Transient Electromagnetic-Thermal Nondestructive Testing

Transient Electromagnetic-Thermal Nondestructive Testing

Pulsed Eddy Current and Transient Eddy Current Thermography

1st Edition - May 25, 2017

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  • Authors: Yunze He, Bin Gao, Ali Sophian, Ruizhen Yang
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128127872
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128128367

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Transient Electromagnetic-Thermal Nondestructive Testing: Pulsed Eddy Current and Transient Eddy Current Thermography covers three key areas of theories, methods and applications, primarily the multi-physics field, including eddy current, heat conduction and Infrared radiation for defect evaluation, lateral heat conduction, which is analyzed to detect parallel cracks, and longitudinal heat conduction, which is analyzed to detect depth defect, or that which is beyond skin depth. In addition, the book explores methods, such as time domain, frequency domain and logarithm domain, also comparing A-scan , B-scan and C-scan. Sections on defect identification, classification and quantification are covered, as are advanced algorithms, principal components analysis (PCA), independent components analysis (ICA) and support vector machine (SVM). The book uses a lot of experimental studies on multi-layer aluminum structures, honeycomb structure, CFRP in the aerospace field, and steel and coating in the marine rail and transportation fields.

Key Features

  • Presents two kinds of transient NDT testing, from theory and methodology, to applications
  • Includes time domain frequency domain and logarithm domain, which are all analyzed
  • Introduces A-scan , B-scan and C-scan, which are compared
  • Provides experimental studies for real damages, including corrosion and blister in steel, stress in aluminum, impact and delamination in CFRP laminates and RCF cracks are abundant


Researchers, including post graduates and PhD candidates, who are focused on NDT, condition monitoring, structural health monitoring (SHM), material evaluation, and structural integrity assessment (SIA) in universities, colleges and institutes. Testing personnel in aerospace, transportation, petrochemical, automobile, special equipment industries; Engineers and developers in companies focusing on EM and thermography NDT; Trainees in NDT fields

