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Transportation, Land Use, and Environmental Planning - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128151679, 9780128151686

Transportation, Land Use, and Environmental Planning

1st Edition

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Author: Elizabeth Deakin
Paperback ISBN: 9780128151679
eBook ISBN: 9780128151686
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 25th October 2019
Page Count: 652
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Description

Transportation, Land Use, and Environmental Planning examines the practices and policies linking transportation, land use and environmental planning needed to achieve a healthy environment, thriving economy, and more equitable and inclusive society. It assesses best practices for improving the performance of city and regional transportation systems, looking at such issues as public transit and non-motorized travel investments, mixed use and higher density urban development, radically transformed vehicles, and transportation systems. The book lays out the growing need for greater integration of transportation, land use, and environmental planning, looking closely at changing demographic needs, public health concerns, housing affordability, equity, and livability.

In addition, strategies for achieving these desired outcomes are presented, including urban design and land use planning, regional and corridor-level transit plans, bike and pedestrian improvements, demand management strategies, and emerging technologies and services. The final part of the book examines implementation challenges, considering lessons from the US and around the globe at both local and regional levels.

Key Features

  • Introduces never-before-published research
  • Offers best practices for transit, cycling, urban design and housing provision
  • Assesses emerging developments, such as smart cities, new vehicle technologies, automated highways and transportation sharing
  • Examines the institutional and political dimensions of sustainability planning at the urban and regional levels
  • Utilizes case studies from around the world that show alternative ways forward

Readership

Urban transportation, land use, urban planning, environmental policy, and sustainable development academic researchers and graduate students. Transportation planners and engineers, urban planners and designers, land use planners, urban environmental specialists. Transportation and urban development government policy makers and citizen activists

Table of Contents

Part I Motivations

1. The changing nature of work and time use: implications for travel demand

Noreen McDonald, Ke Peng

1 Introduction 3

2 Background 4

  • 2.1 Changing young adult labor market 4
  • 2.2 Changing young adult travel 5

3 Research questions 5

4 Data and methods 6

  • 4.1 Segmentation 6
  • 4.2 Sample characteristics 8

5 Results 9

  • 5.1 Employment and economic characteristics, 2003–15 9
  • 5.2 Work time use segmentation 9
  • 5.3 Commuting in peak periods 11

6 Discussion and conclusions 12

References 14


2. Integrating health into metropolitan transportation planning

Catherine Ross, Peter Hylton, Farran (Fangru) Wang 1

Overview 17

2 Previous work 18

  • 2.1 Health and the built environment 18
  • 2.2 Health in the planning process 19
  • 2.3 Health impact assessment (HIA) 20 

3 Methodology 21

4 Findings 22

  • 4.1 Target areas 23
  • 4.2 Project selection 24
  • 4.3 Organizational structure 26

vi    Contents

5 Policy implications 30

6 Conclusions 31

References 33


3. Transportation and land use as social determinants of health: the case of arterial roads

Carolyn McAndrews

1 Introduction 35

2 Neighborhoods and health 36

  • 2.1 Poverty and segregation 36
  • 2.2 Neighborhood physical and social environments 37

3 Transportation and land use as social determinants of health in neighborhood 39

3.1 Chronic stress 39

3.2 Behavior 41

4 The case of major arterial roads 41

  • 4.1 Streets and land uses that associate with neglect and physical decay 42
  • 4.2 Barriers that lead to community severance and social isolation 44

5 Implications for policy, planning, and design 45

  • 5.1 Traffi c operations and design strategies 45
  • 5.2 Greening and cues to care 46
  • 5.3 Infi ll, revitalization, and community development strategies 46

6 Conclusion 47

References 48

4. Transit-oriented displacement: the role of transit access in the housing market

Karen Chapple, Miriam Zuk

1 Introduction 55

2 TOD and displacement: understanding the relationships 56

3 Defi ning and describing TOD and displacement 57

3.1 Data sources and terms 57

3.2 TOD areas in the Bay Area 59

4 Modeling gentrifi cation, exclusion, and displacement 60

  • 4.1 Gentrifi cation 60
  • 4.2 Exclusion 62
  • 4.3 Changes in affordable housing 62
  • 4.4 Loss of low-income households 62

5 Anti-displacement and housing affordability policies 65

  • 5.1 Overview of anti-displacement and housing affordability policies 66
  • 5.2 Housing affordability and anti-displacement policies in the Bay Area 68
  • 5.3 Addressing displacement in transit-oriented development 68

