Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders

Potential Mechanisms and Risk Factors

1st Edition - July 12, 2016

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  • Editors: Tahira Farooqui, Akhlaq Farooqui
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128036167
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128036037

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Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders: Potential Mechanisms and Risk Factors explores trace amines which, under normal conditions, are present in the mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. However, in a diverse array of human pathologies ranging from substance abuse, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and other neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, the levels of trace amines are unusually high with an imbalance in their functions.    Furthermore, the rapid turnover of trace amines is evidenced by their dramatic increases following treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or deletion of the MAO genes. This suggests that the concentration of trace amines may be considerably higher at neuronal synapses than predicted by steady-state measures, implicating some pathophysiological role. Therefore, understanding molecular mechanisms and developing selective agonists and antagonists for trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) has become a good approach for treating these diseases.    Although the effects of trace amines at low physiological concentrations in mammalian species have been difficult to demonstrate, they may serve to maintain the neuronal activity of other monoamine neurotransmitters by possessing postsynaptic modulatory effects, particularly dopamine and serotonin, within defined physiological limits. Such an effect of trace amines makes them ideal candidates for the development of novel therapeutics for a wide range of human disorders. This book presents up-to-date, cutting-edge, and comprehensive information on the link between trace amines and neurological disorders.

Key Features

  • Focuses on recent findings on trace amines, providing insights into the functional significance, molecular mechanisms, and biological relevance of TAARS in neurological disorders
  • Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field from around the globe, the broadest, most expert coverage available
  • Provides cutting-edge research on trace amines-mediated signaling in vertebrate model systems


Practitioners and researchers in the fields of neuroscience, neurology, neuropharmacology, and neurochemistry

Table of Contents

  • Section I. Introduction and Description of Trace Amines and Trace Amine-Associated Receptors
    1. Trace Amines: An Overview
    2. Methods of Trace Amines Analysis in Mammalian Brain
    3. Synthesis and Neurochemistry of Trace Amines
    4. The Origin and Evolution of the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor Family in Vertebrates
    5. Differential Modulation of Adrenergic Receptor Signaling by Octopamine, Tyramine, Phenylethylamine, and  3-Iodothyronamine
    6. Effects of Trace Amines on the Dopaminergic Mesencephalic System
    7. Trace Amine-Associated Receptors in the Cellular Immune System
    8. Trace Amines and Their Receptors in the Control of Cellular Homeostasis
    9. Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Modulation of Dopamine System
    10. Trace Amines as Intrinsic Monoaminergic Modulators of Spinal Cord Functional Systems
    11. Trace Amine-Associated Receptors: Ligands and Putative Role in the Central Nervous System
    12. β-Phenylethylamine Requires the Dopamine Transporter to Release Dopamine in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Section II. Trace Amines and Olfaction
    13. Trace Amines-Mediated Olfactory Learning and Memory in Mammals and Insects: A Brief Comparative Review
    14. Octopaminergic and Tyraminergic Signaling in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Brain: Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Molecular Aspects
    15. Octopamine and Tyramine Signaling in Locusts:  Relevance to Olfactory Decision-Making

    Section III.  Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders
    16. Neurochemical Aspects of Neurological Disorders
    17. Trace Amines and Their Relevance to Neurological Disorders: A Commentary
    18. Trace Amines in Neuropsychiatric Disorders
    19. β-Phenylethylamine-Class Trace Amines in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Brief Historical Perspective
    20. Involvement of So-Called D-Neuron (Trace Amine Neuron) in the Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia: D-Cell Hypothesis
    21. 3-Iodothyronamine, a New Chapter in Thyroid Story: Implications in Learning Processes
    22. Trace Amine Receptors and Mood Disorders
    23. Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1: Implications for Treating Stimulant Drug Addiction
    24. Trace Amines and Their Potential Role in Primary Headaches

    Section IV.  Perspective
    25. Perspective and Directions for Future Research on Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders

Product details

  • No. of pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: July 12, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128036167
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128036037

About the Editors

Tahira Farooqui

Tahira Farooqui
Tahira Farooqui has published extensively on drug receptor interactions, biogenic amines in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, biogenic amines mediated signaling, neural plasticity, as well as neuromoulatory roles of octopamine in the reinorcepathway involved in learning and memory, glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism and molecular signaling mechanisms in the brain. She is the author of 65 peer-reviewed research articles, one monographs and 8 edited books. She has coauthored a monograph in 2008 Metabolism and Function of Bioactive Ether Lipids in the Brain, 2008, by Springer, and have edited 8 Life Sciences books:1) Biogenic Amines: Pharmacological, Neurochemical, and Molecular Aspects in CNS, 2010, NOVA Science Publishers; 2) Phytochemicals and Human Health: Pharmacological and Molecular Aspects, 2011, NOVA Science Publishers; 3) Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection, 2011, Bentham Science Publishers; 4) Oxidative Stress in Vertebrates and Invertebrates: Molecular Aspects of Oxidative Stress on Cell Signaling, 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 5) Beneficial effects of propolis on human health and chronic diseases. Vol I, 2012, NOVA Science Publishers, Hauppage, New York; 6) Tahira Farooqui and Akhlaq A. Farooqui, Beneficial effects of propolis on human health and chronic diseases. Vol II, 2012, NOVA Science Publishers, Hauppage, New York; 7) Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders, 2013, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; and 8) Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases, 2015, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, Department of Entomology/Center for Molecular Neurobiology, College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

Akhlaq Farooqui

Akhlaq Farooqui
Akhlaq A. Farooqui is a leader in the field of signal transduction processes, lipid mediators, phospholipases, glutamate neurotoxicity, and neurological disorders. He is a research scientist in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry at The Ohio State University. He has published cutting edge research on the role of phospholipases A2 in signal transduction processes, generation and identification of lipid mediators during neurodegeneration by lipidomics. He has studied the involvement of glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid-, and cholesterol-derived lipid mediators in kainic acid neurotoxicity, an experimental model of neurodegenerative diseases. Akhlaq A. Farooqui has discovered the stimulation of plasmalogen- selective phospholipase A2 in brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Stimulation of this enzyme may not only be responsible for the deficiency of plasmalogens in neural membranes of AD patients, but also be related to the loss of synapse in the AD.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

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