Transcultural Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Health and Social Care

Transcultural Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Health and Social Care

1st Edition - April 22, 2022

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  • Authors: Irena Papadopoulos, Christina Koulouglioti, Chris Papadopoulos, Antonio Sgorbissa
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323907026
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323904070

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Transcultural Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Health and Social Care provides healthcare professionals with a deeper understanding of the incredible opportunities brought by the emerging field of AI robotics. In addition, it provides robotic researchers with the point-of-view of healthcare professionals to understand what the healthcare sector – as well as the market – really needs from robotics technology. By doing so, the book fills an important gap between both fields in order to leverage new developments and collaborative work in favor of global patients. The book is aimed at the non-technical reader, especially health and social care professionals, and explains in a simple way the technological principles applied in the development of socially assistive humanoid AI robots (SAHR), the values which guide such developments, the ethics related to them, and research approaches in the field, with a focus on achieving a culturally competent SAHR.

Key Features

  • Presents user-friendly and stage-by-stage information to help readers appreciate how AI robots work and how they can be integrated in their work environments
  • Explains why AI and socially assistive robotics need to be culturally competent
  • Helps reduce readers’ fears and change negative prejudices they may have about robots as a relevant tool for healthcare
  • Written by experts in AI robotics and the creators of transcultural health/social robotics
  • Informed by the largest trial conducted with real patients


Clinicians, practitioners, healthcare workers and providers, Social workers, researchers in medical informatics

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Foreword by Tetsuya Tanioka
  • Foreword by Matthias Rehm
  • Chapter 1. The fourth industrial revolution and the introduction of culturally competent concepts and values for AI technologies in health care
  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. The fourth industrial revolution
  • 1.3. The importance of cultural competence and the need for culturally competent socially assistive robots
  • 1.4. The underpinning values, transcultural ethics, and cultural dimensions for culturally competent robots
  • 1.5. Applying values, principles, definitions, components, and dimensions
  • 1.6. Case study: Mrs. Christou story
  • 1.7. What you will find in this book
  • 1.8. Conclusion
  • 1.9. Reflective questions
  • Chapter 2. A beginner's guide to how robots work
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Writing computer programs
  • 2.3. Dealing with the complexity of the real world
  • 2.4. Once again: “why can't the robot do that?”
  • 2.5. Conclusion
  • Chapter 3. What the literature says about social robots and AI technologies in health and social care
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Humanoid and animal-like socially assistive robots
  • 3.3. Surgical robots and robots used in rehabilitation
  • 3.4. Usefulness, appearance, and other cultural characteristics influencing acceptability
  • 3.5. Views of nurses and other health professionals on the use of SARs
  • 3.6. Enablers and barriers to the implementation of SARs
  • 3.7. Conclusion
  • Chapter 4. The ethics of socially assistive robots in health and social care
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Ethical frameworks for socially assistive robots in care
  • 4.3. Ethics in the CARESSES project
  • 4.4. Robots, care recipients, and caregivers: ethical considerations
  • 4.5. Governance and legislation
  • 4.6. Conclusion
  • 4.7. Appendices
  • Chapter 5. A workplan to develop culturally competent robots: the CARESSES case study
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Building social robots for everybody and everywhere: a contemplation of what is missing
  • 5.3. The CARESSES case study told as a radio drama
  • 5.4. Preparing the work plan: the path from scenarios and guidelines to artificial intelligence, from technological development to end-user evaluation
  • 5.5. Conclusion
  • Chapter 6. Stories and scenarios for the development of a culturally competent socially assistive robot for health and social care
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. The use of stories
  • 6.3. Writing stories for cultural groups
  • 6.4. Explaining and discussing the construction of scenarios and their content
  • 6.5. Discussion
  • 6.6. Conclusion
  • 6.7. Reflective questions
  • Chapter 7. From stories to scenarios and guidelines for the programming of culturally competent, socially assistive robots
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Theoretical underpinnings
  • 7.3. The observation study: the processes used for the development of observation tools
  • 7.4. Creation of the observation tools and how to use them
  • 7.5. Video recordings
  • 7.6. Summary of selected example results
  • 7.7. The ADORE model
  • 7.8. Examples of the final guidelines produced
  • 7.9. Evaluation of the videoed encounters of robot with actor-users
  • 7.10. Conclusions
  • 7.11. Reflective questions
  • Chapter 8. From guidelines to culturally competent artificial intelligence
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Representing knowledge
  • 8.3. How to embed cultural competence into robots
  • 8.4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 9. Development of a fully autonomous culturally competent robot companion
  • 9.1. Introduction: autonomous robots revisited from Shakey to Boston dynamics legged robots
  • 9.2. Yet some more words about 24/7 autonomy and robustness
  • 9.3. A seemingly autonomous robot: the CARESSES case study
  • 9.4. Cultural competence everywhere and the cloud hypothesis
  • 9.5. Conclusion
  • Chapter 10. The CARESSES trial and results
  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Trial design
  • 10.3. Trial feasibility
  • 10.4. Quantitative results and interpretations
  • 10.5. Study limitations
  • 10.6. Reflective questions
  • Chapter 11. The role of culturally competent robots in major health disasters
  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. The need for transcultural AI robotics in major health disasters
  • 11.3. Developing a transcultural AI robotics strategy for major health disasters
  • 11.4. Training and preparing for transcultural AI robotics in major health disasters
  • 11.5. Conclusion
  • 11.6. Reflective questions
  • Chapter 12. Future gazing
  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. My time-machine is parked in 2025: how technology will develop in the near future
  • 12.3. Let us now gaze a little further into the future
  • 12.4. The urgent need for training and engagement of health and social care staff
  • 12.5. Conclusion
  • 12.6. Reflective questions
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 310
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: April 22, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323907026
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323904070

