Transplantation Antigens - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123943507, 9780323145893

Transplantation Antigens

1st Edition

Markers of Biological Individuality

Editors: Barry Kahan
eBook ISBN: 9780323145893
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 564
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Description

Transplantation Antigens: Markers of Biological Individuality investigates transplantation antigens and their function as markers of biological individuality. Topics covered include transplantation antigens of the human fetus, trophoblast, and spermatozoa; tissue distribution and cellular location of transplantation antigens; and serologic identification of human transplantation antigens. The biological significance of cross-reactions between histocompatibility antigens and antigens of bacterial and/or heterologous mammalian origin is also examined.
This book is comprised of 25 chapters and begins with an introduction to the phylogeny of transplantation reactivity, followed by a discussion on the appearance of transplantation antigens in the embryo and fetus and the ways in which these antigens interact with or are masked from the immunocytes of the pregnant female. The next chapter analyzes the data on the detection of transplantation antigens on human fetal cells, cells of trophoblastic origin, and spermatozoa. The intracellular distribution of transplantation antigens is also considered, along with the extraction of membranous transplantation antigens by pressure homogenization; the molecular nature of HL-A antigens; and solubilization of histocompatibility antigens with detergents. This monograph will appeal to biologists, physiologists, immunologists, and clinicians.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Foreword

Introduction

Part I Introduction: The Transplantation Antigens

Chapter 1. Phylogeny of Transplantation Reactivity

I. Introduction

II. Transplantation Reactions among Invertebrates

III. Transplantation Reactions among Vertebrates

IV. Conclusions and Prospects

References

Chapter 2. Histocompatibility Genes, Transplantation Antigens, and Pregnancy

I. General Introduction

II. The Histocompatibility Antigens of Gametes and Embryos

III. Fetal and Maternal Barriers to Graft Rejection

IV. Mechanisms of Antigen Masking in the Trophoblast

V. Maternal Responses to Pregnancy

VI. Other Immunologie Issues in Pregnancy

VII. Summary

References

Chapter 3. Transplantation Antigens of the Human Fetus, Trophoblast, and Spermatozoa

I. Transplantation Antigens on Cells of the Human Fetus

II. Transplantation Antigens on Cells from Human Trophoblast

III. Transplantation Antigens on Human Spermatozoa

IV. Summary and Discussion

References

Chapter 4. The Tissue Distribution and Cellular Location of Transplantation Antigens

I. Introduction

II. Tissue Distribution of Transplantation Antigens

III. The Cellular Location of Transplantation Antigens

IV. Surface Distribution of Alloantigens

V. Conclusions

References

Chapter 5. Intracellular Distribution of Transplantation Antigens

I. Introduction

II. Conclusions

References

Chapter 6. Serologic Identification of Human Transplantation Antigens: The HL-A System

I. Introduction

II. The HL-A System

III. The Serology of the HL-A System

IV. Discussion of the Possibility of Loci Other than LA and Four

V. Other Applications of the HL-A System

References

Chapter 7. The Biological Significance of Cross-Reactions between Histocompatibility Antigens and Antigens of Bacterial and/or Heterologous Mammalian Origin

I. Introduction

II. Induction of Allograft Sensitivity with Group A Streptococci

III. Immunologic Specificity of Allograft Sensitivity States Induced by Streptococcal Cells

IV. Biological Effects of Group A Streptococcal Membrane Antisera

V. Cross-Reactions between Histocompatibility Antigens of Different Mammalian Species

VI. Conclusions

References

Chapter 8. Species-Distribution and Evolutionary Development of HL-A Antigens

I. Introduction

II. Reactivity of Human HL-A Antisera with Primate Leukocytes

III. Reactivity of Primate Alloantisera with Allogeneic Primate Leukocytes

IV. Reactivity of Chimpanzee Alloantisera with Human, Gorilla, and Orangutan Leukocytes

V. Reactivity of Chimpanzee Antisera to Human Leukocytes

VI. Reactivity of Human Antisera to Chimpanzee Antigens

VII. Cross-Reactions in Other Mammalian Allogeneic and Xenogeneic Histocompatibility Antigen Systems

VIII. Discussion

References

Part II Extraction of Transplantation Antigens

Chapter 9. Extraction of Membranous Transplantation Antigens by Pressure Homogenization

