Toxoplasma Gondii - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123964816, 9780123965363

Toxoplasma Gondii

2nd Edition

The Model Apicomplexan - Perspectives and Methods

eBook ISBN: 9780123965363
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964816
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st August 2013
Page Count: 1160
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This 2e of Toxoplasma gondii reflects the significant advances in the field in the last 5 years, including new information on the genomics, epigenomics and proteomics of T. gondii as well as a new understanding of the population biology and genetic diversity of this organism. T. gondii remains the best model system for studying the entire Apicomplexa group of protozoans, which includes Malaria, making this new edition essential for a broad group of researchers and scientists.

Toxoplasmosis is caused by a one-celled protozoan parasite known as T. gondii. The infection produces a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans, land and sea mammals, and various bird species. Most humans contract toxoplasmosis by eating contaminated, raw or undercooked meat (particularly pork), vegetables, or milk products; by coming into contact with the T. gondii eggs from cat feces; or by drinking contaminated water. The parasite damages the ocular and central nervous systems, causing behavioral and personality alterations as well as fatal necrotizing encephalitis. It is especially dangerous for the fetus of an infected pregnant woman and for individuals with compromised immune systems, such as HIV-infected patients.

Key Features

  • Completely updated, the 2e presents recent advances driven by new information on the genetics and genomics of the pathogen
  • Provides the latest information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of toxoplasmosis
  • Offers a single-source reference for a wide range of scientists and physicians working with this pathogen, including parasitologists, cell and molecular biologists, veterinarians, neuroscientists, physicians, and food scientists


Parasitologists, Cell and Molecular Biologists, Veterinarians and Veterinary Researchers, Neuroscientists, Research Clinicians, and Food Scientists

Table of Contents


Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. The History and Life Cycle of Toxoplasma gondii



1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Etiological Agent

1.3 Parasite Morphology and Life Cycle

1.4 Transmission

1.5 Toxoplasmosis in Humans

1.6 Toxoplasmosis in Other Animals

1.7 Diagnosis

1.8 Treatment

1.9 Prevention and Control


Chapter 2. The Ultrastructure of Toxoplasma gondii


2.1 Invasive Stage Ultrastructure and Genesis

2.2 Coccidian Development in the Definitive Host

2.3 Development in the Intermediate Host


Chapter 3. Molecular Epidemiology and Population Structure of Toxoplasma gondii


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Genetic Markers

3.3 Genotype Designation

3.4 Molecular Epidemiological and Population Studies

3.5 Factors Affecting Transmission and Genetic Exchange

3.6 Toxoplasma Genotype and Biological Characteristics

3.7 Toxoplasma gondii Genotype and Human Disease


Chapter 4. Human Toxoplasma Infection



4.1 Clinical Manifestations and Course

4.2 Diagnosis of Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

4.3 Treatment

4.4 Prevention

4.5 Conclusions


Chapter 5. Ocular Disease due to Toxoplasma gondii



5.1 Introduction

5.2 Historical Features of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

5.3 Epidemiology

5.4 The Mechanism of Tissue Damage in Ocular Toxoplasmosis

5.5 Host Factors in Ocular Toxoplasmosis

5.6 Parasite Factors in Ocular Infection

5.7 Animal Models

5.8 Clinical Characteristics

5.9 Diagnostic Tests and Pathology

5.10 The Treatment and Management of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

5.11 Conclusion


Chapter 6. Toxoplasmosis in Wild and Domestic Animals


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Toxoplasmosis in Wild Life

6.3 Toxoplasmosis in Zoos

6.4 Toxoplasma gondii and Endangered Species

6.5 Toxoplasmosis in Pets

6.6 Domestic Farm Animals

6.7 Fish, Reptiles and Amphibians


Chapter 7. Toxoplasma Animal Models and Therapeutics

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Congenital Toxoplasmosis

7.3 Ocular Toxoplasmosis

7.4 Cerebral Toxoplasmosis


Chapter 8. Biochemistry and Metabolism of Toxoplasma gondii: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleotides


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism

8.3 N-Glycosylation in Toxoplasma gondii

8.4 Glycolipid Anchors

8.5 Lipid Metabolism

8.6 Nucleotide Biosynthesis

8.7 Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolase (NTPase)


