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Transport and Diffusion across Cell Membranes is a comprehensive treatment of the transport and diffusion of molecules and ions across cell membranes. This book shows that the same kinetic equations (with appropriate modification) can describe all the specialized membrane transport systems: the pores, the carriers, and the two classes of pumps. The kinetic formalism is developed step by step and the features that make a system effective in carrying out its biological role are highlighted. This book is organized into six chapters and begins with an introduction to the structure and dynamics of cell membranes, followed by a discussion on how the membrane acts as a barrier to the transmembrane diffusion of molecules and ions. The following chapters focus on the role of the membrane's protein components in facilitating transmembrane diffusion of specific molecules and ions, measurements of diffusion through pores and the kinetics of diffusion, and the structure of such pores and their biological regulation. This book methodically introduces the reader to the carriers of cell membranes, the kinetics of facilitated diffusion, and cotransport systems. The primary active transport systems are considered, emphasizing the pumping of an ion (sodium, potassium, calcium, or proton) against its electrochemical gradient during the coupled progress of a chemical reaction while a conformational change of the pump enzyme takes place. This book is of interest to advanced undergraduate students, as well as to graduate students and researchers in biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and biophysics.
List of Symbols
Chapter 1. Physical Basis of Movement across Cell Membranes
1.1. Membrane Structure and Dynamics
1.2. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Diffusion Process
1.3. Irreversible Thermodynamics of Membrane Processes
1.4. Methodology of Membrane Permeability Measurements
Chapter 2. Simple Diffusion across the Membrane Bilayer
2.1. Basal Permeability of the Human Red Blood Cell to Nonelectrolyte Molecules
2.2. Permeabilities of Other Biological Membranes
2.3. Permeabilities of Artificial Lipid Bilayers
2.4. Choice of a Model for the Partitioning Behavior of the Membrane's Transport Barrier
2.5. Molecular Basis of the Steep Size Dependence of Diffusion within Biological Membranes
2.6. Quantitative Assessment of the Interplay of Partitioning and Diffusion in the Overall Permeability Process
2.7. An Alternative View: Pores in the Cell Membrane?
Chapter 3. Channels across the Cell Membrane
3.1. Exploring the Properties of Membrane Channels
3.2. Kinetic Analysis of Channel Behavior
3.3. An Overall View of Channel Behavior
3.4. Regulation of Channel Opening
Chapter 4. Facilitated Diffusion: The Simple Carrier
4.1. The Simple Carrier Model
4.2. Testing and Characterizing the Simple Carrier
4.3. Methods of Obtaining Experimentally the Kinetic Parameters in K and V
4.4. Countertransport: Two Substrates That Share a Common Simple Carrier
4.5. Inhibition of Transport on the Simple Carrier
4.6. Exchange-Only Systems
4.7. Anion Transport System of the Red Blood Cell
4.8. Conclusions about Facilitated Diffusion Systems
Chapter 5. The Cotransport Systems: Two Substrates That Are Carried on a Single Transporter
5.1. Active Transport and Physiology
5.2. Phenomenon of Active Transport
5.3. Gradient Coupling as the Mechanism for Active Transport
5.4. Efficient Design of a Cotransport System
5.5. Effects of Membrane Potential on Cotransport Systems
5.6. Some Specific Systems of Cotransport
Chapter 6. Primary Active Transport: Chemiosmosis
6.3. Other ATPases with Isolatable Phosphoenzyme Forms
6.4. F1F0- ATPases
Appendix A: Mathematical Analysis of the Carrier Model for Facilitated Diffusion
Appendix B: Kinetics of the Cotransporter Model: The Equilibrium Assumption
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 1986
- 11th March 1986
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
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