Toxicology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126697025, 9781483259789


1st Edition

Mechanisms and Analytical Methods

Editors: C. P. Stewart A. Stolman
eBook ISBN: 9781483259789
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 938
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Toxicology: Mechanisms and Analytical Methods, Volume II provides an account of the general methods of chemical analysis available to the toxicologist, discussion of the principles on which they are based, and a survey of the material to which they are applied. The volume supplements the methods presented in the first volume. It provides specific examples of general procedures; considers the important groups of poisons; arranges the order of extraction from biological material; and discusses the methods for identifying and determining the members of each poison group. The book will be invaluable to toxicologists, clinical chemists, and biochemists.

Table of Contents


Contributors to Volume II



Contents of Volume I

1. The Mode of Action of Poisons

I. Introduction

II. Enzyme Inhibition

III. Factors which Influence Inhibition and Its Effects

IV. Further Examples of Enzyme Inhibition; Antidotes

V. Conclusion


2. Gases, Vapors, Mists, and Dusts

I. The Importance of Contaminated Atmosphere in Industrial Hygiene

II. Biochemical Control of Exposure

III. The Determination of Toxic Substances in the Atmosphere


3. Identification and Estimation of Volatile Poisons

I. Introduction

II. Qualitative Tests

III. Quantitative Procedures


4. Ethyl Alcohol

I. Pure Alcohol and Alcoholic Beverages

II. "Normal" Alcohol

III. Absorption of Alcohol

IV. Distribution of Absorbed Alcohol

V. Fate of Absorbed Alcohol

VI. Pharmacological and Toxicological Effects

VII. Determination of Alcohol in Body Materials; General Considerations

VIII. Directions for Five Methods of Estimating Alcohol in Body Tissues and Fluids

IX. Breath Alcohol Methods

X. Medicolegal Interpretation of the Level of Blood Alcohol


5. Barbiturates

I. Isolation

II. Identification

III. Quantitative Determination of Barbiturates

IV. Interpretation of Results

V. Conclusion


6. Acidic and Neutral Poisons (Other than Barbiturates)

I. Introduction

II. Isolation

III. Purification

IV. Identification

V. Conclusion


7. Alkaloids and Related Bases: Identification

I. General Introduction

II. Separation and Purification

III. Identification and Determination

IV. Biotransformations


Appendix: The Discoveries of Some Alkaloids and Related Substances, Their Tests, and the Chronological Development of Toxicology


8. Acids and Alkalies

I. Mineral Acids

II. Organic Acids

III. Mineral Alkalies


9. Chemical Tests for Metallic Poisons

I. Reinsch Test

II. Marsh-Berzelius Test

III. Gutzeit Test

IV. Dithizone Method

V. Special Methods for Determination of Antimony, Barium, Chromium, Cobalt, Gold, Lithium, Manganese, Mercury, and Thallium


10. Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Food

I. Introduction

II. Physical Methods

III. Cleanup and Result of Chemical Changes in the Pesticide

IV. Enzymatic Methods of Analysis

V. The Importance of Metabolites

VI. Nonspecific Methods for Chlorinated Organic Pesticides

VII. Qualitative Tests for Rapid Identification of Chlorinated Pesticides

VIII. Quantitative Determination of the Chloride Ion

IX. Specific Methods for Chlorinated Pesticides

X. The Cyclodiene Insecticides

XI. Organic Phosphorus Pesticides

XII. Analytical Methods for Organic Phosphorus Pesticides

XIII. Carbamates

XIV. Dithiocarbamates

XV. Organic Pesticides Containing a CN Radical

XVI. Organic Pesticides Containing a Thiocyanate Radical

XVII. Determination of Dinitroaromatic Pesticides

XVIII. Determination of Dinitroaromatic Compounds

XIX. Miscellaneous Pesticides

Appendix A: Partial List of Important Halogenated Compounds and Mixtures Used as Pesticides

Appendix B: Some Important Organic Phosphorus Pesticides


11. Poisonous Plants

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Ontogeny and Taxonomic Distribution

III. Methods of Identification


12. Radioactive Isotopes and Compounds

I. Introduction

II. Nuclear Energy and Radioactivity

III. Interaction of Radiation with Matter

IV. Sources of Exposure and Contact

V. Radioactive Waste Disposal

VI. Dosage Rate and Distribution

VII. Methods of Detection and Measurement

VIII. Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action

IX. Handling and Disposal of Bodies and Tissues Containing Radioactive Materials

X. Pathology; Acute and Chronic Effects of Various Organ Systems

XL Medicolegal Interpretation


13. Miscellaneous Determinations

I. Hemoglobin Derivatives

II. Halides

III. Porphyrins

IV. Glucuronic Acid


14. The Treatment of Acute Poisoning

I. Introduction

II. Removal and Inactivation of the Poison

III. Symptomatic Treatment

IV. Plan of Treatment of a Case of Acute Poisoning

V. Notes on Individual Poisons and Special Therapeutic Measures

List of Poisons Discussed


Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1961
Academic Press
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About the Editor

C. P. Stewart

A. Stolman

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