Traffic Flow Theory

Traffic Flow Theory

Characteristics, Experimental Methods, and Numerical Techniques

1st Edition - October 22, 2015

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  • Author: Daiheng Ni
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128041345
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128041475

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Description

Creating Traffic Models is a challenging task because some of their interactions and system components are difficult to adequately express in a mathematical form. Traffic Flow Theory: Characteristics, Experimental Methods, and Numerical Techniques provide traffic engineers with the necessary methods and techniques for mathematically representing traffic flow. The book begins with a rigorous but easy to understand exposition of traffic flow characteristics including Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and traffic sensing technologies.

Key Features

  • Includes worked out examples and cases to illustrate concepts, models, and theories
  • Provides modeling and analytical procedures for supporting different aspects of traffic analyses for supporting different flow models
  • Carefully explains the dynamics of traffic flow over time and space

Readership

Transportation Engineers, Traffic Engineers, Traffic System Designers, Highway Engineers and undergraduate and graduate students

Table of Contents

    • Dedication
    • Preface
    • Part I: Traffic Flow Characteristics
      • Chapter 1: Traffic Sensing Technologies
        • Abstract
        • 1.1 Traffic Sensors
        • 1.2 Traffic Sensor Classification
        • 1.3 Data Sources
        • Problems
      • Chapter 2: Traffic Flow Characteristics I
        • Abstract
        • 2.1 Mobile Sensor Data
        • 2.2 Point Sensor Data
        • 2.3 Space Sensor Data
        • 2.4 Time-Space Diagram and Characteristics
        • 2.5 Relationships among Characteristics
        • 2.6 Desired Traffic Flow Characteristics
        • Problems
      • Chapter 3: Traffic Flow Characteristics II
        • Abstract
        • 3.1 Generalized Definition
        • 3.2 Three-Dimensional Representation of Traffic Flow
        • Problems
      • Chapter 4: Equilibrium Traffic Flow Models
        • Abstract
        • 4.1 Single-Regime Models
        • 4.2 Multiregime Models
        • 4.3 The State-of-the-Art Models
        • 4.4 Can We Go any Further?
        • Problems
    • Part II: Macroscopic Modeling
      • Chapter 5: Conservation Law
        • Abstract
        • 5.1 The Continuity Equation
        • 5.2 First-Order Dynamic Model
        • Problems
      • Chapter 6: Waves
        • Abstract
        • 6.1 Wave Phenomena
        • 6.2 Mathematical Representation
        • 6.3 Traveling Waves
        • 6.4 Traveling Wave Solutions
        • 6.5 Wave Front and Pulse
        • 6.6 General Solution to Wave Equations
        • 6.7 Characteristics
        • 6.8 Solution to the Wave Equation
        • 6.9 Method of Characteristics
        • 6.10 Some Properties
        • Problems
      • Chapter 7: Shock and Rarefaction Waves
        • Abstract
        • 7.1 Gradient Catastrophes
        • 7.2 Shock Waves
        • 7.3 Rarefaction Waves
        • 7.4 Entropy Condition
        • 7.5 Summary of Wave Terminology
        • Problems
      • Chapter 8: LWR Model
        • Abstract
        • 8.1 The LWR Model
        • 8.2 Example: LWR with Greenshields Model
        • 8.3 Shock Wave Solution to the LWR Model
        • 8.4 Riemann Problem
        • 8.5 LWR Model with a General q-k Relationship
        • 8.6 Shock Path and Queue Tail
        • 8.7 Properties of the Flow-Density Relationship
        • 8.8 Example LWR Model Problems
        • Problems
      • Chapter 9: Numerical Solutions
        • Abstract
        • 9.1 Discretization Scheme
        • 9.2 FREFLO
        • 9.3 FREQ
        • 9.4 KRONOS
        • 9.5 Cell Transmission Model
        • Problems
      • Chapter 10: Simplified Theory of Kinematic Waves
        • Abstract
        • 10.1 Triangular Flow-Density Relationship
        • 10.2 Forward Wave Propagation
