Animal, Plant and Microbial

1st Edition - January 1, 1978

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  • Editor: Philip Rosenberg
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483153537

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Toxins: Animal, Plant and Microbial is a collection of materials from the proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Animal, Plant, and Microbial toxins, held in Costa Rica in August 1976. The book deals with research done on reptiles, arthropods, marine, fresh water, amphibia, plants, bacteria, and multispecies focusing on topics such as biology, anatomy, immunology, bio-chemistry, physiology, and pharmacology. The paper starts with the feeding methods and diet for snakes that will be used for venom collection. Another paper describes the venom apparatus and amount of venom yields of the snake Hydrophiidae. The book also describes the ultrastructure of the skin of the soapfish Grammistes sexlineatus, known to release an irritating substance when threatened or disturbed. One paper presents the effect of toxins derived from the scorpion venom on neuromuscular transmission, while another study describes anti-scorpion serum and antivenin with a corresponding table representing the correct serum dosage. The book then presents a method to use for quantitative separation and analysis of certain mycotoxins that can be present in foodstuffs. One paper also addresses the effects of mycotoxins on immunity levels, such as lowered resistance to diseases, interference with acquired immunity, and changes in antibody production. Chemists, students and professors in organic chemistry, and laboratory technicians whose work is related to pharmacology and toxicology will find this book relevant.

Table of Contents

  • I. Reptiles

    1. Biology-Anatomy-Immunology

    An Artificial Feeding Technique and Diet for Captive Snakes

    Venom Yield with Different Milking Procedures

    Application of Banding Techniques to the Analysis of Chromosome Data and its Significance in Phylogenetic Studies in Snakes

    A Venom Gland in the Lower Jaw of the Coral Snake (Micrurus Nigrocinctus Mosquitensis Schmidt)

    Phylogeny of the Oral Glands in Reptiles as Related to the Origin and Evolution of Snakes

    The Venom Apparatus and Venom Yields of Sub-Tropical Queensland Hydrophiidae

    The Problem of the Antigenicity of Some Short Toxins of Elapidae and Hydrophiidae Venoms

    Immuno-chemical Studies of Elapid Esterases

    Study on Taiwan Cobra Venom Toxoid


    The Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Flora of Venoms of Costa Rican Snakes

    Cardiac Frequency in Venomous Snakes from Costa Rica During Rest, Milking and Water Immersion

    A Multivalent Anti-Elapidic Serum Against the Principal Micrurus of the American Continent

    General View Concerning Antiofidic Serums Against All Types of Snakes Commonly Encountered in Mexico

    Neutralization of Crotalidae Venoms by Sera from Species of Crotalidae and Colubridae

    Comparative Immunology of Sea Snake Venoms

    2. Chemistry-Biochemistry

    Characterization of Thrombin-Like Proteinase from Bothrops Asper Venom

    Isolation and Characterization of Gyroxin from Crotalus Durissus Terrificus Venom

    Phospholipases A2 from vipera Ammodytes Venom

    Purification of an Arginine Ester Hydrolase from Crotalus Adamanteus Venom

    Acetylcholinesterase Isozymes from Elapid Venoms

    Studies on Bungarus Fasciatus Venom

    Effect of ß-Bungarotoxin on ATPase Activity, 45Ca++ Uptake and Conformation of Biological Membranes

    Effect of Cobra Cardiotoxin on ATPase Activity, 45Ca++ Uptake and Conformation of Biological Membranes

    Some Chemical and Physiopharmacological Properties of Fractions from the Venoms of Crotalus Viridis Helleri and Crotalus Scutulatus Scutulatus

    Enzymatic Activities and Other Characteristics of Crotalus Vegrandis Snake Venom

    Fractionation of Aqkistrodon Bilineatus Venom by Ion Exchange Chromatographv

    The Structure of Snake Neurotoxins and Their Affinity for the Acetylcholine Receptor

    Release of Lysosomal Enzyme Cathepsin D by Two Phospholipases A2 from vivera Ammodutes Venom

    Chemistry and Biochemistry of Snake Venom Neurotoxins

    Chemical Modification of Cobrotoxin with Bi-functional Reagent 4.4'-Difluoro-3,3'- Dinitro-Diphenylsulfone 293


    Hypotensin: A Hypotensive Peptide Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus Atrox; Purification, Amino Acid Composition and Terminal Amino Acid Residues

    5'Nucleotidasa En El Veneno De Lachesis Muta L.