I. Introduction

II. Application to Mammalian Cells and Tissues

III. Perspectives

References

Chapter 10. The Sonic Process for Soluble Antigen Preparation

I. Introduction

II. Conditions of Sonic Exposure for Release of Transplantation Antigens

III. Transplantation Antigens Released from Different Species by Sonic Energy

IV. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Sonic Method

References

Chapter 11. Salt Extraction of Soluble HL-A Antigens

I. Introduction

II. HL-A Antigens from Cultured Lymphoid Cells

III. Solubilization of Cell Surface Antigens

IV. KCl Extraction of HL-A Antigens

V. Purification of Soluble HL-A Antigens

VI. Summary

References

Chapter 12. Purification and Structural Studies of Alloantigen Determinants Solubilized with Papain

I. Purification of Isoantigens

II. Separation of Antigenic Specificities

III. Chemical Nature of Specific Determinants

References

Chapter 13. Comparisons of HL-A Alloantigens Solubilized by Papain and TIS

I. Introduction

II. Solubilization of HL-A Alloantigens

III. Assay of HL-A Alloantigens

IV. Recovery of Soluble HL-A Alloantigens

V. Purification and Properties of HL-A Alloantigens

VI. Discussion

VII. Summary

References

Chapter 14. Solubilization of Histocompatibility Antigens with Detergents

I. Solubilization of Mouse Histocompatibility Antigens

II. Solubilization of Rabbit Histocompatibility Antigens

III. Solubilization of Human Histocompatibility Antigens

IV. Summary

References

Part III Biological Properties of Solubilized Antigens

Chapter 15. The in Vivo Immunogenicity Assay of Transplantation Antigens

I. Introduction

II. Parameters in Immunogenicity Systems

References

Chapter 16. The Induction of Allograft Immunity In Vitro

I. Introduction

II. The Activation of Lymphoid Cells by Immunogens

III. Perspectives

References

Chapter 17. Wherefore the Mixed Leukocyte Reaction

Note Added in Proof to Chapter 17

I. Introduction

II. The MLR as a Correlate of In Vivo Homograft Reactivity

III. Mechanisms of the MLR

IV. Summary

References

Chapter 18. The Enhancement Assay for Prolongation of Graft Survival

I. Introduction

II. The Nature of Antigen Preparation and the Immunization Procedure

III. Selection of the Tissue Graft and Donor and Host Strains

IV. Quantitation of Enhancement Activity

References

Chapter 19. Prolongation of Graft Survival by Administration of Water-Soluble Antigens

I. Introduction

II. Particulate Antigen Pretreatment

III. Advantages of Soluble Antigen

IV. Pretreatment with Soluble Antigen

V. Summary

References

Chapter 20. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Assays in the Detection and Biological Characterization of Transplantation Antigens

I. Analogies of DTH and Allograft Rejection

II. T- and B-Cell Populations: The Immunocompetent Systems

III. DTH Responses to Soluble Transplantation Antigens In Vivo

IV. In Vitro DTH Systems

V. Summary

References

Chapter 21. Serologic Detection of Soluble HL-A Antigens

I. Introduction

II. The Cytotoxic Test

III. The Blocking Test

IV. Anticomplementary Factors

V. The Absorption Test

VI. Conclusions

References

Chapter 22. The Study of Isoimmune Antibodies and Antigenic Determinants Using the 51Chromium Cytotoxic Assay

I. Introduction

II. Quantitation of Cytolysis

III. Preparation of Target Cells

IV. Complement Sources

V. Methodology of Lytic Tests

VI. Molecular Events

VII. Inhibition of Lysis to Quantitate Isoantigenic Determinants

VIII. Summary

References

Part IV Horizons in Antigen Research

Chapter 23. Perspectives on the Role of HL-A Antigens

I. Genetics of Murine H-2 Model System

II. The HL-A Model

III. HL-A as Transplantation Antigens

IV. The Significance of HL-A Polymorphism to Survival

V. Summary

References

Chapter 24. The Molecular Nature of HL-A Antigens

I. Physical and Chemical Characteristics

II. Molecular Surface Representation of Histocompatibility Antigens

III. Molecular Assembly of Histocompatibility Antigens

IV. Horizons

References

Chapter 25. Prospectus: Future Adventures in Transplantation Antigen Research

Text

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
564
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323145893

About the Editor

Barry Kahan