Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856178303, 9781856178310

Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual

1st Edition

Authors: E. Shashi Menon
eBook ISBN: 9781856178310
Paperback ISBN: 9781856178303
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 30th December 2014
Page Count: 612
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Description

Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual’s three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified flow rate and pressure limitations, and calculating the locations and HP of compressor stations and pumping stations on long distance pipelines.

Key Features

  • Case studies are based on the author’s personal field experiences
  • Component to system level coverage
  • Save time and money designing pipe routes well
  • Design and verify piping systems before going to the field
  • Increase design accuracy and systems effectiveness

Readership

Pipeline engineers, pipeline construction engineers, project managers, maintenance engineers, contractors, supervisors, inspectors, operators, equipment suppliers, inspection and quality engineers, pipeline design engineers

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter One. Introduction to Transmission Pipelines
    • 1. Trans-Alaska Pipeline (North America)
    • 2. Tennessee Gas Pipeline (North America)
    • 3. Rockies Express Pipeline (North America)
    • 4. TransCanada Pipeline (North America)
    • 5. The Bolivia–Brazil Pipeline (South America)
    • 6. GasAndes Pipeline (South America)
    • 7. Balgzand Bacton Pipeline (Europe)
    • 8. Trans-Mediterranean Natural Gas Pipeline (Europe–Africa)
    • 9. Yamal–Europe Pipeline (Europe–Asia)
    • 10. South Caucasus Pipeline (Asia)
    • 11. West-East Natural Gas Pipeline Project (China–Asia)
    • 12. The Caspian Pipeline (Russia–Asia)
  • Chapter Two. Standards and Codes
    • 1. Codes, Standards, and Regulations
    • 2. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
    • 3. Federal and State Laws
    • 4. ASME Council for Codes and Standards
    • 5. API Standards and Recommended Practices
    • 6. Manufacturers Standardization Society
    • 7. Pipe Fabrication Institute Standards
    • 8. American Institute of Steel Construction
    • 9. American Concrete Institute
    • 10. National Association of Corrosion Engineers
    • 11. Fluid Control Institute Standards
    • 12. Hydraulics Institute Pump Standards
  • Chapter Three. Physical Properties
    • 1. Properties of Liquids and Gases
    • 2. Units of Measurement
    • 3. Mass, Volume, Density, and Specific Weight
    • 4. Specific Gravity and API Gravity
    • 5. Viscosity
    • 6. Vapor Pressure
    • 7. Bulk Modulus
    • 8. Fundamental Concepts of Fluid Flow
    • 9. Gas Properties
    • 10. Mass
    • 11. Volume
    • 12. Density and Specific Weight
    • 13. Specific Gravity
    • 14. Viscosity
    • 15. Ideal Gases
    • 16. Real Gases
    • 17. Natural Gas Mixtures
    • 18. Pseudo Critical Properties from Gravity
    • 19. Adjustment for Sour Gas and Nonhydrocarbon Components
    • 20. Compressibility Factor
    • 21. Heating Value
    • 22. Summary
    • 23. Problems
  • Chapter Four. Pipeline Stress Design
    • 1. Allowable Operating Pressure and Hydrostatic Test Pressure
    • 2. Barlow's Equation for Internal Pressure
    • 3. Gas Transmission Pipeline: Class Location
    • 4. Line Fill Volume and Batches
    • 5. Gas Pipelines
    • 6. Barlow's Equation
    • 7. Thick Wall Pipes
    • 8. Derivation of Barlow's Equation
    • 9. Pipe Material and Grade
    • 10. Internal Design Pressure Equation
    • 11. Mainline Valves
    • 12. Hydrostatic Test Pressure
    • 13. Blowdown Calculations
    • 14. Determining Pipe Tonnage
    • 15. Summary
  • Chapter Five. Fluid Flow in Pipes
    • 1. Liquid Pressure
    • 2. Liquid: Velocity
    • 3. Liquid: Reynolds Number
    • 4. Flow Regimes
    • 5. Friction Factor
    • 6. Pressure Drop from Friction
    • 7. Colebrook–White Equation
    • 8. Hazen–Williams Equation
    • 9. Shell-MIT Equation
    • 10. Miller Equation
    • 11. T.R. Aude Equation
    • 12. Minor Losses
    • 13. Internally Coated Pipes and Drag Reduction
    • 14. Fluid Flow in Gas Pipelines
    • 15. Flow Equations
    • 16. General Flow Equation
    • 17. Effect of Pipe Elevations
    • 18. Average Pipe Segment Pressure
    • 19. Velocity of Gas in a Pipeline
    • 20. Erosional Velocity
    • 21. Reynolds Number of Flow
    • 22. Friction Factor
    • 23. Colebrook–White Equation
    • 24. Transmission Factor
    • 25. Modified Colebrook–White Equation
    • 26. AGA Equation
    • 27. Weymouth Equation
    • 28. Panhandle A Equation
    • 29. Panhandle B Equation
    • 30. Institute of Gas Technology Equation
    • 31. Spitzglass Equation
    • 32. Mueller Equation
    • 33. Fritzsche Equation
    • 34. Effect of Pipe Roughness
    • 35. Comparison of Flow Equations
