Trace Element Contamination of the Environment - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444415707, 9780444601704

Trace Element Contamination of the Environment

1st Edition

eBook ISBN: 9780444601704
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 272
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Fundamental Aspects of Pollution Control and Environmental Science 1: Trace-Element Contamination of the Environment investigates the global biological consequences of dispersal of trace elements that are mined from localized limited deposits in the environment. It considers the problem of trace-element contamination of the biosphere as an environmental pollution and as part of the ecological crisis as a whole. Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of trace-element contaminants, such as lead, cadmium, and mercury. It then discusses factors affecting the trace-element composition of soils, including sulfur, lime, and fertilizers. It explains as well the trace-element contamination of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the sources of trace-element contamination of soils, and the availability of trace elements in the soil. The consequences of trace-element contamination of the soil, including its effects on crops and animals, are also discussed. The book also provides ways to prevent dispersal of metals in the environment. This book will be an essential reading for undergraduates, law students, and those who are interested about environmental pollution caused by trace elements.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Trace-Element Contaminants

1.1 General Considerations

1.2 Lead

1.3 Cadmium

1.4 Mercury

Chapter 2 Factors Affecting the Trace-Element Composition of Soils

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Effect of Parent Material

2.3 Effect of Lime and Fertilisers

2.4 Depletion from Cropping

2.5 Sulfur

2.6 Assessing Availability

2.7 Urban and Rural Soils

Chapter 3 Trace-Element Contamination of the Atmosphere

3.1 General Considerations

3.2 Lead from Petrol

3.3 Fluorine

Chapter 4 Sources of Trace-Element Contamination of Soils

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Miscellaneous Sources of Contamination

4.3 Dumped Wastes

4.4 Waste Materials Deliberately Added to the Soil

4.4.1 General

4.4.2 Sewage sludge

4.4.3 Municipal composts

4.4.4 Pig slurries

4.5 Pesticides

Chapter 5 Availability of Trace Elements in the Soil

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Relationship between Plant Uptake and 'Available' Level in Soil

5.2.1 Effect of enhancement of 'available' boron level

5.2.2 Effect of enhancement of 'available’ copper level

5.2.3 Effect of enhancement of 'available' lead level

5.2.4 Effect of enhancement of 'available' zinc level

5.2.5 Effect of enhancement of 'available' cadmium level

5.2.6 Effect of enhancement of 'available' nickel and chromium levels

5.2.7 Effect of enhancement of 'available' cobalt level

5.2.8 Effect of enhancement of total mercury level

Chapter 6 Consequences of Trace-Element Contamination of Soils

6.1 General Considerations

6.2 Composition of Herbage in Urban Areas

6.3 Composition of Cabbages in Urban Areas

6.4 Effects of Application of Sewage Sludge to Soil on Plant Composition

6.5 Effects of Applications of Municipal Compost on Plant Composition

6.6 Effects on Crops and Animals

6.6.1 General

6.6.2 Lead

6.6.3 Copper and zinc

6.6.4 Cadmium

6.6.5 Arsenic and mercury

6.6.6 Conclusions

Chapter 7 Trace-Element Contamination of the Hydrosphere

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Pollution Potential of Trace Elements

7.3 Problems of Inadequate Dispersal

7.3.1 General

7.3.2 Minamata Disease

7.3.3 Mercury in water

7.3.4 Effects of heavy metal contamination of fresh water

7.4 Conclusion

Chapter 8 Prevention of Dispersion of Metals in the Environment

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Need to Recycle Metals

8.3 Disposal of Municipal Refuse

8.4 Municipal Wastewaters and Sewage Sludge

8.5 Measures Required to Minimise Dispersal of Metals


Author Index


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