Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128000182, 9780128004753

Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants

1st Edition

Authors: Victor Kuete
eBook ISBN: 9780128004753
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000182
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 6th June 2014
Page Count: 744
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Description

Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants provides a detailed overview of toxicological studies relating to traditionally used medicinal plants in Africa, with special emphasis on the methodologies and tools used for data collection and interpretation. The book considers the physical parameters of these plants and their effect upon various areas of the body and human health, including chapters dedicated to genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and specific organs and systems.

Following this discussion of the effects of medicinal plants is a critical review of the guidelines and methods in use for toxicological research as well as the state of toxicology studies in Africa. With up-to-date research provided by a team of experts, Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants is an invaluable resource for researchers and students involved in pharmacology, toxicology, phytochemistry, medicine, pharmacognosy, and pharmaceutical biology.

Key Features

  • Offers a critical review of the methods used in toxicological survey of medicinal plants
  • Provides up-to-date toxicological data on African medicinal plants and families
  • Serves as a resource tool for students and scientists in the various areas of toxicology

Readership

Students and scientists in pharmacology, toxicology, phytochemistry, medicine, pharmacognosy and pharmatceutical biology

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • 1. Toxicological Societies in Africa: Roles and Impact in Policy Making and Living Conditions
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Toxicological Societies in Africa
    • 1.3 Interactions Between African Societies of Toxicological Sciences with European and American Societies
    • 1.4 The Role of African Societies of Toxicological Sciences in Government Policy Making
    • 1.5 Information Resources in Toxicology
    • 1.6 Conclusions and Recommendations
    • References
  • 2. Ethical Issues for Animal Use in Toxicological Research in Africa
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Definitions
    • 2.3 Ethical Aspects of Medicinal Plants in Africa
    • 2.4 The Importance of Animals in Toxicological Studies
    • 2.5 Guidelines of Animal Research Ethics
    • 2.6 Animal Welfare Issues
    • 2.7 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees
    • 2.8 Health Research Ethics in Africa
    • 2.9 Challenges of Research Ethics in Africa
    • 2.10 Laws of Animal Research Ethics in Africa
    • 2.11 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • 3. Critical Review of the Guidelines and Methods in Toxicological Research in Africa
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Need for Toxicity Testing
    • 3.3 Acute Toxicity Testing
    • 3.4 Alternatives Methods for the Oral LD50 Test
    • 3.5 Conclusion
    • References
  • 4. Discordant Results in Plant Toxicity Studies in Africa: Attempt of Standardization
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Toxicological Evaluation: Parameters and Interpretation
    • 4.3 Standard Values for Parameters in Toxicological Survey
    • 4.4 Conclusion
    • References
  • 5. Acute and Subacute Toxicities of African Medicinal Plants
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 The Acute and Subacute Effects of Medicinal Plants
    • 5.3 Experimental Models for Toxicological Studies
    • 5.4 The Significance of LD50 in Acute Toxicity Screenings
    • 5.5 Limitations of the Study of the Acute and Subacute Toxicities of Medicinal Plants
    • 5.6 African Plants Screened for Their Acute and Subacute Toxicities
    • 5.7 Conclusion
    • References
  • 6. Subchronic and Chronic Toxicities of African Medicinal Plants
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity Effect of Medicinal Plants
    • 6.3 Methods, Parameters, and Data Interpretation in Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity Screenings Worldwide and in Africa
    • 6.4 Animals Used in Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity Screenings
    • 6.5 Observable Symptoms and Signs in Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity Screenings
    • 6.6 Limitations of the Study of the Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity of Medicinal Plants