6 Conclusion 77

References 78


PART II Strategies

5. Urban design for sustainable and livable communities: the case of Vancouver

Elizabeth Macdonald

1 Introduction 83

2 Urban context and overview of Vancouver’s plans and policies in the two eras 85

3 Downtown neighborhood planning in the “Living First” era 90

  • 3.1 Downtown South 90
  • 3.2 False Creek North 92
  • 3.3 Southeast False Creek 95 3.4 Results 96

4 Neighborhood planning in outlying areas during the EcoDensity era 98

5 Vancouver going forward 101

6 Conclusions 101

References 103


6. Measuring land use performance: from policy to plan to outcome

Gian-Claudia Sciara

1 Introduction 105

2 Government action and land use in the United States 106

3 The effectiveness of governmental efforts to shape land use in the United States 108

  • 3.1 State growth management policies 111
  • 3.2 Regional efforts to infl uence local land use and development 114
  • 3.3 Local efforts to infl uence land use and development 116

4 Four frameworks for evaluating land use plans and policy 118

  • 4.1 Process-based frameworks for local plan and policy evaluation 118
  • 4.2 Goal-based frameworks for local plan and policy evaluation 120
  • 4.3 Implementation-based frameworks for local plan and policy evaluation 120
  • 4.4 Outcome-based evaluations: monitoring key variables 121

5 Discussion and conclusions 123

References 125

viii    Contents


7. The transit metropolis: a 21st century perspective

Robert Cervero

1 Introduction 131

2 The transit metropolis: core principles 131

3 Megatrends and shifting lifestyle preferences 133

  • 3.1 Aging societies 133
  • 3.2 The Millennials and the shifting economy 134

4 Transformative technologies and urban futures 137

  • 4.1 Smart mobility and autonomous vehicles 137
  • 4.2 Ride-hailing and shared-ride services 138
  • 4.3 Smart pricing and technologies 141

4.4 E-commerce 143

5 21st century transit metropolises as hybrids 144

References 146

8. Livability as a framework for understanding and guiding transportation and land use integration

Bruce Appleyard, Alexander R. Frost

1 Introduction 151

2 Background and previous work on the topic 152

3 Methods and fi ndings 155

  • 3.1 Defi nitions, typology, and performance measures 156
  • 3.2 Data 157
  • 3.3 Analysis of station area performance using quality of life proxy measures 161

4 Discussion and policy implications 163

References 165


9. Making US cities pedestrian- and bicycle-friendly

Susan Handy

1 Introduction 169

2 Reworking car-friendly cities 170

  • 2.1 Distances 171
  • 2.2 Protection 173
  • 2.3 Integration 175

3 Unleashing the potential of bicycling 176

4 Elevating pedestrians and bicyclists in regional planning 179

5 Conclusions 181

References 182

10. Parking: not as bad as you think, worse than you realize

Rachel Weinberger

1 Introduction 189

2 The parking problem 190

3 Problem: your parking demand impinges my supply and 30% of traffi c is searching for parking 191

4 Solution: provide more off-street parking 193

5 Impact of more parking 195

  • 5.1 Developer impacts 195
  • 5.2 Parking and car ownership 195

6 The impact of parking on the built environment, travel behavior and downtown economies 196

7 Is the problem well defi ned? 197

8 Is there a parking shortage? 197

9 How much driving is cruising after all? 199 '

10 Parking problem redefi ned 200

11 Solutions redefi ned 200

  • 11.1 Performance parking 201
  • 11.2 Controls on supply, unbundled, and shared parking 201

12 Conclusion 202

References 203


11. Traffi c management strategies for urban networks: smart city mobility technologies

Alexander Skabardonis

1 Existing traffi c management strategies in urban networks 207

2 Emerging applications: the promise 209

3 Emerging applications: the implementation challenge 212

  • 3.1 Technology requirements 212
  • 3.2 Traffi c analysis tools 213
  • 3.3 Relationship with transportation planning studies and plans 214
  • 3.4 Communicating the benefi ts of new technologies to decision-makers 214

References 215


12. Vehicle technologies for achieving near and longer term fuel economy and climate goals

Timothy E. Lipman

1 Introduction 217

2 The global oil supply and demand conundrum 218

3 Regulatory approaches for reducing motor vehicle emissions and energy use 221

  • 3.1 Emissions and energy standards in the US 221
  • 3.2 Motor vehicle emissions and energy programs in other countries 225

4 Additional strategies for improved fuel economy and reduced GHG emissions 227

x    Contents

5 Recent research on zero-tailpipe emission vehicles 229

6 Conclusions 234

References 235

13. Sharing strategies: carsharing, shared micromobility (bikesharing and scooter sharing), transportation network companies, microtransit, and other innovative mobility modes