    Studies on the Proteolytic Action of Bothrops Atrox Atrox Venom

    Purification of Collagenases from Crotalus Adamanteus Venom

    Three Dimensional Structure of the Sea Snake Toxin - Erabutoxin b

    A Phospholipase Highly Toxic to Arthropods from the Venom of Naja Mossambica Mossambica

    Solvent Effects on Neurotoxic Protein Polymorphism

    Preparation of Endonuclease, Exonuclease and 5'-Nucleotidase from the Same Sample of Venom

    ADPase and Phosphodiesterase of Snake Venoms. Their Independent or Associated Presences in Ophidian Venoms

    Introduction to Sea Snake Toxinology - A Round Table Discussion

    Chemistry of Sea Snake Neurotoxins

    Isoenzymes of L-Amino Acid Oxidase from the Venom of Bothrops Asper

    Isolamento E Purificaçao Do Fator Coagulante Do Veneno De Bothrops Moojeni

    Aislamiento De Fosfodiesterasa Del Veneno De Lachesis Muta L. ("Shuchupe")

    3. Physiology-Pharmacology

    The Anticoagulant Phospholipase A2 from Viper a Berus Venom

    Thrombosis Prevention by a Procoagulant Enzyme Isolated from Echis Carinatus Venom

    Toxicology of the Venom of Subtropical Queensland Hydrophiidae

    Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Toxins from Australian Snake Venoms

    The Action of Crotamine on Skeletal Muscle: An Electrophysiological Study

    Acute Hemodynamic Effects of Rattlesnake, Crotalus Viridis Helleri, Venom

    Preliminary Electrophysiology of Erabutoxin-a

    Tissue Necrosis and Protease Content in Snake Venoms

    Pharmacological Studies on the Venom of a Sea Snake, Hydrophis Cyanocinctus


    Mechanism of the Cardiovascular Effects Induced by the Myocardial Depressor Protein (MDP) from Crotalus Atrox Venom

    Venom Proteins in Experimental Cardiology 1. Hemodynamic and Metabolic Effects of Dexamethasone in Normal and Low Cardiac Output Shock in the Absence of Coronary Artery Occlusion

    Effect of Purified V-Toxin from Naja Nigricollis Venom on Ca2+ Release and Uptake by Cardiac Micelles and Membrane

    Central Nervous System Studies with Crotalus Venoms and Venom Fractions

    A Comparative Study of Hemolysis by Viperid Snake Venoms on Erythrocytes

    Comparative Study of the Hemolytic Activity of Venoms of Micrurus Nigrocinctus, Bungarus Multicinctus and Naja Naja

    Experimental Defibrination with Bothropase: Action of Antifibrinolytic Substances

    Central Neurotoxicity of Cobra Neurotoxin, Cardiotoxin and Phospholipase A

    Toxicity of Sea Snake Venoms for Amphibians and Reptiles

    Thrombin-Like and Factor X - Activator Components of Bothrops Snake Venoms

    ß-Bungarotoxin: Phospholipase Activity is Responsible for Presynaptic Action

    Pathophysiology of the Envenomation Produced by Micrurus Frontalis Venom

    Antagonism of Micrurus Frontalis Venom by Neostigmine. Treatment of Experimental Envenomation

    The Antagonistic Effect Produced by Neostigmine upon the Paralysis Caused by Micrurus Frontalis Venom (Film)

    4. Clinical

    Epidemiological Study of Snake-Bite in India

    Advances in the Treatment of Snake Venom Poisoning

    Clinical Reactions to Antivenin

    Security Standards in a Serpentarium

    The Surgical Treatment of Snake Bites

    A Fatal Case of Snake Bite Due to Thelotornis Kirtlandii

    Refinements of the Method to Produce Modified Snake Venom Neurotoxin and of the Methods Used in the Partial Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Preliminary Clinical Observations with Prophylactic Cyproheptadine Hydrochloride in Potential Serum Reactions to Antivenins


    Treatment of Snake Bite in Southern Africa

    A Test of the Current Theories of Snake Bite Therapy

    Use and Importance of Snake Venoms in Blood Coagulation

    Mexican Reptiles from the Standpoint of Public Health Importance and Geographic Distribution

