Tracer Methods for in Vivo Kinetics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126402506, 9780323158909

Tracer Methods for in Vivo Kinetics

1st Edition

Theory and Applications

Authors: Reginald Shipley
eBook ISBN: 9780323158909
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 254
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Tracer Methods for In Vivo Kinetics: Theory and Applications summarizes and evaluates the variety of working formulas in applying tracer methods for kinetic studies in vivo. This book discusses the basic concepts, derives the important equations, and evaluates each working formula to ensure its proper application within the set of experimental conditions available. Organized into 12 chapters, this book starts with an overview of tracers such as radioactive atoms. This text then discusses the errors inherent in treating a two-pool system as though it were one pool. Other chapters describe how, from curves of tracer content of the labeled pool or of the secondary pool, a definitive evaluation is made of rate constants and rate of interflow and outflow in the two-pool open system. This book discusses as well the limited usefulness of a curve of specific gravity when information is limited to such a curve obtained from the secondary pool. This book is intended for mathematicians, biomedical scientists, and graduate students.

Table of Contents


List of Symbols

Chapter 1. Compartment Analysis: A Single Pool, Real or by Lumping

Compartments or Pools

Single-Pool Kinetics

Estimation of Size and Turnover Rate of Two Pools Lumped as if One

Excretion of Drugs

Chapter 2. Compartment Analysis: Two-Pool Open Systems

Multiple-Compartment Analysis

Analysis of an Interchanging System

Solution by Sampling Labeled Pool a

Solution by Sampling Secondary Pool b Alone

A Non Interchanging System

Precautions and Limitations

Chapter 3. Compartment Analysis: Three-Pool Open Systems

A Completely Interchanging System

Three Compartments Not Interchanging Completely

Dissection of Rates

Prediction of an Explicit Solution

Prediction of Model

Chapter 4. Compartment Analysis: Four or More Pools

Four Pools

Joining Subsystems

Errors and False Inferences in Curve Analysis

Analysis by Computer

Chapter 5. Stochastic Analysis: The Stewart-Hamilton Equation

Meaning of "Stochastic"

The Stewart-Hamilton Equation

The Stewart-Hamilton Equation When Rate Is for Mass

Chapter 6. Stochastic Analysis: Rates of Production, Disposal, Secretion, and Conversion; Clearance

Production (or Disposal) Rate of Individual Species

Calculation of Local Output Rate

Sampling Two Pools

Rate Analysis by SA of Pooled Output



Chapter 7. Stochastic Analysis: Mean Transit Time, Mass, Volume

Concept of Mean Time

Mean Sojourn Time

All Input to Labeled Pool—Interrelated Formulas

Chapter 8. Closed Systems, Cumulative Loss, Sinks

Closed Systems

Cumulative Loss

Sink Effect

Chapter 9. Constant Infusion of Tracer

Estimation of Rate without Compartment Analysis

Compartment Analysis


Chapter 10. Nonsteady State

Meaning of Nonsteady State

A Single Pool

Complex Systems

Chapter 11. Circulation Rate Measured by Tissue Saturation or Desaturation

A Single Homogeneous Tissue

A Nonhomogeneous Organ

External Monitoring

Chapter 12. Various Approximations from Curves

Behavior of Primary Labeled Pool

Iodide Transport

Impulse Analysis

Appendix I. Derivation of the Formula for Simple Exponential Loss

Appendix II. Mathematical Solution of Multicompartment Models in Steady State

A. An Open Three-Pool System

B. An Open Four-Pool System

C. Change in Equations When Channels or Pools are Eliminated

D. Special Case, One-Way Flow, Equal-Sized Pools

Appendix III. Relation of a Rate Ratio to Vertical Shift in tmax

Appendix IV. Deconvolution by Numerical Sequence Approximation

Appendix V. Some Definite Integrals and Derivatives




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© Academic Press 1972
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Reginald Shipley

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