and AIDS. Dr. Salazar is a graduate of Dartmouth College and Jefferson Medical College. He completed Neurology training at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and a Neurovirology Fellowship at the CNSSL, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chairman, CEO, & Scientific Director, Oncovir, Inc., Washington, DC, USA