        • 10.3 Backward Wave Propagation
        • 10.4 Local Capacity
        • 10.5 Minimum Principle
        • 10.6 Single Bottleneck
        • 10.7 Computational Algorithm
        • 10.8 Further Note on the Theory of Kinematic Waves
        • Problems
      • Chapter 11: High-Order Models
        • Abstract
        • 11.1 High-Order Models
        • 11.2 Relating Continuum Flow Models
        • 11.3 Relative Merits of Continuum Models
        • 11.4 Taxonomy of Macroscopic Models
        • Problems
    • Part III: Microscopic Modeling
      • Chapter 12: Microscopic Modeling
        • Abstract
        • 12.1 Modeling Scope and Time Frame
        • 12.2 Notation
        • 12.3 Benchmarking Scenarios
        • Problems
      • Chapter 13: Pipes and Forbes Models
        • Abstract
        • 13.1 Pipes Model
        • 13.2 Forbes Model
        • 13.3 Benchmarking
        • Problems
      • Chapter 14: General Motors Models
        • Abstract
        • 14.1 Development of GM Models
        • 14.2 Microscopic Benchmarking
        • 14.3 Microscopic-Macroscopic Bridge
        • 14.4 Macroscopic Benchmarking
        • 14.5 Limitations of GM Models
        • Problems
      • Chapter 15: Gipps Model
        • Abstract
        • 15.1 Model Formulation
        • 15.2 Properties of the Gipps Model
        • 15.3 Benchmarking
        • Problems
      • Chapter 16: More Single-Regime Models
        • Abstract
        • 16.1 Newell Nonlinear Model
        • 16.2 Newell Simplified Model
        • 16.3 Intelligent Driver Model
        • 16.4 Van Aerde Model
        • Problems
      • Chapter 17: More Intelligent Models
        • Abstract
        • 17.1 Psychophysical Model
        • 17.2 CARSIM Model
        • 17.3 Rule-based Model
        • 17.4 Neural Network Model
        • 17.5 Summary of Car-Following Models
        • Problems
    • Part IV: Picoscopic Modeling
      • Chapter 18: Picoscopic Modeling
        • Abstract
        • 18.1 Driver, Vehicle, and Environment
        • 18.2 Applications of Picoscopic Modeling
        • Problems
      • Chapter 19: Engine Modeling
        • Abstract
        • 19.1 Introduction
        • 19.2 Review of Existing Engine Models
        • 19.3 Simple Mathematical Engine Models
        • 19.4 Validation and Comparison of the Engine Models
        • 19.5 Conclusion
        • 19.A A Cross-Comparison of Engine Models
      • Chapter 20: Vehicle Modeling
        • Abstract
        • 20.1 Overview of the DIV Model
        • 20.2 Modeling Longitudinal Movement
        • 20.3 Modeling Lateral Movement
        • 20.4 Model Calibration and Validation
        • Problems
      • Chapter 21: The Field Theory
        • Abstract
        • 21.1 Motivation
        • 21.2 Physical Basis of Traffic Flow
        • 21.3 The Field Theory
        • 21.4 Simplification of the Field Theory
        • 21.5 Discussion of the Field Theory
        • 21.6 Summary
        • Problems
      • Chapter 22: Longitudinal Control Model
        • Abstract
        • 22.1 Introduction
        • 22.2 The LCM
        • 22.3 Model Properties
        • 22.4 Empirical Results
        • 22.5 Applications
        • 22.6 Related Work
        • 22.7 Summary
        • Problems
    • Part V: The Unified Perspective
      • Chapter 23: The Unified Diagram
        • Abstract
        • 23.1 Motivation
        • 23.2 A Broader Perspective
        • 23.3 The Unified Diagram
        • 23.4 Summary
        • Problems
      • Chapter 24: Multiscale Traffic Flow Modeling
        • Abstract
        • 24.1 Introduction
        • 24.2 The Spectrum of Modeling Scales
        • 24.3 The Multiscale Approach
        • 24.4 Summary
        • Problems
    • Bibliography
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 412
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2015
  • Published: October 22, 2015
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128041345
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128041475

About the Author

Daiheng Ni

University of Massachusetts – Amherst, Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Massachusetts – Amherst

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