    • 36. Summary
  • Chapter Six. Pressure Required to Transport
    • 1. Total Pressure Drop Required to Pump a Given Volume of Fluid through a Pipeline
    • 2. Frictional Component
    • 3. Effect of Pipeline Elevation
    • 4. Effect of Changing Pipe Delivery Pressure
    • 5. Pipeline with Intermediate Injections and Deliveries
    • 6. System Head Curves: Liquid Pipelines
    • 7. Hydraulic Pressure Gradient: Liquid Pipeline
    • 8. Transporting High Vapor Pressure Liquids
    • 9. Hydraulic Pressure Gradient: Gas Pipeline
    • 10. Pressure Regulators and Relief Valves
    • 11. Summary
  • Chapter Seven. Thermal Hydraulics
    • 1. Temperature-Dependent Flow
    • 2. Formulas for Thermal Hydraulics: Liquid Pipelines
    • 3. Isothermal versus Thermal Hydraulics: Gas Pipelines
    • 4. Temperature Variation and Gas Pipeline Modeling
    • 5. Review of Simulation Model Reports
    • 6. Summary
    • 7. Practice Problems
  • Chapter Eight. Power Required to Transport
    • 1. Horsepower Required
    • 2. Effect of Gravity and Viscosity
    • 3. Gas: Horsepower
    • 4. Summary
  • Chapter Nine. Pump Stations
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Liquid-Pump Stations
    • 3. Summary
  • Chapter Ten. Compressor Stations
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Compressor Station Locations
    • 3. Hydraulic Balance
    • 4. Isothermal Compression
    • 5. Adiabatic Compression
    • 6. Polytropic Compression
    • 7. Discharge Temperature of Compressed Gas
    • 8. Compression Power Required
    • 9. Optimum Compressor Locations
    • 10. Compressors in Series and Parallel
    • 11. Types of Compressors: Centrifugal and Positive Displacement
    • 12. Compressor Performance Curves
    • 13. Compressor Head and Gas Flow Rate
    • 14. Compressor Station Piping Losses
    • 15. Compressor Station Schematic
    • 16. Summary
  • Chapter Eleven. Series and Parallel Piping
    • 1. Series Piping
    • 2. Parallel Piping
    • 3. Locating Pipe Loop: Gas Pipelines
  • Chapter Twelve. Meters and Valves
    • 1. History
    • 2. Flow Meters
    • 3. Venturi Meter
    • 4. Flow Nozzle
    • 5. Orifice Meter
    • 6. Turbine Meter
    • 7. Positive Displacement Meter
    • 8. Purpose of Valves
    • 9. Types of Valves
    • 10. Material of Construction
    • 11. Codes for Design and Construction
    • 12. Gate Valve
    • 13. Ball Valve
    • 14. Plug Valve
    • 15. Butterfly Valve
    • 16. Globe Valve
    • 17. Check Valve
    • 18. Pressure Control Valve
    • 19. Pressure Regulator
    • 20. Pressure Relief Valve
    • 21. Flow Measurement
    • 22. Flow Meters
    • 23. Venturi Meter
    • 24. Flow Nozzle
    • 25. Summary
  • Chapter Thirteen. Pipeline Economics
    • 1. Economic Analysis
    • 2. Capital Costs
    • 3. Operating Costs
    • 4. Feasibility Studies and Economic Pipe Size
    • 5. Gas Pipeline
    • 6. Capital Costs
    • 7. Operating Costs
    • 8. Determining Economic Pipe Size
    • 9. Summary
    • 10. Problems
  • Chapter Fourteen. Case Studies
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Case Study 1: Refined Products Pipeline (Isothermal Flow) Phoenix to Las Vegas Pipeline
    • 3. Case Study 2: Heavy Crude Oil Pipeline 2 Miles Long without Heaters
    • 4. Case Study 3: Heavy Crude Oil Pipeline from Joplin to Beaumont (Thermal Flow with Heaters and no Batching)
    • 5. Case Study 4: Heavy Crude Oil Pipeline (Thermal Flow with Heaters and DRA)
    • 6. Case Study 5: Water Pipeline from Page to Las Cruces
    • 7. Case Study 6: Gas Pipeline with Multiple Compressor Stations from Taylor to Jenks
    • 8. Case Study 7: Gas Pipeline Hydraulics with Injections and Deliveries
    • 9. Case Study 8: Gas Pipeline with Two Compressor Stations and Two Pipe Branches
    • 10. Sample Problem 9: A Pipeline with Two Compressor Stations, Two Pipe Branches, and a Pipe Loop in the Second Segment of the Pipeline to Handle an Increase in Flow
    • 11. Sample Problem 10: San Jose to Portas Pipeline with Injection and Delivery in SI Units
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
612
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9781856178310
Paperback ISBN:
9781856178303

About the Author

E. Shashi Menon

E. Shashi Menon, Vice President of SYSTEK Technologies, Inc is a Registered Professional Engineer based in USA for the last 40 years with Bachelors and Masters degrees in Mechanical Engineering. He has extensive experience in Oil and Gas Pipeline Design and construction in USA and South America, having worked for leading US companies. He is the author of several popular technical publications on the subject. He has also coauthored over a dozen software programs in Liquid and Gas Pipeline Hydraulics used by engineers in the industry since 1992. He lives in Lake Havasu City, Arizona

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, SYSTEK Technologies, Inc., Lake Havasu City, AZ, USA