Chapter 9. The Apicoplast and Mitochondrion of Toxoplasma gondii



9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Apicoplast

9.3 The Mitochondrion

9.4 Perspectives


Chapter 10. Calcium Storage and Homeostasis in Toxoplasma gondii



10.1 Introduction

10.2 Fluorescent Methods to Study Calcium Homeostasis in Toxoplasma gondii

10.3 Regulation of [Ca2+]i in Toxoplasma gondii

10.4 Calcium Sources

10.5 Ca2+ and Cell Function in Toxoplasma gondii

10.6 Conclusions


Chapter 11. The Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane: A Multifunctional Organelle in the Infected Cell


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Biogenesis of the PVM

11.3 The Physical Organization of the PV and PVM

11.4 Activities Associated with the Early and Developing PVM

11.5 Structural Modifications in the Host Cell

11.6 Role of the PVM in Nutrient Acquisition

11.7 The PVM as the Substrate for the Developing Tissue Cyst Wall

11.8 Identification of Novel Activities at the PVM


Chapter 12. Toxoplasma Secretory Proteins and Their Roles in Cell Invasion and Intracellular Survival



12.1 Introduction

12.2 Invasion: A Rapid and Active Process Unique to Apicomplexan Parasites

12.3 Invasion: A Tightly Coupled Secretion Machinery

12.4 Micronemes

12.5 Rhoptries

12.6 Dense Granules

12.7 Conclusions


Chapter 13. The Toxoplasma Cytoskeleton: Structures, Proteins and Processes



13.1 Morphology

13.2 Cytoskeletal Elements

13.3 Putting it all Together: Processes

13.4 Summary: A Story of Adaptation, Loss and Novel Components


Chapter 14. Interactions Between Toxoplasma Effectors and Host Immune Responses


14.1 Early Indications that Toxoplasma Interferes with Host Signalling

14.2 Rhoptry Protein ROP16

14.3 Dense Granule Protein GRA15

14.4 Rhoptry Protein ROP18

14.5 Rhoptry Protein ROP5

14.6 Other Parasite Molecules Possibly Influencing Host Cell Signalling

14.7 Conclusion


Chapter 15. Bradyzoite Development



15.1 Introduction

15.2 Bradyzoite and Tissue Cyst Morphology and Biology

15.3 The Development of Tissue Cysts and Bradyzoites in Vitro

15.4 The Cell Cycle and Bradyzoite Development

15.5 The Stress Response and Signalling Pathways for Bradyzoite Formation

15.6 Heat Shock Proteins

15.7 Transcriptional Control of Bradyzoite Genes

15.8 Cyst Wall and Matrix Antigens

15.9 Surface Antigens

15.10 Metabolic Differences Between Bradyzoites and Tachyzoites

15.11 Genetic Studies on Bradyzoite Biology

15.12 Summary


Chapter 16. Development and Application of Classical Genetics in Toxoplasma gondii



16.1 Introduction

16.2 Biology of Toxoplasma

16.3 Establishment of Transmission Genetics

16.4 Development of Genetic Mapping

16.5 Mapping Phenotypic Traits by Classical Genetics

16.6 Future Challenges


Chapter 17. Genetic Manipulation of Toxoplasma gondii

Abstract 17


17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Mechanics of Making Transgenic Parasites

17.3 Using Transgenic Parasites to Study the Function of Parasite Genes

17.4 Perspectives

17.5 The Toxoplasma Maniatis: A Selection of Detailed Protocols for Parasite Culture, Genetic Manipulation and Phenotypic Characterization


Chapter 18. Epigenetic and Genetic Factors that Regulate Gene Expression in Toxoplasma gondii



18.1 Introduction

18.2 Transcription in Toxoplasma

18.3 Epigenetics in Toxoplasma

18.4 Post-Transcriptional Mechanisms in Toxoplasma

18.5 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter 19. ToxoDB: An Integrated Functional Genomic Resource for Toxoplasma and Other Sarcocystidae



19.1 Introduction

19.2 Genomes in ToxoDB

19.3 Data Content

19.4 The ToxoDB Home Page

19.5 The Search Strategy System

19.6 Genomic Colocation

19.7 The Genome Browser

19.8 Future Directions


Chapter 20. Comparative Aspects of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii and Other Apicomplexa


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Purines

20.3 Pyrimidines

20.4 Amino Acids


Chapter 21. Toxoplasma gondii Chemical Biology

Abstract 21


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Small Molecules as Tools: To Monitor or to Modulate?