    • 6.7 African Plants Screened for Their Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity
    • 6.8 Conclusion
    • References
  • 7. Toxic Plants Used in African Traditional Medicine
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Toxic Symptoms of Medicinal Plants
    • 7.3 Toxicity of African Medicinal Plants
    • 7.4 Toxic African Medicinal Plants as Identified by Their Medium Lethal Doses (LD50) Values and Induced Physical Symptoms
    • 7.5 Toxic African Medicinal Plants as Identified by Biochemical Indices
    • 7.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • 8. Cytotoxicity of African Medicinal Plants Against Normal Animal and Human Cells
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Necessity for Cytotoxicity Testing
    • 8.3 Limitations of Cytotoxicity Testing
    • 8.4 Different Types of Cytotoxicity Assay
    • 8.5 xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and SpectraMax i3 System
    • 8.6 Cytotoxicity of African Medicinal Plants
    • 8.7 Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • 9. Genotoxicity and Teratogenicity of African Medicinal Plants
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Methods Used in Genotoxicity Assays
    • 9.3 Methods Used in Teratogenicity Assays
    • 9.4 Medicinal Plants with Genotoxic Effects
    • 9.5 Medicinal Plants with Teratogenic Effects
    • 9.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • 10. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity of African Medicinal Plants
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Medicinal Plants with Mutagenic Effects
    • 10.3 Medicinal Plants with Carcinogenicity Effects
    • 10.4 Methods in Mutagenic Study of Medicinal Plants
    • 10.5 Methods in Carcinogenicity Survey of Medicinal Plants
    • 10.6 Interpretation of Data in Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity Studies and Significance of Test Results
    • 10.7 African Medicinal Plants Screened for Their Mutagenicity
    • 10.8 Conclusion
    • References
  • 11. Hepatotoxicity and Hepatoprotective Effects of African Medicinal Plants
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 The Liver and the Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    • 11.3 Methods in Hepatotoxic and Hepatoprotective Screenings of Medicinal Plants
    • 11.4 Hepatotoxic Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 11.5 Hepatoprotective Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 11.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • 12. Nephrotoxicity and Nephroprotective Potential of African Medicinal Plants
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 The Kidney and the Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    • 12.3 Known Nephrotoxic and Nephroprotective Plants
    • 12.4 Methods in Nephrotoxic and Nephroprotective Screenings of Medicinal Plants
    • 12.5 Nephrotoxic Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 12.6 Nephroprotective Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 12.7 Conclusion
    • References
  • 13. Cardiotoxicity and Cardioprotective Effects of African Medicinal Plants
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 The Heart and the Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    • 13.3 Known Cardiotoxic and Cardioprotective Plants
    • 13.4 Methods in Cardiotoxic and Cardioprotective Screenings of Medicinal Plants
    • 13.5 Cardiotoxic Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 13.6 Cardioprotective Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 13.7 Conclusion
    • References
  • 14. Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotective Effects of African Medicinal Plants
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 The CNS and the Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    • 14.3 Known Neurotoxic and Neuroprotective Plants
    • 14.4 Methods in Neurotoxic and Neuroprotective Screenings of Medicinal Plants
    • 14.5 Neurotoxic Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 14.6 Neuroprotective Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 14.7 Conclusion
    • References
  • 15. Toxicity and Beneficial Effects of Some African Plants on the Reproductive System
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 The Reproductive System and the Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    • 15.3 Known Toxic and Beneficial Plants Acting on the Reproductive System
    • 15.4 Methods in the Screenings of Medicinal Plants Affecting the Reproductive System
    • 15.5 Reproductive Toxicity
    • 15.6 Medicinal Plants of Africa with Effects on the Reproductive System
