Toxicology and Human Environments

Toxicology and Human Environments

1st Edition - September 28, 2012

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  • Editor: Ernest Hodgson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124159082

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Environmental toxicology is generally held to be the study of the potential of constituents of outdoor environments to impact either human health or the biological structure of the ecosystems involved. This volume is a first attempt to integrate toxicological studies of all of the many human environments, both indoor and outdoor, and their complex interrelationships. Included are considerations of natural environments, the agroecosystem, occupational, urban and domestic environments as well as the environment associated with Superfund sites and military deployments. The primary emphasis is on public health, including the potential health effects of toxicants found in different environments, the bioprocessing of such toxicants in humans and surrogate animals and the principles of risk analysis.

Key Features

  • Approaches the toxicology of human environments in a new and unique way, stressing the complex interrelationships of all human environments and the implication for human and environmental health
  • Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert and is addressed to those interested in the broader implications of the environmental modifications that are always associated with the activities of humans living and working in them


Scientists and researchers interested in molecular biology, translational science, and toxicology

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Chapter One Human Environments

    1 Introduction

    2 Toxicant Transport Between and Within Human Environments

    3 Bioprocessing of Environmental Toxicants

    4 Interactions

    5 Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Risk Communication

    6 New Approaches to the Toxicology of Human Environments

    Chapter Two Estimating Human Exposure

    1 Introduction

    2 OSHA

    3 EPA

    Chapter Three Metabolism of Xenobiotics of Human Environments

    1 Metabolism of Xenobiotics

    2 Metabolic Reactions

    3 Phase I Enzymes

    4 Phase II Enzymes

    5 Elimination

    6 Nonmammalian Metabolism

    7 Variations in Total Rate and Extent of Metabolism

    8 Summary

    Chapter Four Toxic Endpoints in the Study of Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals

    1 Introduction to Toxic Endpoints

    2 Toxicity Testing

    3 Carcinogenesis

    4 Hepatotoxicity

    5 Renal Toxicity

    6 Neurotoxicity

    7 Reproductive Toxicity

    8 Endocrine Toxicity

    9 Immunotoxicity: Respiratory

    10 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter Five Pesticide Regulations: Exposure-Dose Modeling from FIFRA to FQPA

    1 Introduction

    2 FIFRA

    3 USDA, Status After 1971

    4 The FQPA of 1996

    5 Dietary and Nondietary Exposure Monitoring Studies, Children and Adults

    6 PBPK/PD Models, Risk Prediction

    7 Source-to-Outcome Models for Dietary Exposures

    8 Conclusions

    Chapter Six Occupational Chemicals: Metabolism, Toxicity, and Mode of Action

    1 Introduction

    2 Structure and Function of Biological Membranes

    3 Quantitative Approaches in Exposure Assessment

    4 Integrating Biological Monitoring and Toxicology into Risk Assessment

    5 Emerging Issues and Technologies

    6 Research Needs and Data Gaps

    7 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter Seven Chemicals of Military Deployments

    1 Introduction

    2 Documenting Agent Release

    3 The Theory of Gulf War Illness Causality

    4 Mustard Involvement

    5 Mustard Exposure and Chlorpyrifos/P450 Interaction

    6 Mustard Exposure and Permethrin/P450 Interaction

    7 Mustard Exposure and DEET/P450 Interaction

    8 Mustard Exposure and Pyridostigmine Bromide/P450 Interaction

    9 Summary

    Chapter Eight Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Lessons Learned for Reducing Uncertainties in Environmental Risk Assessment

    1 Background

    2 Perspectives on Occurrence and the Analysis of PiE

    3 Implications of Ionization During Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals

    4 Chirality Considerations During Environmental Risk Assessments of Pharmaceuticals

    5 Pharmacological Safety Data and Environmental Risk Assessment

    Chapter Nine Quantitative Risk Assessment Methods for Cancer and Noncancer Effects

    1 Introduction

    2 Hazard Identification

    3 Noncancer Risk Assessment

    4 Cancer Risk Assessment

    5 Chemical Mixtures

    6 PBPK Modeling

    Chapter Ten Human Health Risk Assessment for Contaminated Properties

    1 Introduction

    2 Management of Contaminated Sites

    3 Estimation of Risk

    4 Risk Management

    5 Regulatory Issues in RA

    6 Key References for RA

    Chapter Eleven The Future of Human Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Chemicals

    1 Introduction

    2 New Paradigms in Risk Assessment

    3 Risk Assessment

    4 Risk Management

    5 Risk Communication

    6 In Vivo Toxicity

    7 In Vitro Toxicity

    8 Molecular and Biochemical Toxicology

    9 Development of Selective Toxicants

    10 Summary and Conclusions

    Chapter Twelve Ecological Risk Assessment

    1 Introduction

    2 Formulating the Problem

    3 Analyzing Exposure and Effects Information

    4 Characterizing Risk

    5 Managing Risk

    6 Simple Ecological Risk Assessment of a Chemical Stressor

    Chapter Thirteen Metabolic Interactions of Environmental Toxicants in Humans

    1 Introduction

    2 Metabolic Interactions Based on Induction

    3 Metabolic Interactions Based on Inhibition

    4 Biphasic Effects on Metabolic Interactions

    5 Metabolic Interactions Based on Activation

    6 Cytotoxicity

    7 Microarray Studies

    8 Summary and Conclusions

    Chapter Fourteen Toxins and Venoms

    1 Introduction

    2 Toxins

    3 Venoms

    4 Summary and Conclusions

    Chapter Fifteen Summary and Conclusions

    1 Introduction

    2 Risk Assessment

    3 Risk Management

    4 Risk Communication

    5 Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 450
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: September 28, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124159082

About the Serial Volume Editor

Ernest Hodgson

Dr Ernest Hodgson, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, North Carolina State University and Executive Director, Foundation for Toxicology and Agromedicine was educated at King’s College of the University of Durham (now the University of Newcastle), Oregon State University and the University of Wisconsin. At North Carolina State University since 1961 he was a William Neal Reynolds Professor and Head of the newly formed Department of Toxicology. He was also one of the founders of the three university (East Carolina University, North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T University) program in agromedicine, an organization which led to the formation of the North Carolina Agromedicine Institute.

Dr. Hodgson has conducted research on xenobiotic biochemistry for several decades, has authored c. 400 peer-reviewed papers in this area, and is editor and part author of several monographs. Most recently his research has focused on human studies utilizing human hepatocytes and sub-cellular preparations. Currently involved as a collaborator with Dr Michael Roe in RNAseq studies of genome-wide effects of environmental chemicals. From 1961 until his retirement he was supported by extramural funding, primarily from NIH (NIEHS) and the US Army.

Dr Hodgson is also editor and contributing author of toxicology textbooks (Textbook of Modern Toxicology and Molecular and Biochemical Toxicology, both currently in their 4th editions) and is a lexicographer (Dictionary of Toxicology, under revision for a 3rd edition and a Dictionary of Agromedicine, being created for the NC Agromedicine Institute). He is well recognized for his role as a teacher of toxicology. In addition to his role as editor and part author of textbooks he has trained some 40 graduate students and 20 post-doctoral research associates.

His service on federal study sections and other federal panels has been extensive and includes the following agencies. NIH, NASA, US Army and others. He has been recognized by awards from the Society of Toxicology, the American Chemical Society, the International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics, the Consolidated University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University. He is a past president of the International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ernest Hodgson, PhD, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

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