    Renal Lesions in Snake Bite in Costa Rica

    II. Marine-Freshwater-Amphibia

    Ultrastructure of the Skin of the Soapfish Grammistes Sexlineatus

    Polypeptide Cytolysins and Neurotoxins Isolated from the Mucus Secretions of the Heteronemertine Cerebratulus Lacteus (Leidy)

    Some Physiological Effects of Fractionated Jellyfish Toxin

    Some Effects of Purified Components of Jellyfish Toxin on Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities

    Pardaxin: The Toxic Factor from the Skin Secretion of the Flatfish Pardachirus Marmoratus (Soleidae)

    Sea Anemone Toxins: Investigations on Their Mode of Action

    Pharmacological Investigations on Purified Toxins Isolated from the Sea Anemone Anemonia Sulcata

    Fine Structure of Stingray Spine Epidermis with Special Reference to a Unique Microtubular Component of Venom Secreting Cells


    Purification of Neuro- and Cardiotoxic Polypeptides from Sea Anemones

    Purification and Characterization of a Phospholipase A2 from Sea Anemone Nematocysts Venom

    The Mechanism of Sea Anemone Nematocyst Venom - Induced Hemolysis

    Polypeptides from Sea Anemones: Structure and Function of Toxins and Proteinase-Inhibitors from Anemonia Sulcata

    Toxins of the Atelopid Frogs of Costa Rica and Panama

    Ecology of Toxicity in Marine Sponges

    Synthesis of Holothurinogenines

    Structure Examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Toxic Activity of the Spines of the Purple Sea Urchin

    III. Arthropods

    Histamine in the Venom of Queen and Worker Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.)

    Phospholipase Activity of Vespa Orientalis (Oriental Hornet) Venom and Venom Apparatus

    Isolation and Characterization of Several Proteins from Tityus Serrulatus Scorpion Venom

    Immunological Studies on Antiscorpion Serum and Antivenin

    The Effect of Toxins Derived from the Venom of the Scorpion Androctonus Australis Hector on Neuromuscular Transmission

    Epidemiological Aspects of Scorpionism in Mexico. 1. Purification of Neurotoxins from Centruroides Limpidus Limpidus Venom

    Physiological Characterization of Toxins Isolated from Scorpion Venom

    Effects of Latrodectus Mactans Spider Venom on the Isolated Perfused Cat Spleen

    Comparative Studies on Hemolymph Protein Toxins of Leptinotarsa Beetles


    Eosinophilia in Mice and Rats Following the Injection of a Venom Sac Extract of the Oriental Hornet (vespa Orientalis)

    Histopathological Changes in Mouse and Rat Skin Injected with Extracts from Venom Sacs of the Oriental Hornet (Vespa Orientalis)

    Apamin: Effects on Cardiovascular and Central Nervous System

    Toxicity of Hornet Venom as Related to Ontogenesis

    Hemolytic Activity of Hornet Venom as Related to Ontogenesis

    Cardiovascular Effects of Bee Venom

    Human Envenomation by Bee Stings

    Action of Androctonus Australis Hector Toxin II on Na+ and Ca2+ Uptake by Chick Embryo Heart Cells

    An Improved Method for Purification of Tityustoxin

    Amino Terminal Sequence of Toxin X Isolated from Tityus Serrulatus Scorpion Venom

    Mechanism of the Pulmonary Edema Induced by Tityustoxin in the Rat

    Mechanism of Action of Tityustoxin on Isolated Smooth Muscles

    Some Differences in Scorpion Venoms During Expulsion

    Tityustoxin Interaction with Neuromuscular Tissues as Revealed by Immunofluorescence

    Neuromuscular Effects of Purified Toxins 140-1 (and Others) from Venom of the Scorpion Centruroides Sculpturatus

    Quantitative Analysis of a Scorpion Neurotoxin Androctonus Australis Hector Toxin I, by Radioimmunoassay

    The Action of Different Scorpion Toxins on Mammal and Arachnid Neuromuscular Preparations

    The Spiders of Genus Latrodectus (Black Widow Spiders) in Argentine

    Chemistry and Physiopharmacology of Some Toxins of the Black Widow Spider Latrodectus Hesperus

    Estudo Dos Venenos Das Aranhas Do Genero Loxosceles E Preparaçao Dos Antivenenos Especificos

    Effects of Extracts of Black Widow Venom Glands on Pool Sizes of Choline and Acetylcholine in Rat Brain Synaptosomes