    • 15.7 Conclusion
    • References
  • 16. African Plants with Dermatological and Ocular Relevance
    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 The Skin and the Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    • 16.3 The Eye and the Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    • 16.4 African Plants Affecting the Skin
    • 16.5 African Traditional Medicines Used for the Treatment of Dermatological Disorders
    • 16.6 African Plants Affecting the Eyes
    • 16.7 Ocular Effects of Medicinal Plants of Africa
    • 16.8 Conclusion
    • References
  • 17. Toxicity and Protective Effects of African Medicinal Plants on the Spleen and Lung
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 The Anatomy and Physiology of the Spleen and Lung
    • 17.3 The Roles of the Spleen and Lung in the Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    • 17.4 Overview of the African Plants Known to Affect the Spleen and Lung
    • 17.5 African Plants Affecting the Spleen
    • 17.6 African Plants Affecting the Lung
    • 17.7 Conclusion
    • References
  • 18. Safe African Medicinal Plants for Clinical Studies
    • 18.1 Introduction
    • 18.2 Some Medicinal Plants with Good Toxicological Profiles
    • References
  • 19. Harmful and Protective Effects of Terpenoids from African Medicinal Plants
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 Plant Terpenoids and Their Medicinal Importance
    • 19.3 Toxic Terpenoids and Their Mode of Action
    • 19.4 Protective Terpenoids from Plants
    • 19.5 Harmful Effects of Terpenoids from African Medicinal Plants
    • 19.6 Organ-Protective Effect of Terpenoids from African Medicinal Plants
    • 19.7 Conclusion
    • References
  • 20. Harmful and Protective Effects of Phenolic Compounds from African Medicinal Plants
    • 20.1 Introduction
    • 20.2 Medicinal Importance of Plant Phenolics
    • 20.3 Toxic Phenolics and Mode of Action
    • 20.4 Harmful Effects of Phenolics from African Medicinal Plants
    • 20.5 Protective Effects of Phenolics from African Medicinal Plants
    • 20.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • 21. Health Effects of Alkaloids from African Medicinal Plants
    • 21.1 Introduction
    • 21.2 Toxic Alkaloids and Their Mode of Action
    • 21.3 Alkaloids Involved in Organ Protection
    • 21.4 Harmful Effects of Alkaloids from African Medicinal Plants
    • 21.5 Protective Effect of Alkaloids from African Medicinal Plants
    • 21.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • 22. Physical, Hematological, and Histopathological Signs of Toxicity Induced by African Medicinal Plants
    • 22.1 Introduction
    • 22.2 Methods and Interpretation of Data of Important Physical Parameters Altered in Medicinal Plant Toxicity Studies
    • 22.3 Experimental and Plant-Induced Gastrointestinal Disorders
    • 22.4 Photosensitivity, Skin Irritation, and Sleepiness Induced by Herbal Medicine
    • 22.5 Effects of African Medicinal Plants on Physical, Hematological, and Histopathological Parameters in Toxicological Studies
    • 22.6 Conclusion
    • References
  • 23. Biochemical Parameters in Toxicological Studies in Africa: Significance, Principle of Methods, Data Interpretation, and Use in Plant Screenings
    • 23.1 Introduction
    • 23.2 Important Biochemical Indices in Toxicity Studies
    • 23.3 Enzymes of Toxicological Relevance
    • 23.4 Nonenzymatic Markers in Toxicity Studies
    • 23.5 Electrolytes of Toxicological Relevance
    • 23.6 Effect of African Medicinal Plants on Biochemical Indices
    • 23.7 Conclusion
    • References

Details

No. of pages:
744
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128004753
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128000182

About the Author

Victor Kuete

Victor Kuete

Dr. Victor Kuete is a scholar-scientist at the University of Dschang, Cameroon. Dr. Kuete has been a fellow of TWAS (2007), AUF (2008), DAAD (2009), University of Mainz-Germany (2010), Alexander von Humboldt (2012-2014), etc., and International Foundation for Science Grantee (2008-2009; 2012-2013). His Research Programme is focused on Pharmacognosy and Dr. Kuete mainly investigates African medicinal plants and isolated compounds as potential antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-proliferative agents. Dr. Kuete is the author of more than 120 scientific publications related to the bioactivity of medicinal plants and their derived products, and has also authored several books and more than forty book chapters.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences University of Dschang, Cameroon