21.3 Reverse (Target-Based) Chemical Genetics

21.4 Forward (Cell-Based) Chemical Genetics

21.5 Demonstrating Compound Specificity/Selectivity; Target Validation

21.6 Toxoplasma gondii Chemical Biology: Case Studies

21.7 Toxoplasma gondii Chemical Biology: Summary and Future Prospects


Chapter 22. Proteomics of Toxoplasma gondii



22.1 Introduction

22.2 Fundamentals of Proteomics

22.3 Which Proteome? Proteomes and Subproteomes of Toxoplasma gondii

22.4 Mass-Spectrometry Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Proteins

22.5 Quantitative Proteomics

22.6 Application of Proteomics to the Study of Toxoplasma gondii

22.7 Proteomics Analysis of the Rhoptry Organelles of Toxoplasma gondii

22.8 Proteomics Analysis of Excretory/Secretory Proteins of Toxoplasma gondii

22.9 Proteomics Analysis of Membrane Proteins of Toxoplasma gondii

22.10 The Dynamic Proteome of Toxoplasma gondii

22.11 Proteomics as a Tool to Dissect the Host Response to Infection

22.12 Database Management of Toxoplasma gondii Proteomics Data

22.13 Conclusion and Perspectives


Chapter 23. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis: Pathogenesis, Host Resistance and Behavioural Consequences



23.1 Introduction

23.2 Producers of Interleukin (IL)-12 Required for IFNγ Production

23.3 Producers of IFNγ

23.4 Other Cytokines and Regulatory Molecules for Resistance

23.5 Involvement of Humoural Immunity in Resistance

23.6 IFNγ Induced Effector Mechanisms

23.7 IFNγ Effector Cells in the Brain with Activity Against Toxoplasma gondii

23.8 The Role of Host Cells Harbouring Toxoplasma gondii in the Brain

23.9 Immune Responses to the Cyst Stage of Toxoplasma gondii in the Brain

23.10 Host Genes Involved in Regulating Resistance

23.11 Immune Effector Mechanisms in Ocular Toxoplasmosis

23.12 Immune Effector Mechanisms in Congenital Toxoplasmosis

23.13 Behavourial Consequences of Infection

23.14 Conclusions


Chapter 24. Innate Immunity to Toxoplasma gondii


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Establishment of Infection

24.3 The Critical Importance of IL-12-Dependent IFNγ Production

24.4 Pattern Recognition Receptors and IL-12 Production

24.5 Toxoplasma gondii Modulation of Host Cell Signalling

24.6 Toxoplasma gondii Genotype-Dependent Effects on Host Cell Signalling

24.7 Cell Autonomous Immunity

24.8 Antigen Presentation

24.9 Conclusion and Perspectives


Chapter 25. Adaptive Immunity and Genetics of the Host Immune Response



25.1 Introduction

25.2 Mouse Genetic Studies

25.3 Studies of Lewis and Fischer Rats

25.4 Studies in Humans Concerning Genes that Confer Resistance or Susceptibility and the Use of Murine Models with Human Transgenes

25.5 Influence of Parasite Strain on Immune Response and Disease in Murine Models

25.6 General Aspects of Immunity

25.7 Immunological Control in Animal Models

25.8 Immunological Control in Humans

25.9 Influence of Co-Infection with Other Pathogens

25.10 Pregnancy and Congenital Disease

25.11 Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 26. Vaccination against Toxoplasmosis: Current Status and Future Prospects


26.1 Introduction

26.2 Scope of Problem and Potential Benefits of Vaccination

26.3 Current Status of Vaccines for Intermediate Hosts

26.4 The Rodent as a Model to Study Congenital Disease and Vaccination

26.5 Review of Vaccines for Definitive Host (CATS)

26.6 Future Strategies to Design New Vaccines for Coccidial Parasites in General and Toxoplasma gondii in Particular





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"The field was in need of this new edition because of the information burst that has occurred with the sequencing of the genome which has led to tractable genetic systems. A one source resource for these molecular techniques is essential to the continuing progress in this research field." – Melanie T. Cushion, Ph.D., Professor and Associate Chair for Research, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio

"...a must have for anyone interested in the field of Toxoplasma research...the cornerstone of any aspiring protozoologist’s library...I love this book for its content, layout, and ease of finding detailed information…"--JAVMA,Toxoplasma Gondii, 2nd Edition