    Some Structural and Behavioral Characteristics of Spiders of Medical Importance

    A Biochemical Comparison of Two Spider Venom Toxins

    IV. Plants

    High Pressure Liquid Chromatography in the Identification and Analysis of Mycotoxins in Foodstuffs

    Mycotoxin-Macromolecule Bindings

    Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Agricultural Commodities

    Mycotoxin Teratogenicity

    Effects of Several Mycotoxins on the Chromosomes of Human Lymphocytes In Vitro

    Studies on the Characterization of the Hepatic Nucleic Acid-Bound Forms of Aflatoxin Βχ in the Rat

    Body Weight Changes and Corresponding Pathological Responses Seen in Syrian Hamsters and Mongolian Gerbils Fed Aflatoxin Bl

    Aflatoxin Mutagenesis in Neurospora Crassa

    Effects of Mycotoxins on Immunity

    Mycotoxin Production by Postharvest Pathogens of Fruits and Vegetables

    A Toxin from Phytophthora Infestans Which Regulates Phenolic and Terpenoid Metabolism in Potato

    Toxic and Nontoxic Lectins from Abrus Precatorius and Ricinus Communis


    Analytical Method for Aflatoxins in Corn Samples Contaminated with Levels up to 1000 ug/kg

    Blue Fluorescent Compounds, Isolated from the Semi-Synthetic Media of Aspergillus Terreus

    Toxic, Irritant and Cocarcinogenic Compounds from Urtica,- Primula- and Daphne-Species

    The Sclerosing Effects of African Palm Thorns on Giant Cavernous Hemangiomas

    V. Bacteria

    Endotoxin - Glucocorticoid Interactions with Hormone Specific Receptors in the Rat

    The Mediation of Endotoxemic Effects

    Pharmacologie Reversal of Selected Effects of Endotoxin

    Cell Mediators of Endotoxic Effects

    Alteration of the Sensitivity of Mice to Bacterial Endotoxin

    Practlonation of Lipid Components Isolated from Endotoxin and Their Chemical and Biological Properties

    Endotoxemia in Irradiated Mice

    Evidence for Enterotoxin and Two Cytolytic Toxins in Human Isolates of Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Properties of the Binding to Gangliosides and Synaptosomes of a Fragment of the Tetanus Toxin Molecule

    Tetanus Immunization with a Fluid Pure Monomeric Toxoid Administered by Intradermal Route

    Structure-Function Relationship of Tetanus Neurotoxin Molecule: Analyses with Complementary Polypeptide Fragments and a Subfragment

    Pharmacological Activity of Bacterial Peptidoglycan: The Effect on Temperature and Sleep in the Rat

    A Cardiotoxin (Thermostable Direct Hemolysin) Produced by Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

    Purification and Activities of Pertussigen, a Substance from Bordetella Pertussis

    Effects of α-Toxin (Phospholipase C) of Clostridium Perfringens on Microcirculation

    Detoxification of Microbial Toxins with Glutaraldehyde and Their Use in the Preparation of Vaccines


    Hepatic Dysfunction in Lead or Cadmium-Induced Endotoxin Hypersensitivity

    Enterotoxin Producing Bacteria and Parasites in Stools of Ethiopian Children with Diarrhoeal Disease

    Importance of Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: Titration in Biologicals

    Cyclic Nucleotides Effect on Tetanus Toxin Paralyzed Rabbit Sphincter Pupillae Muscle

    Mechanism of Action of Staphylocoagulase

    Stimulatory Effect of Staphylococcal Leukocidin on Granulopoiesis Disturbed by Cytostatic Agents

    Plasma Kinin Release by Clostripain: Pattern of Drug Inhibition

    VI. Multiple Classification

    Sequence Homology of Snake, Scorpion and Bee Toxins

    Oral Toxicity of Venoms and Toxins to Blowflies

    The Effect of Venom and Bacterial Phospholipases on the Binding of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid to Junctional Complexes

    On the Molecular Mechanism of Action of Scorpion and Snake Neurotoxins


    Isotoxins in Animal Venoms

    Panel Discussion on Pathogenesis of Neurotoxins

    Nomenclature of Naturally Occurring Peptides

    Classification of Toxins Extracted from the Venom of Serpents - Comments

    Terms in Toxinology

    Comments on the Nomenclature of Snake Venom Toxins

    Nomenclature of Venom Toxins

    Author Index

    Subject Index from Titles

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1164
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1978
  • Published: January 1, 1978
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483153537

About the Editor

Philip Rosenberg

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