Susan Shaheen, Adam Cohen, Nelson Chan, Apaar Bansal

1 Introduction 237

2 Emerging shared mobility services 238

3 Carsharing 240

  • 3.1 Roundtrip carsharing 240
  • 3.2 One-way carsharing 242
  • 3.3 Personal vehicle sharing (PVS) 243

4 Shared micromobility (bikesharing and scooter sharing) 245

  • 4.1 Scooter sharing (standing electric and moped-style scooters) 246
  • 4.2 Bikesharing 246

5 Ridesharing 248

6 On-demand ride services 248

  • 6.1 Transportation network company (TNC) services 248
  • 6.2 Ridesplitting (also known as pooling) 252
  • 6.3 E-hail services 253

7 Microtransit 253

8 Courier network services 255

  • 8.1 P2P delivery services 256
  • 8.2 Paired on-demand passenger ride and courier services 256

9 Trip planning apps 257

  • 9.1 Single-mode trip planning 257
  • 9.2 Multi-modal trip aggregators 257
  • 9.3 Gamifi cation 258

10 Conclusion 258

References 259

14. The role of behavioral economics and social nudges in sustainable travel behavior

William Riggs

1 Statement of the problem 263

2 Previous work on the topic 264

3 Experiments 266

  • 3.1 Experiment 1: incentives for giving up driving 267
  • 3.2 Experiment 2: perceptions of street safety for cyclists 268 

4 Findings 269

  • 4.1 Findings from experiment 1 269
  • 4.2 Findings from experiment 2 270

5 Findings and policy implications 272

References 273

Part III Broadening the scope

15. Energy sources for sustainable transportation and urban development

Blas L. Pérez Henríquez

1 Introduction: the energy outlook and emerging challenges 281

2 Global decarbonization efforts 283

3 Subnational and non-governmental action for clean energy and greenhouse gas reductions 286

4 Case example: California’s emissions and energy policies for a clean future 289

5 Implications for energy planning 292

References 297

16. Balancing education opportunities with sustainable travel and development

Carrie Makarewicz

1 Introduction 299

2 Country differences in school funding, governance, and assignment policies 302

3 Reasons for differential school outcomes 304

  • 3.1 White fl ight and urban decline 304
  • 3.2 School siting standards and school travel in the United States 309

4 Attempts to address urban school decline and school sprawl 312

  • 4.1 Addressing school decline through in-school reforms and school choice 312
  • 4.2 Addressing school siting and transportation policies 315

5 Policy implications and alternative approaches 317

  • 5.1 Improving urban schools through community connections 317
  • 5.2 Integrating school planning with land use & transportation planning 320
  • 5.3 Federal opportunity for all policies: a new era of school desegregation? 321

6 Conclusion 322

References 324

xii    Contents

17. Planners’ presence in planning for water quality and availability

Caitlin Dyckman

1 Introduction/statement of the problem 333

  • 1.1 How water is used and monitored 334
  • 1.2 The water problems: nationally and internationally 334
  • 1.3 Research objectives 337

2 Previous work on the topic 338

  • 2.1 States and planners in US water planning 338
  • 2.2 Water demand management and devolution in water quality control 342
  • 2.3 Water management problems, their import for planners, and emerging policy approaches to address them: collaborative watershed management, social-ecological resilience (SER), and sustainable commons management (SCM) 344

3 Methodology 347

4 Findings 349

  • 4.1 Planners’ roles in water conservation 350
  • 4.2 Planners’ roles in watershed-based planning 362
  • 4.3 State comprehensive water planning legislation 363

5 Policy implications 386

6 Conclusions 387

References 388


Part IV Implementation issues: the case of California

18. Integrated transport and land use planning aiming to reduce GHG emissions: International comparisons

Andrea Broaddus

1 Introduction 399

2 What legal regulatory frameworks for transportation and land use planning are in use? 400

  • 2.1 Roots of centralized regional land use and transport planning in Europe 400
  • 2.2 Trends: devolution and regionalism 405

3 What policies linking transportation and land use planning to CO2 emissions are in place? 409

4 What types of projects and development have resulted in practice, and what are the barriers to implementation? 411

  • 4.1 Planning approaches 411
  • 4.2 Plans and Projects 412
  • 4.3 Barriers 413

5 Conclusion 416

References 417

19. Defi ning TOD: learning from California law

Gregory L. Newmark, William L. Kaplowitz

1 Introduction 419

2 Background 420

3 Methodology 421

4 California TOD legislation and state programs 423

5 Defi nitional issues 427

  • 5.1 Defi ning what qualifi es as transit 427
  • 5.2 Establishing the transit-oriented zone 432
  • 5.3 What land uses are transit-oriented? 435

