Transplantation Antigens

Transplantation Antigens

Markers of Biological Individuality

1st Edition - January 1, 1972

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  • Editor: Barry Kahan
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145893

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Transplantation Antigens: Markers of Biological Individuality investigates transplantation antigens and their function as markers of biological individuality. Topics covered include transplantation antigens of the human fetus, trophoblast, and spermatozoa; tissue distribution and cellular location of transplantation antigens; and serologic identification of human transplantation antigens. The biological significance of cross-reactions between histocompatibility antigens and antigens of bacterial and/or heterologous mammalian origin is also examined. This book is comprised of 25 chapters and begins with an introduction to the phylogeny of transplantation reactivity, followed by a discussion on the appearance of transplantation antigens in the embryo and fetus and the ways in which these antigens interact with or are masked from the immunocytes of the pregnant female. The next chapter analyzes the data on the detection of transplantation antigens on human fetal cells, cells of trophoblastic origin, and spermatozoa. The intracellular distribution of transplantation antigens is also considered, along with the extraction of membranous transplantation antigens by pressure homogenization; the molecular nature of HL-A antigens; and solubilization of histocompatibility antigens with detergents. This monograph will appeal to biologists, physiologists, immunologists, and clinicians.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors



    Part I Introduction: The Transplantation Antigens

    Chapter 1. Phylogeny of Transplantation Reactivity

    I. Introduction

    II. Transplantation Reactions among Invertebrates

    III. Transplantation Reactions among Vertebrates

    IV. Conclusions and Prospects


    Chapter 2. Histocompatibility Genes, Transplantation Antigens, and Pregnancy

    I. General Introduction

    II. The Histocompatibility Antigens of Gametes and Embryos

    III. Fetal and Maternal Barriers to Graft Rejection

    IV. Mechanisms of Antigen Masking in the Trophoblast

    V. Maternal Responses to Pregnancy

    VI. Other Immunologie Issues in Pregnancy

    VII. Summary


    Chapter 3. Transplantation Antigens of the Human Fetus, Trophoblast, and Spermatozoa

    I. Transplantation Antigens on Cells of the Human Fetus

    II. Transplantation Antigens on Cells from Human Trophoblast

    III. Transplantation Antigens on Human Spermatozoa

    IV. Summary and Discussion


    Chapter 4. The Tissue Distribution and Cellular Location of Transplantation Antigens

    I. Introduction

    II. Tissue Distribution of Transplantation Antigens

    III. The Cellular Location of Transplantation Antigens

    IV. Surface Distribution of Alloantigens

    V. Conclusions


    Chapter 5. Intracellular Distribution of Transplantation Antigens

    I. Introduction

    II. Conclusions


    Chapter 6. Serologic Identification of Human Transplantation Antigens: The HL-A System

    I. Introduction

    II. The HL-A System

    III. The Serology of the HL-A System

    IV. Discussion of the Possibility of Loci Other than LA and Four

    V. Other Applications of the HL-A System


    Chapter 7. The Biological Significance of Cross-Reactions between Histocompatibility Antigens and Antigens of Bacterial and/or Heterologous Mammalian Origin

    I. Introduction

    II. Induction of Allograft Sensitivity with Group A Streptococci

    III. Immunologic Specificity of Allograft Sensitivity States Induced by Streptococcal Cells

    IV. Biological Effects of Group A Streptococcal Membrane Antisera

    V. Cross-Reactions between Histocompatibility Antigens of Different Mammalian Species

    VI. Conclusions


    Chapter 8. Species-Distribution and Evolutionary Development of HL-A Antigens

    I. Introduction

    II. Reactivity of Human HL-A Antisera with Primate Leukocytes

    III. Reactivity of Primate Alloantisera with Allogeneic Primate Leukocytes

    IV. Reactivity of Chimpanzee Alloantisera with Human, Gorilla, and Orangutan Leukocytes

    V. Reactivity of Chimpanzee Antisera to Human Leukocytes

    VI. Reactivity of Human Antisera to Chimpanzee Antigens

    VII. Cross-Reactions in Other Mammalian Allogeneic and Xenogeneic Histocompatibility Antigen Systems

    VIII. Discussion


    Part II Extraction of Transplantation Antigens

    Chapter 9. Extraction of Membranous Transplantation Antigens by Pressure Homogenization