About the Authors

Irena Papadopoulos

Irena Papadopoulos, PhD, MA, BA, DipNEd, DipN, RN, RM, NDNCert, has been Professor for Transcultural Health and Nursing at Middlesex University for 18 years and Head of the Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health, which she established, for nearly 25 years. She was the chair of her school's ethics committee, and the former chair of the research team for nursing, midwifery and allied health professions. She has been working within NHS and academic sector for over 40 years. Her main research interests are culture, compassion, diversity, health inequalities, migration and new technologies in health. She has authored/co-authored eight books, over 50 book chapters, over 100 articles, research reports and knowledge transfer tools, learning units and online modules. She was founding member of a European/Japanese universities consortium, funded by EU's HORIZON 2020 and the Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs, for CARESSES (Culturally Aware Robots and Environmental Sensor Systems for Elderly Support) project, the first artificially intelligent autonomous robot sensitive to people cultures.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Transcultural Health and Nursing, Head, Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health, School of Health and Education, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT, UK.

Christina Koulouglioti

Christina Koulouglioti, PhD, is senior research fellow in the Department Research and Innovation at the Western Sussex Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and a research fellow at the Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health, Middlesex University. She worked with Prof I. Papadopoulos on the CARESSES research project which developed the first set of guidelines for culturally competent artificially intelligent social robots. During the project, along with Prof Papadopoulos and other partners, they authored and published many articles related to the use of social robots in health care and the importance of culture.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Fellow, Department Research and Innovation, Western Sussex Hospitals NHS Foundation, West Sussex; Research Fellow, Research Centre for Transcultural Studies, Health, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, Hendon, UK

Chris Papadopoulos

Chris Papadopoulos, PhD, is principal lecturer in public health and director of health research at School of Healthcare Practice, University of Bedfordshire. He teaches on a range of health post-graduate health courses, is Chair of the School of Healthcare Practice's Ethics Committee, associate editor of the Journal of Pedagogic Development, Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, European Commission expert evaluator on Public Health Best Practices award scheme, Member of the Council of Deans of Health Research Leads Network and co-lead of the Institute for Health Research's Statistics and Epidemiology Group. He researches in health-related areas within the social sciences, particularly stigma, autism, mental health, informal carers/parents, older adults, culture, ethics, health technology and social robotics. He co-led the testing and evaluation phases of CARESSES project, including designing and implementing an ethically sensitive, complex and ground-breaking experimental trial of culturally competent autonomous social robots in social care settings across England.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Lecturer in Public Health and Director of Health Research, School for Healthcare Practice, University of Bedfordshire, UK

Antonio Sgorbissa

Antonio Sgorbissa, PhD, is Associate Professor at the Università degli Studi of Genova and teacher in EMARO+ and JEMARO+, the European and Japanese Masters' in Advanced Robotics. He has 20 years of experience teaching ICT-related topics to students of non-technical universities in a simple, accessible, and appealing way. He has been coordinator of H2020 CARESSES (Culturally Aware Robots and Environmental Sensor Systems for Elderly Support) and Principal Investigator in National and EU projects, including DIONISO (a multidisciplinary effort focusing on ICT for intervention in earthquakes) and WearAmI (focusing on assistive robotics in smart environments). He is Associate Editor of the International Journal of Social Robotics, Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, and Intelligent Service Robotics. He is executive vice president of I-RIM, Italian Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Machines, Director of the Social Robotics Lab at University of Genova and RASES, the inter-university center on Robotics and Autonomous Systems in Emergency Scenarios. He is the author of more than 150 scientific articles indexed in international databases and awarded five patents as an inventor. As coordinator of H2020 CARESSES, he has been a founding member of a European/Japanese universities consortium funded by the European Commission and the Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Università degli Studi of Genova, Genoa, Italy; Teacher, EMARO+, Universita degli Studi of Genova, Genoa, Italy

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