6 Conclusions 436

References 437

20. Sustainability planning by Metropolitan Planning Organizations: California and national trends

Elisa Barbour

1 Introduction 439

2 Sustainability planning by MPOs 440

  • 2.1 Motives for sustainability planning by MPOs 440
  • 2.2 MPOs and sustainable development 443
  • 2.3 Challenges of MPO sustainability planning: ambitious goals, modest means 444
  • 3 Measures for evaluating MPO sustainability planning 445

4 Findings on sustainability planning by large US MPOs 447

5 Sustainability planning by California MPOs 456

  • 5.1 Has SB 375 made a difference? 457
  • 5.2 SB 375 comes under scrutiny 460

6 Conclusion 462 7 List of RTPs 464

References 465

21. The role of county-level agencies in coordinating local climate planning in California

Elizabeth Mattiuzzi

1 Introduction 469

2 Background 470

  • 2.1 California’s rapid growth and its jobs-housing mismatch 470
  • 2.2 SB 375 as a change in direction 472

3 County-level agencies’ roles in California transportation and housing 472

  • 3.1 County transportation authorities 473
  • 3.2 Councils of governments 474

4 Methodology 476

xiv    Contents

5 Evidence for subregional coordination of local climate planning and SB 375 implementation 477

  • 5.1 Surveying planners on SB 375 implementation 477
  • 5.2 The relationship between collaboration and implementation 480
  • 5.3 Case studies of subregional coordination of climate planning 481

6 Conclusion and policy implications 493

References 494


22. California’s SB 375 and the pursuit of sustainable and affordable development

Sarah Mawhorter, Amy Martin, Carol Galante

1 Introduction 497

2 Background 498

  • 2.1 Climate change and housing affordability crises converge 498
  • 2.2 Overview of SB 375 and housing 499
  • 2.3 Assessments of SB 375 to date 500

3 Research approach 501

4 Analysis 502

  • 4.1 SB 375 implementation through RHNA has limited potential to increase infi ll development in most regions 502
  • 4.2 Incentives for SCS implementation are limited and vary by region 505
  • 4.3 CEQA streamlining to enable SCS implementation 514

5 Conclusion 516

  • 5.1 Alignment of housing and transportation goals 516
  • 5.2 Need for more enforcement 517
  • 5.3 Need for more incentives 517
  • 5.4 Need for more capacity 518
  • 5.5 Need for more accountability 518
  • 5.6 Looking ahead 519

References 519


23. Citizen mobilization in digital and analog: when regional planning lands in Marin County, California, is it a carrot or a stick painted orange?

Karen Trapenberg Frick

1 Statement of the problem 523

2 Conceptual framework—the (virtual) cycle of organizing and adapting in digital 528

3 Research design 531

4 The opposition to Plan Bay Area in Marin County 532

5 Planning proponents in response 537

6 Discussion 540

  • 6.1 Impacts on planning and projects 541
  • 6.2 Implications for scholarship and practice 543

References 546

PART V Conclusions

24. The role of modern research universities in advancing innovative transportation infrastructure renewal

Bjorn Birgisson

1 Background 555

2 Key trends affecting university-based research on transportation infrastructure renewal 556

3 Changing nature of research universities 557

4 Accelerating globalization 558

5 Accelerating rate of technological change 559

6 Growth in multidisciplinary research and innovation 559

  • 6.1 Smart Infrastructure 560
  • 6.2 Manufacturing and automation for transportation infrastructure renewal 562
  • 6.3 Resilient and critical infrastructure systems 563
  • 6.4 Innovative fi nancing and procurement 564
  • 6.5 New collaboration and societal engagement modes for university-based transportation researchers 565
  • 6.6 Universities for the new knowledge society 565
  • 6.7 Recommendations 566

References 567

Integrating transportation, land use, and environmental planning 569

Index 601

Details

No. of pages:
652
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2020
Published:
25th October 2019
Imprint:
Elsevier
Paperback ISBN:
9780128151679
eBook ISBN:
9780128151686

About the Author

Elizabeth Deakin

Professor Emerita of City and Regional Planning and Urban Design at the University of California-Berkeley, has taught and researched transportation, land use and environmental planning for three decades. She is co-editor of High Speed Rail and Sustainability (Routledge, 2017), and author of 300 journal articles, book chapters, and research reports. She advises city, state, and national governments on transportation, urban development, and environmental issues, and has served as an appointed official for state and local government.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emerita of City and Regional Planning and Urban Design, University of California-Berkeley, USA

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