    I. Introduction

    II. Application to Mammalian Cells and Tissues

    III. Perspectives


    Chapter 10. The Sonic Process for Soluble Antigen Preparation

    I. Introduction

    II. Conditions of Sonic Exposure for Release of Transplantation Antigens

    III. Transplantation Antigens Released from Different Species by Sonic Energy

    IV. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Sonic Method


    Chapter 11. Salt Extraction of Soluble HL-A Antigens

    I. Introduction

    II. HL-A Antigens from Cultured Lymphoid Cells

    III. Solubilization of Cell Surface Antigens

    IV. KCl Extraction of HL-A Antigens

    V. Purification of Soluble HL-A Antigens

    VI. Summary


    Chapter 12. Purification and Structural Studies of Alloantigen Determinants Solubilized with Papain

    I. Purification of Isoantigens

    II. Separation of Antigenic Specificities

    III. Chemical Nature of Specific Determinants


    Chapter 13. Comparisons of HL-A Alloantigens Solubilized by Papain and TIS

    I. Introduction

    II. Solubilization of HL-A Alloantigens

    III. Assay of HL-A Alloantigens

    IV. Recovery of Soluble HL-A Alloantigens

    V. Purification and Properties of HL-A Alloantigens

    VI. Discussion

    VII. Summary


    Chapter 14. Solubilization of Histocompatibility Antigens with Detergents

    I. Solubilization of Mouse Histocompatibility Antigens

    II. Solubilization of Rabbit Histocompatibility Antigens

    III. Solubilization of Human Histocompatibility Antigens

    IV. Summary


    Part III Biological Properties of Solubilized Antigens

    Chapter 15. The in Vivo Immunogenicity Assay of Transplantation Antigens

    I. Introduction

    II. Parameters in Immunogenicity Systems


    Chapter 16. The Induction of Allograft Immunity In Vitro

    I. Introduction

    II. The Activation of Lymphoid Cells by Immunogens

    III. Perspectives


    Chapter 17. Wherefore the Mixed Leukocyte Reaction

    Note Added in Proof to Chapter 17

    I. Introduction

    II. The MLR as a Correlate of In Vivo Homograft Reactivity

    III. Mechanisms of the MLR

    IV. Summary


    Chapter 18. The Enhancement Assay for Prolongation of Graft Survival

    I. Introduction

    II. The Nature of Antigen Preparation and the Immunization Procedure

    III. Selection of the Tissue Graft and Donor and Host Strains

    IV. Quantitation of Enhancement Activity


    Chapter 19. Prolongation of Graft Survival by Administration of Water-Soluble Antigens

    I. Introduction

    II. Particulate Antigen Pretreatment

    III. Advantages of Soluble Antigen

    IV. Pretreatment with Soluble Antigen

    V. Summary


    Chapter 20. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Assays in the Detection and Biological Characterization of Transplantation Antigens

    I. Analogies of DTH and Allograft Rejection

    II. T- and B-Cell Populations: The Immunocompetent Systems

    III. DTH Responses to Soluble Transplantation Antigens In Vivo

    IV. In Vitro DTH Systems

    V. Summary


    Chapter 21. Serologic Detection of Soluble HL-A Antigens

    I. Introduction

    II. The Cytotoxic Test

    III. The Blocking Test

    IV. Anticomplementary Factors

    V. The Absorption Test

    VI. Conclusions


    Chapter 22. The Study of Isoimmune Antibodies and Antigenic Determinants Using the 51Chromium Cytotoxic Assay

    I. Introduction

    II. Quantitation of Cytolysis

    III. Preparation of Target Cells

    IV. Complement Sources

    V. Methodology of Lytic Tests

    VI. Molecular Events

    VII. Inhibition of Lysis to Quantitate Isoantigenic Determinants

    VIII. Summary


    Part IV Horizons in Antigen Research

    Chapter 23. Perspectives on the Role of HL-A Antigens

    I. Genetics of Murine H-2 Model System

    II. The HL-A Model

    III. HL-A as Transplantation Antigens

    IV. The Significance of HL-A Polymorphism to Survival

    V. Summary


    Chapter 24. The Molecular Nature of HL-A Antigens

    I. Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    II. Molecular Surface Representation of Histocompatibility Antigens

    III. Molecular Assembly of Histocompatibility Antigens

    IV. Horizons


    Chapter 25. Prospectus: Future Adventures in Transplantation Antigen Research



    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 564
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: January 1, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145893

About the Editor

Barry Kahan

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