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    1. Nondestructive Testing and Transient Electromagnetic-Thermal NDT
    Part I: Pulsed Eddy Current
    2. Magnetic Sensor Based Pulsed Eddy Current for Defect Detection and Characterization
    2.1 Introduction to PEC 5
    2.2 Magnetic Sensor-based PEC Systems
    2.2.1 Electronics Design
    2.2.1 Probe Design
    2.3 Signal Processing Software
    2.3.1 Signal Feature Extractions
    2.3.2 PCA-based Feature Extraction
    2.3.3 Wavelet-based PCA
    2.4 Inspection of Non-ferromagnetic Samples
    2.4.1 Sample Thickness Measurement
    2.4.2 Inspection of Surface Discontinuities
    2.4.3 Inspection of Sub-surface Discontinuities
    2.4.4 Flaw Classification and Quantification
    2.5 Inspection of Ferromagnetic Samples
    2.5.1 PEC and Magnetic Saturation
    2.5.2 Penetration Depth Test
    2.5.3 Inspection of Surface and Sub-surface Defects
    3. Hall Based PEC Features for Material Properties Evaluation and Defect Detection
    3.1 Features Extraction in Time Domain
    3.2 Stress Measurement Using Time Domain Features
    3.3 Corrosion Evaluation and Development Prediction
    3.4 Scanning PEC for Honeycomb Evaluation
    3.5 Scanning PEC for CFRP Impact Evaluation
    4. Coil-Based Rectangular PEC Sensor for Defect Classification
    4.1 Rectangular PEC Sensor and Feature Extraction
    4.2 Defect Classification under Different Directions
    4.3 Defect Classification under Variation of Lift-offs
    4.4 PCA with Frequency Domain Responses for Defect Classification in Multi-layer Structures
    4.4.1 Methods of PCA with Frequency Response
    4.4.2 Defect Classification Results with Various Air Gaps
    4.4.3 Defect Classification Results under Varying Lift-offs
    4.5 PCA-Support Vector Machine Based Defect Classification
    4.5.1 Methods of SVM Based Classification
    4.5.2 Classification results
    Part II: Transient Eddy Current Thermography
    5. Active Thermography and Eddy Current Excited Thermography
    5.1 Active Thermography
    5.2 Eddy Current Thermography
    5.2.2 Physical Principle of ECPT
    5.2.3 Surface Heating and Volumetric Heating of ECPT
    5.2.4 Feature Extraction Methods of ECPT
    5.3 ECPT for Quantitative Analysis of Surface Defects
    5.3.1 Quantitative Analysis Strategy
    5.3.2 Results and Validation
    6. Heat Conduction Based Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography (ECPT) for Defect Evaluation
    6.1 Time Domain Quantification Analysis for Deep Defects
    6.1.1 Analytical Solutions
    6.1.2 Numerical Studies
    6.1.3 Experimental Studies
    6.2 Log Domains Quantification Analysis for Deep Defects
    6.2.1 Methodology
    6.2.2 Numerical Studies
    6.2.3 Experimental Studies
    6.3 Lateral Heat Conduction Based Defect Evaluation
    6.3.1 Methodology
    6.3.2 Numerical Studies
    6.3.3 Experimental Studies
    6.3.4 Rail Crack Evaluation
    7. Eddy Current Step or Time-resolved Thermography (ECST)
    7.1 Principle of ECST
    7.2 Numerical Studies
    7.3 Experimental Studies
    8. Eddy Current Pulsed Phase Thermography (ECPPT) for Metal Materials Evaluation
    8.1 Basic Theory of ECPPT
    8.2 Finite Element Analysis for Defect Quantification
    8.3 Experimental Studies for Defect Quantification
    8.4 Elimination of Surface Emissivity Variation
    9. Volume or Inside Heating Eddy Current Thermography
    9.1 Physical Principles of SHT and VHT
    9.1.1 Surface Heating Thermography
    9.1.2 Volume Heating Thermography and Inside Heating Thermography
    9.2 Numerical Studies
    9.3 Experimental Studies
    10. Volume Heating ECT and Phase Analysis for CFRP Evaluation
    10.1 Methodology of ECVHT and Phase Analysis
    10.2 Delamination Evaluation Using Volume Heating ECPPT
    10.3 Impact Evaluation Using Eddy Current Square Pulse Phase Thermography
    10.3.1 Methodology of ECSPPT
    10.3.2 Experimental Studies
    11. Pulsed Inductive Thermal Wave Radar (PITWR)
    11.1 Theory of TWR
    11.2 Subsurface Defect Evaluation and Suppression of Emissivity Variation in Steel
    11.2.1 Simulation Results for Depth Quantification
    11.2.2 Experimental Studies of Steel
    11.3 Experimental Studies of CFRP
    11.3.1 Improvement of Delamination Detectability in CFRP
    11.3.2 Improvement of Impact Detectability in CFRP
    12. Through Coating Imaging of Early Marine Corrosion Using ECPPT
    12.1 Steel Corrosion Detection and Evaluation
    12.2 Methodologies
    12.3 Experimental Studies
    Part III: Physical-Mathematical Model Based ECPT for Defect Evaluation
    13. Separations of ECPT Transient Electromagnetic Thermal Fields
    13.1 Demand for Separation of Transient Electromagnetic Thermal Fields
    13.2 Physical-mathematical Time-dependent Partition Model
    13.3 Validation of Model: Simulation and Experiments
    13.3.1 Simulation and Experimental Set-up
    13.3.2 Results and Discussion
    14. Unsupervised Sparse Pattern Diagnostic of Defects with ECPT
    14.1 Methodology
    14.2 Physics-Based Data Analytics
    14.3 Experiment Studies
    14.4 Results and Discussion
    15. Multi-dimensional Tensor-based ECPT for Wind Turbine Gear Inspection
    15.1 NDT, CM and SHM of Wind Turbine
    15.2 Methodology
    15.3 Experimental Studies
    15.3.1 ECPT and Tensor
    15.3.2 Validation Study by Using Barkhausen Noise
    15.3.3 Advantages and Limits
    16. Physics-based Modeling and Pattern Mining of ECPT
    16.1 Methodology
    16.2 Modeling and Mining of Thermal Patterns in Spatial-Time, Frequency and Sparse domains
    16.3 Results and Discussion

Product details

  • No. of pages: 374
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: May 25, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128127872
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128128367

About the Authors

Yunze He

Dr. He is a lecturer in National University of Defense Technology (NUDT), China. He is also IEEE member and ASNT member. He has published more than 30 papers on peer-reviewed journals and conferences, in which 8 papers have arrived into global 10% and 1 paper has been awarded as highly cited paper in Essential Science Indicators (ESI).

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China

Bin Gao

Professor, School of Automation Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, School of Automation Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China

Ali Sophian

Assistant Professor, Mechatronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, PO Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Mechatronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

Ruizhen Yang

Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha, China

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha, China

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