The interaction of human brain function with artificially induced intrinsic brain electricity has been the central topic of this symposium. Short electric currents in the brain can be induced pain free by pulsed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). With TMS applied in a repetitive mode (rTMS) succeeding pulses interact and may induce outlasting excitability alterations. At the other end of the spectrum transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can directly modulate membrane polarisation and firing rates of cortical neurons.
This symposium updates the knowledge of brain function gained by TMS and tDCS since the introduction of TMS in 1985. It represents a follow-up meeting of a first symposium held in Göttingen in 1998 and expands to recently developed areas of neuroimaging, neuropsychology and neural plasticity research using these techniques. TMS now has a definite place in neurological diagnostics in order to quantify alterations of conduction velocity or axonal loss of the pyramidal tract. More selective stimulation techniques in terms of coil design and pulse shape are currently developed. tDCS has regained interest in recent years after it could be shown that it definitely modulates cortical excitability. rTMS and tDCS after-effects can be shaped with concurrent drug applications. Several paired stimulation techniques allow obtaining after-effects of 24 hours and longer.
In addition, electric stimulation of the brain may be used as a therapeutic tool in neuropsychiatric diseases. Convincing areas of therapeutic applications of electric stimulation are deep brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease or dystonia. Non-invasive stimulation techniques would avoid invasive surgery and are approached in future as experimental therapeutic research. So far progress has been made in using rTMS in the treatment of depression, whereas the use of rTMS in other diseases like epilepsy is still experimental. Technical innovations are a prerequisite for t
Welcome Address. Greetings from Lutz Stratmann, Minister of Science and Culture in Lower Saxony. Summary of the Highlights of the Symposium. List of Contributors.
Section I. Methodology.
1. Background physics for magnetic stimulation (J. Ruohonen). 2. TMS and threshold hunting (F. Awiszus). 3. The triple stimulation technique to study corticospinal conduction (M.R. Magistris, K.M. Rösler). 4. Pulse configuration and rTMS efficacy: a review of clinical studies (M. Sommer, W. Paulus). 5. Interleaving fMRI and rTMS (D.E. Bohning, S. Denslow et al.). 6. Is functional magnetic resonance imaging capable of mapping transcranial magnetic cortex stimulation? (S. Bestmann, J. Baudewig et al.). 7. Applications of combined TMS-PET studies in clinical and basic research (H.R. Siebner, M. Peller, L. Lee).
Section II. Animal Studies.
8. A coil for magnetic stimulation of the macaque monkey brain (Y. Nonaka, T. Hayashi et al.). 9. Neurophysiological characterization of magnetic seizure therapy (MST) in nonhuman primates (S.H. Lisanby, T. Moscrip et al.). 10. rTMS as treatment strategy in psychiatric disorders - neurobiological concepts (M.E. Keck).
Section III. Motor Control.
11. Motor cortical and other cortical interneuronal networks that generate very high frequency waves (V.E. Amassian, M. Stewart). 12. Generation of I-waves in the human: spinal recordings (V. Di Lazzaro, A. Oliviero et al.). 13. Surround inhibition (M. Hallett). 14. Functional connectivity of the human premotor and motor cortex explored with TMS (T. Bäumer, J.C. Rothwell, A. Münchau). 15. Inhibitory control of acquired motor programmes in the human brain (C. Gerloff, F. Hummel). 16. Motor control in mirror movements: studies with transcranial magnetic stimulation (M. Cincotta, A. Borgheresi et al.). 17. Impact of interhemispheric inhibition on excitability of the non-lesioned motor cortex after acute stroke (L. Nie
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- 16th September 2003
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University of Göttingen, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Gottingen, Germany
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
Sobell Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
Clinic of Neurology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA